Electric Machines : Steady State, Transients, and Design with MATLAB® book cover
1st Edition

Electric Machines
Steady State, Transients, and Design with MATLAB®

ISBN 9781420055726
Published November 24, 2009 by CRC Press
792 Pages 444 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Ubiquitous in daily life, electric motors/generators are used in a wide variety of applications, from home appliances to internal combustion engines to hybrid electric cars. They produce electric energy in all electric power plants as generators and motion control that is necessary in all industries to increase productivity, save energy, and reduce pollution.

With its comprehensive coverage of the state of the art, Electric Machines: Steady State, Transients, and Design with MATLAB® addresses the modeling, design, testing, and manufacture of electric machines to generate electricity, or in constant or variable-speed motors for motion control.Organized into three stand-alone sections—Steady State, Transients, and FEM Analysis and Optimal Design—the text provides complete treatment of electric machines. It also: 

    • Explores international units
    • Contains solved and proposed numerical examples throughout
    • Guides students from simple to more complex math models
    • Offers a wealth of problems with hints

    The book contains numerous computer simulation programs in MATLAB and Simulink®, available on an accompanying CD-ROM, to help readers make a quantitative assessment of various parameters and performance indices of electric machines. Skillfully unifying symbols throughout the book, the authors present a great deal of invaluable practical laboratory work that has been classroom-tested in progressively modified forms. This textbook presents expressions of parameters, modeling, and characteristics that are directly and readily applicable for industrial R&D in fields associated with electric machines industry for modern (distributed) power systems and industrial motion control via power electronics.

    Table of Contents

    Part I: Steady State


    Electric Energy and Electric Machines

    Basic Types of Transformers and Electric Machines

    Losses and Efficiency

    Physical Limitations and Ratings

    Nameplate Ratings

    Methods of Analysis

    State of the Art and Perspective


    Electric Transformers

    AC Coil with Magnetic Core and Transformer Principles

    Magnetic Materials in EMs and Their Losses

    Electric Conductors and Their Skin Effects

    Components of Single- and 3-Phase Transformers

    Flux Linkages and Inductances of Single-Phase Transformers

    Circuit Equations of Single-Phase Transformers With Core Losses

    Steady State and Equivalent Circuit

    No-Load Steady State (I2 = 0)/Lab2.1

    Steady-State Short-Circuit Mode/Lab2.2

    Single-Phase Transformers: Steady-State Operation on Load/Lab 2.3

    Three-Phase Transformers: Phase Connections

    Particulars of 3-PhaseTransformersonNoLoad

    General Equations of 3-Phase Transformers

    Unbalanced Load Steady State in 3-Phase Transformers/Lab2.5


    Transients in Transformers

    Instrument Transformers


    Transformers and Inductances for Power Electronics

    Preliminary Transformer Design (Sizing) by Example


    Energy Conversion and Types of Electric Machines

    Energy Conversion in Electric Machines

    Electromagnetic Torque

    Passive Rotor Electric Machines

    Active Rotor Electric Machines

    Fix Magnetic Field (Brush-Commutator) Electric Machines

    Traveling Field Electric Machines

    Types of Linear Electric Machines

    Brush-Commutator Machines: Steady State



    Brush-Commutator Armature Windings


    Airgap Flux Density of Stator Excitation MMF

    No-Load Magnetization Curve by Example

    PM Airgap Flux Density and Armature Reaction by Example

    Commutation Process


    Equivalent Circuit and Excitation Connection

    DC Brush Motor/Generator with Separate (or PM) Excitation/Lab4.1

    DC Brush PM Motor Steady-State and Speed Control Methods/Lab4.2

    DC Brush Series Motor/Lab4.3

    AC Brush Series Universal Motor

    Testing Brush-Commutator Machines/Lab 4.4

    Preliminary Design of a DC Brush PM Automotive Motor by Example


    Induction Machines: Steady State

    Introduction: Applications and Topologies

    Construction Elements

    AC Distributed Windings

    Induction Machine Inductances

    Rotor Cage Reduction to the Stator

    Wound Rotor Reduction to the Stator

    Three-Phase Induction Machine Circuit Equations

    Symmetric Steady State of 3-Phase IMs

    Ideal No-Load Operation/Lab 5

    Zero Speed Operation (S=1)/Lab5.2

    No-Load Motor Operation (Free Shaft)/Lab 5.3

    Motor Operation on Load (1 > S > 0)/Lab5.4

    Generating at Power Grid (n > f1/p1, S < 0)/Lab5.5

    Autonomous Generator Mode (S < 0)/Lab5.6

    Electromagnetic Torque and Motor Characteristics

    Deep-Bar and Dual-Cage Rotors

    Parasitic (Space Harmonics)Torques

    Starting Methods

    Speed Control Methods

    Unbalanced Supply Voltages

    One Stator Phase Open by Example

    One Rotor Phase Open

    Capacitor Split-Phase Induction Motors

    Linear Induction Motors

    Regenerative and Virtual Load Testing of IMs/Lab 5.7

    Preliminary Electromagnetic IM Design by Example


    Synchronous Machines: Steady State

    Introduction: Applications and Topologies

    Stator (Armature) Windings for SMs

    SM Rotors: Airgap Flux Density Distribution and EMF

    Two-Reaction Principle via Generator Mode

    Armature Reaction and Magnetization Reactances, Xdm and Xqm

    Symmetric Steady-State Equations and Phasor Diagram

    Autonomous Synchronous Generators

    Synchronous Generators at Power Grid/Lab 6.4

    Basic Static- and Dynamic-Stability Concepts

    Unbalanced Load Steady State of SGs/Lab6.5

    Large Synchronous Motors

    PM Synchronous Motors: Steady State

    Load Torque Pulsations Handling by Synchronous Motors/Generators

    Asynchronous Starting of SMs and Their Self-Synchronization to Power Grid

    Single-Phase and Split-Phase Capacitor PM Synchronous Motors

    Preliminary Design Methodology of a 3-Phase PMSM by Example


    Part II: Transients

    Advanced Models for Electric Machines


    Orthogonal (dq) Physical Model

    Pulsational and Motion-Induced Voltages in dq Models

    dq Model of DC Brush PM Motor (ωb =0)

    Basic dq Model of Synchronous Machines (ωb =ωr)

    Basic dq Model of Induction Machines (ωb = 0,ωr,ω1)

    Magnetic Saturation in dq Models

    Frequency(Skin) Effect Considerationin dq Models

    Equivalence between dq Models and AC Machines

    Space Phasor (Complex Variable) Model

    High-Frequency Models for Electric Machines


    Transients of Brush-Commutator DC Machines


    Orthogonal (dq) Model of DC Brush Machines with Separate Excitation

    Electromagnetic (Fast) Transients

    Electromechanical Transients

    Basic Closed-Loop Control of DC Brush PM Motor

    DC–DC Converter-Fed DC Brush PM Motor

    Parameters from Test Data/Lab8.1


    Synchronous Machine Transients


    Phase Inductances of SMs

    Phase Coordinate Model

    dq0 Model—Relationships of 3-Phase SM Parameters

    Structural Diagram of the SM dq0 Model

    pu dq0 Model of SMs

    Balanced Steady State via the dq0 Model

    Laplace Parameters for Electromagnetic Transients

    Electromagnetic Transients at Constant Speed

    Sudden 3-Phase Short Circuit from a Generator at No Load/Lab9.1

    Asynchronous Running of SMs at a Given Speed

    Reduced-Order dq0 Models for Electromechanical Transients

    Small-Deviation Electromechanical Transients (in PU)

    Large-Deviation Electromechanical Transients

    Transients for Controlled Flux and Sinusoidal Current SMs

    Transients for Controlled Flux and Rectangular Current SMs

    Switched Reluctance Machine Modeling for Transients

    Split-Phase Cage Rotor SMs

    Standstill Testing for SM Parameters/Lab9.3

    Linear Synchronous Motor Transients


    Transients of Induction Machines

    Three-Phase Variable Model

    dq (Space Phasor) Model of IMs

    Three-Phase IM–dq Model Relationships

    Magnetic Saturation and Skin Effects in the dq Model

    Space Phasor Model Steady State: Cage and Wound Rotor IMs

    Electromagnetic Transients

    Three-Phase Sudden Short Circuit/Lab 10.1

    Small-Deviation Electromechanical Transients

    Large-Deviation Electromechanical Transients/Lab 10.2

    Reduced-Order dq Model in Multimachine Transients

    m/Nr Actual Winding Modeling of IMs with Cage Faults

    Transients for Controlled Magnetic Flux and Variable Frequency

    Cage Rotor Constant Stator Flux Transients and Vector Control Basics

    Doubly Fed IM as a Brushless Exciter for SMs

    Parameter Estimation in Standstill Tests/Lab10.3

    Split-Phase Capacitor IM Transients/Lab10.4

    Linear Induction Motor Transients


    Part III: FEM Analysis and Optimal Design

    Essentials of Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics

    Vectorial Fields

    Electromagnetic Fields

    Visualization of Fields

    Boundary Conditions

    Finite Element Method


    Analysis with FEM


    FEM in Electric Machines: Electromagnetic Analysis

    Single-Phase Linear PM Motors

    Rotary PMSMs (6/4)

    The 3-Phase Induction Machines


    Optimal Design of Electric Machines: The Basics

    Electric Machine Design Problem

    Optimization Methods

    Optimum Current Control

    Modified Hooke-Jeeves Optimization Algorithm

    Electric Machine Design Using Genetic Algorithms


    Optimization Design of Surface PMSMs

    Design Theme

    Electric and Magnetic Loadings

    Choosing a Few Dimensioning Factors

    A Few Technological Constraints

    Choosing Magnetic Materials

    Dimensioning Methodology

    Optimal Design with Genetic Algorithms

    Optimal Design of PMSMs Using Hooke-Jeeves Method


    Optimization Design of Induction Machines

    Realistic Analytical Model for Induction Machine Design

    Induction Motor Optimal Design Using Genetic Algorithms

    Induction Motor Optimal Design Using Hooke-Jeeves Algorithm

    Machine Performance

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    Professor Ion Boldea, University Politehnica, Timisoara, Romania, is an IEEE Fellow and has worked, published, lectured and consulted extensively on linear and rotary electric motors and generators: theory, design and control. He has published 13 books in USA and UK throughout the last 30 years.

    Assoc. Prof. Lucian Tutelea, University Politehnica, Timisoara, Romania, is an IEEE member and also has taught, worked, published papers, lectured and consulted for numerous international companies in the field of electric machines and drives.