Efficiency and Sustainability in the Energy and Chemical Industries: Scientific Principles and Case Studies, Second Edition, 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Efficiency and Sustainability in the Energy and Chemical Industries

Scientific Principles and Case Studies, Second Edition, 2nd Edition

By Krishnan Sankaranarayanan, Hedzer J. van der Kooi, Jakob de Swaan Arons

CRC Press

393 pages | 153 B/W Illus.

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Using classic thermodynamic principles as the point of departure, this new edition of a popular resource supplies the understanding and tools required to measure process efficiency and sustainability with much improved accuracy. Exploring the driving forces in the chemical and power industries, Efficiency and Sustainability in the Energy and Chemical Industries: Scientific Principles and Case Studies, Second Edition investigates why losses occur and explains how to reduce such losses.

Numerous case studies, examples, and problems illustrate the thermodynamic analysis of process performance to explain how to effectively analyze and optimize work flows and environmental resources. The authors compare the present industrial society with an emerging one in which mass production and consumption are in harmony with the natural environment through closure of material cycles. In this second edition, the book’s structure of Basics, Thermodynamic Analysis of Processes, Case Studies, and Sustainability has been unaffected, but a few additions have been made.

New and updated information includes:

  • A new chapter dedicated to the increasing levels of CO2 emissions, with special attention to the removal and storage of CO2
  • A new chapter on the rapidly emerging hydrogen economy
  • An extended chapter on lifecycle analysis that examines the fate of the quality of energy during the lifecycle
  • Increased focus on integrating the environment into the thermodynamic analysis of the systems or processes considered
  • New problem sets and exercises

Complete with the keys to a quantification of process efficiency and sustainability, this cutting-edge resource is the ideal guide for those engaged in the transition from fossil-based fuels to renewable and sustainable energy sources using low-waste procedures.


"The authors have written a much needed textbook, appropriate for chemical, mechanical, process, and environmental engineers. … Overall, the text is highly readable and the authors have done an excellent job at combining a difficult subject (thermodynamics) with an area that eludes quantification due to its complexity (the environment). … It is a highly recommended read."

-Polymer News, 2005, Vol. 30

Table of Contents




Thermodynamics Revisited

The System and Its Environment

States and State Properties

Processes and Their Conditions

The First Law

The Second Law and Boltzmann

The Second Law and Clausius

Change in Composition

The Structure of a Thermodynamic Application

Energy "Consumption" and Lost Work

The Carnot Factor

Lessons from a Heat Exchanger

Lost Work and Entropy Generation

Entropy Generation: Cause and Effect

Equilibrium Thermodynamics

On Forces and Flows: Cause and Effect

Cause and Effect: The Relation between Forces and Flows


Limited Validity of Linear Laws

Reduction of Lost Work

A Remarkable Triangle

Carnot Revisited: From Ideal to Real Processes

Finite-Time, Finite-Size Thermodynamics

The Principle of Equipartitioning


Exergy, a Convenient Concept

The Convenience of the Exergy Concept

Example of a Simple Analysis

The Quality of the Joule

Example of the Quality Concept

Chemical Exergy

Exergy of Mixing

Chemical Exergy

Cumulative Exergy Consumption

Simple Applications


Energy Conversion

Global Energy Consumption

Global Exergy Flows

Exergy or Lost Work Analysis

Electric Power Generation

Coal Conversion Processes

Thermodynamic Analysis of Gas Combustion

Steam Power Plant

Gas Turbines, Combined Cycles, and Cogeneration


Propane, Propylene, and Their Separation


The Ideal Column: Thermodynamic Analysis

The Real Column

Exergy Analysis with a Flow Sheet Program


Chemical Conversion

Polyethylene Processes: A Brief Overview

Exergy Analysis: Preliminaries

Results of the HP LDPE Process Exergy Analysis

Process Improvement Options

Results of the Gas-Phase Polymerization Process Exergy Analysis

Process Improvement Options

A Note on Life Cycle Analysis

Life Cycle Analysis Methodology

Life Cycle Analysis and Exergy

Zero-Emission ELCA


Sustainable Development

Nature as an Example of Sustainability

A Sustainable Economic System

Toward a Solar-Fueled Society: A Thermodynamic Perspective

Ecological Restrictions

Thermodynamic Criteria for Sustainability Analysis

Efficiency and Sustainability in the Chemical Process Industry

Lost Work in the Process Industry

The Processes

Thermodynamic Efficiency

Efficient Use of High-Quality Resources

Toward Sustainability

Chemical Routes

CO2 Capture and Sequestration

CO2 Emissions

The Carbon Cycle

Carbon Sequestration: Separation and Storage and Reuse of CO2

Carbon Capture Research

Geologic Sequestration Research

Carbon Tax and Cap-and-Trade

Sense and Nonsense of Green Chemistry and Biofuels

Principles of Green Chemistry

Raw Materials

Conversion Technologies

How Green Are Green Plastics

Biofuels: Reality or Illusion?

Solar Energy Conversion

"Lighting the Way"


The Creation of Wind Energy

Photothermal Conversion

Photovoltaic Energy Conversion


Hydrogen: Fuel of the Future?

The Hydrogen Economy

Current Hydrogen Economy

Conventional Hydrogen Production from Conventional Sources

Hydrogen from Renewables

Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier

Hydrogen as a Transportation Fuel

Efficiency of Obtaining Transportation Fuels

Challenges of the Hydrogen Economy

Hydrogen Production: Centralized or Decentralized?


Hydrogen Storage

Fuel Cells as a Possible Alternative to Internal Combustion

Costs of the Hydrogen Economy

Future Trends

Energy Industries

Chemical Industries

Changing Opinions on Investment





Each chapter includes an "Introduction", "Concluding remarks", and "References"

About the Authors

Jakob de Swaan Arons received his MSc and PhD degrees from the Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands. He spent some 20 years with Shell International, before he was appointed to the chair of Applied Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria at Delft University of Technology. He is an elected member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, and an honorary professor of the Beijing University of Chemical Technology, China. From 2003 to 2009, he served as chair in the chemical engineering department of Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Much of his inspiration was drawn from his many visits to Japan and its research centers. He received the Hoogewerff Gold Medal for his lifetime contributions to process technology in 2006.

Krishnan Sankaranarayanan received his MSc at Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands and his PhD at Princeton University, New Jersey. At Delft, he did an extensive study of the energy effi ciency of the polyolefi n industry, for which activity DSM acted as host. He is currently group head reactor engineering and mixing at ExxonMobil Research and Engineering, Fairfax, Virginia.

Hedzer J. van der Kooi received his MSc and PhD degrees from Delft University of Technology and specialized in phase equilibria. In the last decade, he worked closely together with Sankaranarayanan on the subject of this book, assisted by many students. He is currently active in the Department of Architecture at Delft University of Technology.

About the Series

Green Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Industrial & Technical
SCIENCE / Energy
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General