Efficiency and Sustainability in the Energy and Chemical Industries : Scientific Principles and Case Studies, Second Edition book cover
2nd Edition

Efficiency and Sustainability in the Energy and Chemical Industries
Scientific Principles and Case Studies, Second Edition

ISBN 9781439814703
Published May 24, 2010 by CRC Press
393 Pages 153 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Using classic thermodynamic principles as the point of departure, this new edition of a popular resource supplies the understanding and tools required to measure process efficiency and sustainability with much improved accuracy. Exploring the driving forces in the chemical and power industries, Efficiency and Sustainability in the Energy and Chemical Industries: Scientific Principles and Case Studies, Second Edition investigates why losses occur and explains how to reduce such losses.

Numerous case studies, examples, and problems illustrate the thermodynamic analysis of process performance to explain how to effectively analyze and optimize work flows and environmental resources. The authors compare the present industrial society with an emerging one in which mass production and consumption are in harmony with the natural environment through closure of material cycles. In this second edition, the book’s structure of Basics, Thermodynamic Analysis of Processes, Case Studies, and Sustainability has been unaffected, but a few additions have been made.

New and updated information includes:

  • A new chapter dedicated to the increasing levels of CO2 emissions, with special attention to the removal and storage of CO2
  • A new chapter on the rapidly emerging hydrogen economy
  • An extended chapter on lifecycle analysis that examines the fate of the quality of energy during the lifecycle
  • Increased focus on integrating the environment into the thermodynamic analysis of the systems or processes considered
  • New problem sets and exercises

Complete with the keys to a quantification of process efficiency and sustainability, this cutting-edge resource is the ideal guide for those engaged in the transition from fossil-based fuels to renewable and sustainable energy sources using low-waste procedures.

Table of Contents


Thermodynamics Revisited
The System and Its Environment
States and State Properties
Processes and Their Conditions
The First Law
The Second Law and Boltzmann
The Second Law and Clausius
Change in Composition
The Structure of a Thermodynamic Application

Energy "Consumption" and Lost Work
The Carnot Factor
Lessons from a Heat Exchanger
Lost Work and Entropy Generation
Entropy Generation: Cause and Effect
Equilibrium Thermodynamics
On Forces and Flows: Cause and Effect
Cause and Effect: The Relation between Forces and Flows
Limited Validity of Linear Laws

Reduction of Lost Work
A Remarkable Triangle
Carnot Revisited: From Ideal to Real Processes
Finite-Time, Finite-Size Thermodynamics
The Principle of Equipartitioning


Exergy, a Convenient Concept
The Convenience of the Exergy Concept
Example of a Simple Analysis
The Quality of the Joule
Example of the Quality Concept

Chemical Exergy
Exergy of Mixing
Chemical Exergy
Cumulative Exergy Consumption

Simple Applications


Energy Conversion
Global Energy Consumption
Global Exergy Flows
Exergy or Lost Work Analysis
Electric Power Generation
Coal Conversion Processes
Thermodynamic Analysis of Gas Combustion
Steam Power Plant
Gas Turbines, Combined Cycles, and Cogeneration

Propane, Propylene, and Their Separation
The Ideal Column: Thermodynamic Analysis
The Real Column
Exergy Analysis with a Flow Sheet Program

Chemical Conversion
Polyethylene Processes: A Brief Overview
Exergy Analysis: Preliminaries
Results of the HP LDPE Process Exergy Analysis
Process Improvement Options
Results of the Gas-Phase Polymerization Process Exergy Analysis
Process Improvement Options

A Note on Life Cycle Analysis
Life Cycle Analysis Methodology
Life Cycle Analysis and Exergy
Zero-Emission ELCA


Sustainable Development
Nature as an Example of Sustainability
A Sustainable Economic System
Toward a Solar-Fueled Society: A Thermodynamic Perspective
Ecological Restrictions
Thermodynamic Criteria for Sustainability Analysis

Efficiency and Sustainability in the Chemical Process Industry
Lost Work in the Process Industry
The Processes
Thermodynamic Efficiency
Efficient Use of High-Quality Resources
Toward Sustainability
Chemical Routes

CO2 Capture and Sequestration
CO2 Emissions
The Carbon Cycle
Carbon Sequestration: Separation and Storage and Reuse of CO2
Carbon Capture Research
Geologic Sequestration Research
Carbon Tax and Cap-and-Trade

Sense and Nonsense of Green Chemistry and Biofuels
Principles of Green Chemistry
Raw Materials
Conversion Technologies
How Green Are Green Plastics
Biofuels: Reality or Illusion?

Solar Energy Conversion
"Lighting the Way"
The Creation of Wind Energy
Photothermal Conversion
Photovoltaic Energy Conversion

Hydrogen: Fuel of the Future?
The Hydrogen Economy
Current Hydrogen Economy
Conventional Hydrogen Production from Conventional Sources
Hydrogen from Renewables
Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier
Hydrogen as a Transportation Fuel
Efficiency of Obtaining Transportation Fuels
Challenges of the Hydrogen Economy
Hydrogen Production: Centralized or Decentralized?
Hydrogen Storage
Fuel Cells as a Possible Alternative to Internal Combustion
Costs of the Hydrogen Economy

Future Trends

Energy Industries
Chemical Industries
Changing Opinions on Investment


Each chapter includes an "Introduction", "Concluding remarks", and "References"

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Jakob de Swaan Arons received his MSc and PhD degrees from the Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands. He spent some 20 years with Shell International, before he was appointed to the chair of Applied Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria at Delft University of Technology. He is an elected member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, and an honorary professor of the Beijing University of Chemical Technology, China. From 2003 to 2009, he served as chair in the chemical engineering department of Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Much of his inspiration was drawn from his many visits to Japan and its research centers. He received the Hoogewerff Gold Medal for his lifetime contributions to process technology in 2006.

Krishnan Sankaranarayanan received his MSc at Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands and his PhD at Princeton University, New Jersey. At Delft, he did an extensive study of the energy effi ciency of the polyolefi n industry, for which activity DSM acted as host. He is currently group head reactor engineering and mixing at ExxonMobil Research and Engineering, Fairfax, Virginia.

Hedzer J. van der Kooi received his MSc and PhD degrees from Delft University of Technology and specialized in phase equilibria. In the last decade, he worked closely together with Sankaranarayanan on the subject of this book, assisted by many students. He is currently active in the Department of Architecture at Delft University of Technology.


"The authors have written a much needed textbook, appropriate for chemical, mechanical, process, and environmental engineers. … Overall, the text is highly readable and the authors have done an excellent job at combining a difficult subject (thermodynamics) with an area that eludes quantification due to its complexity (the environment). … It is a highly recommended read."
-Polymer News, 2005, Vol. 30