Electric Drives: 3rd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Electric Drives

3rd Edition

By Ion Boldea, Syed A. Nasar

CRC Press

650 pages | 540 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781498748209
pub: 2016-06-30
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Electric Drives provides a practical understanding of the subtleties involved in the operation of modern electric drives. The Third Edition of this bestselling textbook has been fully updated and greatly expanded to incorporate the latest technologies used to save energy and increase productivity, stability, and reliability.

Every phrase, equation, number, and reference in the text has been revisited, with the necessary changes made throughout. In addition, new references to key research and development activities have been included to accurately reflect the current state of the art.

Nearly 120 new pages covering recent advances, such as those made in the sensorless control of A.C. motor drives, have been added; as have two new chapters on advanced scalar control and multiphase electric machine drives. All solved numerical examples have been retained, and the 10 MATLAB®–Simulink® programs remain online.

Thus, Electric Drives, Third Edition offers an up-to-date synthesis of the basic and advanced control of electric drives, with ample material for a two-semester course at the university level.


"All subjects are explained using a level of detail that suits both the experienced and the undergraduate reader. … The selection of topics is suitable for an updated book aligned to the state of the art on the subject. Quite a few new chapters have been added to the text of the previous editions and most of the original sections have been improved to include the newest techniques. … Chapter 11, in particular, has been improved, and many aspects which required further in-depth analysis have been now clarified. The book is also well provided with examples and simulations. … The new edition of this successful book covers all significant subjects relevant to electrical drives. Past editions of this book constituted my favorite references for my everyday practice in the field. This updated edition promises to remain my companion for the years to come."

—Fabrizio Marignetti, University of Cassino and Southern Latium, Italy

"… quite comprehensive. … has many examples to be used in teaching. … up to date with the latest machines used for speed control. … very well done. … covers both motor and generator operation, which is a stronghold. It also has MATLAB® simulation files, so students can try to simulate quite easily. … good for a course on electrical machines and their control."

—Frede Blaabjerg, Aalborg University, Denmark

"I strongly recommend this well-balanced modern textbook as a basic text for a wide audience of engineering educators, students, and engineers in industry. I have no doubt that Electric Drives is the best textbook from the area of electric drives technology on the market, and it will certainly be at least as successful as the first and second editions."

IEEE Industrial Electronics, December 2016

Table of Contents

Energy Conversion in Electric Drives

Electric Drive: Definition

Application Range of Electric Drives

Energy Savings Pay Off Rapidly

Global Energy Savings through PEC Drives

Motor/Mechanical Load Match

Motion/Time Profile Match

Load Dynamics and Stability

Multiquadrant Operation

Performance Indexes

Electric Drive Applications




Electric Motors for Drives

Electric Drives: A Typical Configuration

Electric Motors for Drives

D.C. Brush Motors

Conventional A.C. Motors

PEC-Dependent Motors

Energy Conversion in Electric Motors/Generators



Power Electronic Converters for Drives

Power Electronic Switches

Line Frequency Diode Rectifier for Constant D.C. Output Voltage Vd

Line Current Harmonics with Diode Rectifiers

Current Commutation with Id = ct and LS ≠ 0

Three-Phase Diode Rectifiers

Phase-Controlled Rectifiers (A.C.–D.C. Converters)

D.C.–D.C. Converters (Choppers)

D.C.–A.C. Converters (Inverters)

Direct A.C.–A.C. Converters




D.C. Brush Motors for Drives

Basic Topologies

Motion-Induced Voltage (e.m.f.)

Performance Equations: d-q Model

Steady-State Motor Characteristics

D.C. Brush Motor Losses

Varying the Speed

Transient Operation for Constant Flux

PM D.C. Brush Motor Transients

Transient Operation for Variable Flux

Speed/Excitation Voltage Transfer Function

D.C. Brush Series Motor

A.C. Brush Series Motor




Controlled Rectifier D.C. Brush Motor Drives


Performance Indices

Single-Phase PES-Controlled Rectifier

Single-Phase Semiconverter

Single-Phase Full Converter

Three-Phase Semiconverter

Three-Phase Full Converter: Motor Side

Three-Phase Full Converter: Source-Side Aspects

Dual Converter: Four-Quadrant Operation

A.C. Brush Series (Universal) Motor Control




Chopper-Controlled D.C. Brush Motor Drives


First-Quadrant (Step-Down) Chopper

Second-Quadrant (Step-Up) Chopper for Generator Braking

Two-Quadrant Chopper

Four-Quadrant Chopper

Input Filter

Basic PM D.C. Motor Closed-Loop Drive/MATLAB®–Simulink® (Available Online)




Closed-Loop Motion Control in Electric Drives


Cascaded Motion Control

State-Space Motion Control

Torque Perturbation Observers

Path Tracking

Force Control

Sliding-Mode Motion Control

Motion Control by Fuzzy Systems

Motion Control through NNs

Neuro-Fuzzy Networks




Induction Motors for Drives

Stator and Its Traveling Field

Cage and Wound Rotors Are Equivalent

Slot Shaping Depends on Application and Power Level

Inductance Matrix

Reducing the Rotor to Stator

Phase Coordinate Model Goes to Eighth Order

Space-Phasor Model

Space-Phasor Diagram for Electrical Transients

Electrical Transients with Flux Linkages as Variables

Complex Eigenvalues for Electrical Transients

Electrical Transients for Constant Rotor Flux

Steady State: It Is D.C. in Synchronous Coordinates

No-Load Ideal Speed May Go under or over Conventional Value ω1

Motoring, Generating, A.C. Braking

D.C. Braking: Zero Braking Torque at Zero Speed

Speed Control Methods

V1/f1 Torque Speed Curves

Only for Constant Rotor Flux Torque Speed Curves Are Linear

Constant Stator Flux Torque Speed Curves Have Two Breakdown Points

Split-Phase Induction Motor

Split-Phase Capacitor IM Transients




PWM Inverter-Fed Induction Motor Drives


VC: General Flux Orientation

General Current Decoupling

Parameter Detuning Effects in Rotor Flux Orientation Current Decoupling

Direct versus Indirect Vector Current Decoupling

A.C. versus D.C. Current Controllers

Voltage Decoupling

Voltage and Current Limitations for the Torque and Speed Control Range

Impressing Voltage and Current Waveforms through PWM

Indirect Vector A.C. Current Control: A Case Study in MATLAB–Simulink (Available Online)

Indirect Vector Synchronous Current Control with Speed Sensor: A Case Study in MATLAB–Simulink (Available Online)

Flux Observers for Direct Vector Control with Motion Sensors

Flux and Speed Observers in Motion Sensorless Drives

Direct Torque and Flux Control

DTFC Sensorless: A Case Study in MATLAB–Simulink (Available Online)

Feedback Linearized Control

Predictive Control

Scalar (V1/f1) Control





Synchronous Motors for Drives


Construction Aspects

Pulsating Torque

Phase Coordinate Model

Space-Phasor (d-q) Model

Steady-State Operation

To Vary Speed, Variable Frequency Is Mandatory

Cogging Torque and Tooth-Wound PMSMs

Single-Phase PMSM

Steady-State Performance of Single-Phase PMSM

Single-Phase PMSM FEM Modeling for Transients




PM and Reluctance Synchronous Motor Drives


PMSM Drives: Classifications

Rectangular Current Control (Brushless D.C. Motor Drives)

Vector (Sinusoidal) Control


Sensorless Control of PMSMs

RSM Drives

High-Frequency (Speed) PMSM Drives

Single-Phase PMSM Control




Switched Reluctance Motor Drives


Construction and Functional Aspects

Average Torque and Energy Conversion Ratio

Peak kW/kVA Ratio

Commutation Windings

SRM Modeling

Flux–Current–Position Curve Fitting

SRM Drives

General-Purpose Drive with Position Sensor

High-Grade (Servo) Drives

Sensorless SRM Drives

Voltage–Current Model-Based Position Speed Observer

Single-Phase SRM Control

Recent Reluctance Motor Drives




Practical Issues with PWM Converter Motor Drives


Basic PWM Converter Drive

Line Current Harmonics

Long Motor Power Cables: Voltage Reflection and Attenuation

Motor Model for Ultrahigh Frequency

Common Mode Voltage: Motor Model and Consequences

Common Mode (Leakage) Stator Current Reduction

Circulating Bearing Currents

Reducing the Bearing Currents

Electromagnetic Interference

Audible Noise

Losses in PWM Converter Drives




Large-Power Drives

Power and Speed Limits: Moving Up

Voltage-Source Converter SM Drives

High-Power SCRs

Vector Control in Voltage Source Converter D.C.-Excited SM Drives

DTFC of D.C.-Excited SM Drives

Sensorless Control of a D.C.-Excited SM via "Active Flux:" A Case Study

Large Motor Drives: Working Less Time per Day Is Better

Rectifier CSI-SM Drives: The Basic Scheme

Rectifier CSI-SM Drive: Steady State with Load Commutation

Sub- and Hyper-Synchronous IM Cascade Drives




Control of Electric Generators


Control of SGs in Power Systems

Control of WRIGs with Limited Speed Range

Autonomous D.C.-Excited SG Control at Variable Speed

Cage-Rotor Induction Generator Control

PM Synchronous Generator Control for Variable Speed

Switched Reluctance Generator Control



Scalar V/f and I–f Control of A.C. Motor Drives: An Overview


Induction Machines V/f and I–f Open and Closed-Loop Control

V/f Advanced Control of PMSMs

One-Phase PMSM I–f Starting and e.m.f.-Based Sensorless Control



Multiphase Electric Machine Drives: An Overview


Multiphase IM Modeling and Parameter Estimation

Multiphase IM Drives Control Strategies

Multiphase PMSM Drives Control under Open-Phase Faults

BLDC Multiphase Reluctance Machines: Topology, Modeling, and Control: A Case Study



About the Authors

Ion Boldea is professor emeritus of electrical engineering at the University Politehnica Timisoara, Romania. A life fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Professor Boldea has worked, published, lectured, and consulted extensively on rotary and linear electric machines, drives, and maglevs for more than 40 years. He has received many accolades, including the IEEE Nikola Tesla Award (2015).

Syed A. Nasar (deceased) was James R. Boyd professor emeritus of electrical engineering at the University of Kentucky, Lexington, USA. A life fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Professor Nasar received the IEEE Nikola Tesla Award (2000), among other accolades. His research efforts were focused on electric motors.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / General