Electric Machines: Steady State, Transients, and Design with MATLAB®, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Electric Machines

Steady State, Transients, and Design with MATLAB®, 1st Edition

By Ion Boldea, Lucian Nicolae Tutelea

CRC Press

792 pages | 444 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781420055726
pub: 2009-11-24
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Ubiquitous in daily life, electric motors/generators are used in a wide variety of applications, from home appliances to internal combustion engines to hybrid electric cars. They produce electric energy in all electric power plants as generators and motion control that is necessary in all industries to increase productivity, save energy, and reduce pollution.

With its comprehensive coverage of the state of the art, Electric Machines: Steady State, Transients, and Design with MATLAB® addresses the modeling, design, testing, and manufacture of electric machines to generate electricity, or in constant or variable-speed motors for motion control.Organized into three stand-alone sections—Steady State, Transients, and FEM Analysis and Optimal Design—the text provides complete treatment of electric machines. It also:

  • Explores international units
  • Contains solved and proposed numerical examples throughout
  • Guides students from simple to more complex math models
  • Offers a wealth of problems with hints

The book contains numerous computer simulation programs in MATLAB and Simulink®, available on an accompanying CD-ROM, to help readers make a quantitative assessment of various parameters and performance indices of electric machines. Skillfully unifying symbols throughout the book, the authors present a great deal of invaluable practical laboratory work that has been classroom-tested in progressively modified forms. This textbook presents expressions of parameters, modeling, and characteristics that are directly and readily applicable for industrial R&D in fields associated with electric machines industry for modern (distributed) power systems and industrial motion control via power electronics.

Table of Contents

Part I: Steady State


Electric Energy and Electric Machines

Basic Types of Transformers and Electric Machines

Losses and Efficiency

Physical Limitations and Ratings

Nameplate Ratings

Methods of Analysis

State of the Art and Perspective

Electric Transformers

AC Coil with Magnetic Core and Transformer Principles

Magnetic Materials in EMs and Their Losses

Electric Conductors and Their Skin Effects

Components of Single- and 3-Phase Transformers

Flux Linkages and Inductances of Single-Phase Transformers

Circuit Equations of Single-Phase Transformers With Core Losses

Steady State and Equivalent Circuit

No-Load Steady State (I2 = 0)/Lab2.1

Steady-State Short-Circuit Mode/Lab2.2

Single-Phase Transformers: Steady-State Operation on Load/Lab 2.3

Three-Phase Transformers: Phase Connections

Particulars of 3-PhaseTransformersonNoLoad

General Equations of 3-Phase Transformers

Unbalanced Load Steady State in 3-Phase Transformers/Lab2.5


Transients in Transformers

Instrument Transformers


Transformers and Inductances for Power Electronics

Preliminary Transformer Design (Sizing) by Example

Energy Conversion and Types of Electric Machines

Energy Conversion in Electric Machines

Electromagnetic Torque

Passive Rotor Electric Machines

Active Rotor Electric Machines

Fix Magnetic Field (Brush-Commutator) Electric Machines

Traveling Field Electric Machines

Types of Linear Electric Machines

Brush-Commutator Machines: Steady State


Brush-Commutator Armature Windings


Airgap Flux Density of Stator Excitation MMF

No-Load Magnetization Curve by Example

PM Airgap Flux Density and Armature Reaction by Example

Commutation Process


Equivalent Circuit and Excitation Connection

DC Brush Motor/Generator with Separate (or PM) Excitation/Lab4.1

DC Brush PM Motor Steady-State and Speed Control Methods/Lab4.2

DC Brush Series Motor/Lab4.3

AC Brush Series Universal Motor

Testing Brush-Commutator Machines/Lab 4.4

Preliminary Design of a DC Brush PM Automotive Motor by Example

Induction Machines: Steady State

Introduction: Applications and Topologies

Construction Elements

AC Distributed Windings

Induction Machine Inductances

Rotor Cage Reduction to the Stator

Wound Rotor Reduction to the Stator

Three-Phase Induction Machine Circuit Equations

Symmetric Steady State of 3-Phase IMs

Ideal No-Load Operation/Lab 5

Zero Speed Operation (S=1)/Lab5.2

No-Load Motor Operation (Free Shaft)/Lab 5.3

Motor Operation on Load (1 > S > 0)/Lab5.4

Generating at Power Grid (n > f1/p1, S < 0)/Lab5.5

Autonomous Generator Mode (S < 0)/Lab5.6

Electromagnetic Torque and Motor Characteristics

Deep-Bar and Dual-Cage Rotors

Parasitic (Space Harmonics)Torques

Starting Methods

Speed Control Methods

Unbalanced Supply Voltages

One Stator Phase Open by Example

One Rotor Phase Open

Capacitor Split-Phase Induction Motors

Linear Induction Motors

Regenerative and Virtual Load Testing of IMs/Lab 5.7

Preliminary Electromagnetic IM Design by Example

Synchronous Machines: Steady State

Introduction: Applications and Topologies

Stator (Armature) Windings for SMs

SM Rotors: Airgap Flux Density Distribution and EMF

Two-Reaction Principle via Generator Mode

Armature Reaction and Magnetization Reactances, Xdm and Xqm

Symmetric Steady-State Equations and Phasor Diagram

Autonomous Synchronous Generators

Synchronous Generators at Power Grid/Lab 6.4

Basic Static- and Dynamic-Stability Concepts

Unbalanced Load Steady State of SGs/Lab6.5

Large Synchronous Motors

PM Synchronous Motors: Steady State

Load Torque Pulsations Handling by Synchronous Motors/Generators

Asynchronous Starting of SMs and Their Self-Synchronization to Power Grid

Single-Phase and Split-Phase Capacitor PM Synchronous Motors

Preliminary Design Methodology of a 3-Phase PMSM by Example

Part II: Transients

Advanced Models for Electric Machines


Orthogonal (dq) Physical Model

Pulsational and Motion-Induced Voltages in dq Models

dq Model of DC Brush PM Motor (ωb =0)

Basic dq Model of Synchronous Machines (ωb =ωr)

Basic dq Model of Induction Machines (ωb = 0,ωr,ω1)

Magnetic Saturation in dq Models

Frequency(Skin) Effect Considerationin dq Models

Equivalence between dq Models and AC Machines

Space Phasor (Complex Variable) Model

High-Frequency Models for Electric Machines

Transients of Brush-Commutator DC Machines


Orthogonal (dq) Model of DC Brush Machines with Separate Excitation

Electromagnetic (Fast) Transients

Electromechanical Transients

Basic Closed-Loop Control of DC Brush PM Motor

DC–DC Converter-Fed DC Brush PM Motor

Parameters from Test Data/Lab8.1

Synchronous Machine Transients


Phase Inductances of SMs

Phase Coordinate Model

dq0 Model—Relationships of 3-Phase SM Parameters

Structural Diagram of the SM dq0 Model

pu dq0 Model of SMs

Balanced Steady State via the dq0 Model

Laplace Parameters for Electromagnetic Transients

Electromagnetic Transients at Constant Speed

Sudden 3-Phase Short Circuit from a Generator at No Load/Lab9.1

Asynchronous Running of SMs at a Given Speed

Reduced-Order dq0 Models for Electromechanical Transients

Small-Deviation Electromechanical Transients (in PU)

Large-Deviation Electromechanical Transients

Transients for Controlled Flux and Sinusoidal Current SMs

Transients for Controlled Flux and Rectangular Current SMs

Switched Reluctance Machine Modeling for Transients

Split-Phase Cage Rotor SMs

Standstill Testing for SM Parameters/Lab9.3

Linear Synchronous Motor Transients

Transients of Induction Machines

Three-Phase Variable Model

dq (Space Phasor) Model of IMs

Three-Phase IM–dq Model Relationships

Magnetic Saturation and Skin Effects in the dq Model

Space Phasor Model Steady State: Cage and Wound Rotor IMs

Electromagnetic Transients

Three-Phase Sudden Short Circuit/Lab 10.1

Small-Deviation Electromechanical Transients

Large-Deviation Electromechanical Transients/Lab 10.2

Reduced-Order dq Model in Multimachine Transients

m/Nr Actual Winding Modeling of IMs with Cage Faults

Transients for Controlled Magnetic Flux and Variable Frequency

Cage Rotor Constant Stator Flux Transients and Vector Control Basics

Doubly Fed IM as a Brushless Exciter for SMs

Parameter Estimation in Standstill Tests/Lab10.3

Split-Phase Capacitor IM Transients/Lab10.4

Linear Induction Motor Transients

Part III: FEM Analysis and Optimal Design

Essentials of Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics

Vectorial Fields

Electromagnetic Fields

Visualization of Fields

Boundary Conditions

Finite Element Method


Analysis with FEM

FEM in Electric Machines: Electromagnetic Analysis

Single-Phase Linear PM Motors

Rotary PMSMs (6/4)

The 3-Phase Induction Machines

Optimal Design of Electric Machines: The Basics

Electric Machine Design Problem

Optimization Methods

Optimum Current Control

Modified Hooke-Jeeves Optimization Algorithm

Electric Machine Design Using Genetic Algorithms

Optimization Design of Surface PMSMs

Design Theme

Electric and Magnetic Loadings

Choosing a Few Dimensioning Factors

A Few Technological Constraints

Choosing Magnetic Materials

Dimensioning Methodology

Optimal Design with Genetic Algorithms

Optimal Design of PMSMs Using Hooke-Jeeves Method

Optimization Design of Induction Machines

Realistic Analytical Model for Induction Machine Design

Induction Motor Optimal Design Using Genetic Algorithms

Induction Motor Optimal Design Using Hooke-Jeeves Algorithm

Machine Performance

About the Authors

Professor Ion Boldea, University Politehnica, Timisoara, Romania, is an IEEE Fellow and has worked, published, lectured and consulted extensively on linear and rotary electric motors and generators: theory, design and control. He has published 13 books in USA and UK throughout the last 30 years.

Assoc. Prof. Lucian Tutelea, University Politehnica, Timisoara, Romania, is an IEEE member and also has taught, worked, published papers, lectured and consulted for numerous international companies in the field of electric machines and drives.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Energy
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / General