Electrochemical Supercapacitors for Energy Storage and Delivery : Fundamentals and Applications book cover
1st Edition

Electrochemical Supercapacitors for Energy Storage and Delivery
Fundamentals and Applications

ISBN 9781439869895
Published April 9, 2013 by CRC Press
382 Pages 20 Color & 151 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Although recognized as an important component of all energy storage and conversion technologies, electrochemical supercapacitators (ES) still face development challenges in order to reach their full potential. A thorough examination of development in the technology during the past decade, Electrochemical Supercapacitors for Energy Storage and Delivery: Fundamentals and Applications provides a comprehensive introduction to the ES from technical and practical aspects and crystallization of the technology, detailing the basics of ES as well as its components and characterization techniques.

The book illuminates the practical aspects of understanding and applying the technology within the industry and provides sufficient technical detail of newer materials being developed by experts in the field which may surface in the future. The book discusses the technical challenges and the practical limitations and their associated parameters in ES technology. It also covers the structure and options for device packaging and materials choices such as electrode materials, electrolyte, current collector, and sealants based on comparison of available data.

Supplying an in depth understanding of the components, design, and characterization of electrochemical supercapacitors, the book has wide-ranging appeal to industry experts and those new to the field. It can be used as a reference to apply to current work and a resource to foster ideas for new devices that will further the technology as it becomes a larger part of main stream energy storage.

Table of Contents

Fundamentals of Electric Capacitors
Electric Charge, Electric Field, and Electric Potential and Their Implications for Capacitor Cell Voltage
Capacitance Definition and Calculation
Capacitor Charging and Recharging Processes
Energy Storage in Capacitor
Capacitor Containing Electrical Circuits and Corresponding Calculation
Types and Structures of Capacitors

Fundamentals of Electrochemical Double Layer Supercapacitors
Electrode and Electrolyte Interfaces and Their Capacitances
Electrode Potential and Double Layer Potential Windows Using Different Electrode Materials and Electrolytes
Capacitance of Porous Carbon Materials
Electrochemical Double Layer Supercapacitors
Energy and Power Densities of Electrochemical Supercapacitors
Supercapacitor Stacking
Double Layer Supercapacitors versus Batteries
Applications of Supercapacitors

Fundamentals of Electrochemical Pseudocapacitors
Electrochemical Pseudocapacitance of Electrode–Electrolyte Interface
Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Equivalent Circuits
Materials, Electrodes, and Cell Designs

Components and Materials for Electrochemical Supercapacitors
Anode and Cathode Structures and Materials
Electrolyte Structures and Materials
Separator Structures
Current Collectors

Electrochemical Supercapacitor Design, Fabrication, and Operation
Design Considerations
Single Cell Manufacturing
Supercapacitor Stack Manufacturing and Construction
Voltage Cell Balancing
Cell Aging and Voltage Decay
Self Discharging
Patent Review
Major Commercial ES Products

Coupling with Batteries and Fuel Cells
Coupling ES Systems with Other Energy Devices
Hybrid Systems
Supercapacitor Integration with Batteries
Supercapacitor Integration with Fuel Cells
System Modeling and Optimization
Improving Dynamic Response and Transient Stability

Characterization and Diagnosis Techniques for Electrochemical Supercapacitors
Electrochemical Cell Design and Fabrication
Cyclic Voltammetry (CV)
Charging–Discharging Curve
Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS)
Physical Characterization of Supercapacitor Materials
Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) Method

Applications of Electrochemical Supercapacitors
Power Electronics
Memory Protection
Battery Enhancement
Portable Energy Sources
Power Quality Improvement
Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs)
High Power Sensors and Actuators
Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Renewable and Off-Peak Energy Storage
Military and Aerospace Applications

Perspectives and Challenges
Market Challenges
Electrode Material Challenges
Electrolyte Innovations
Development of Computational Tools
Future Perspectives and Research Directions

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Aiping Yu is an assistant professor at the University of Waterloo in Canada. She earned her PhD from the University of California– Riverside. Her research interests are materials and modeling development for energy storage and conversion, photocatalysts, and nanocomposites. Dr. Yu has published over 35 papers in peer-reviewed journals such as Science and one book chapter relating to supercapacitors. She currently is the editorial member of the Nature: Scientific Reports. Her work has been featured by major media such as Nature: Nanotechnology, Photonics.com, and Azonano.com. Her patent for graphene nanomaterials has been licensed to a company in San Jose. Victor Chabot received his bachelor's degree in nanoengineering from the University of Waterloo and currently is pursuing his graduate degree in chemical engineering at the University of Waterloo. His research focuses on nanomaterial development for high energy density supercapacitors. Jiujun Zhang is a principal research officer and technical leader at the National Research Council of Canada’s Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation (NRC-IFCI), now the council's Energy, Mining, and Environment (NRC-EME) portfolio. Dr. Zhang earned a BS and MSc in electrochemistry from Peking University in 1982 and 1985, respectively, and a PhD in electrochemistry from Wuhan University in 1988. After completing his doctorate, he took a position as an associate professor at the Huazhong Normal University for 2 years. Starting in 1990, he carried out three terms of postdoctoral research at the California Institute of Technology, York University, and the University of British Columbia. Dr. Zhang has over 28 years of research and development experience in theoretical and applied electrochemistry, 14 of which were spent working on fuel cells at Ballard Power Systems and at NRC-IFCI. He also spent 3 years researching electrochemical sensors. Dr. Zhang holds adjunct professorships at the University of Waterloo, the University of British Columbia, and at Peking University. To date, Dr. Zhang has co-authored or edited more than 300 publications including 190 refereed journal papers with approximately 4,700 citations, books, conference proceeding papers, book chapters, and 50 conference and invited oral presentations. He also holds over 10 patents worldwide along with 9 U.S. patent publications and has produced more than 80 industrial technical reports. Dr. Zhang serves as an editor or editorial board member for several international journals and is also the editor for CRC's Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion series of books. Dr. Zhang is an active member of the Electrochemical Society, the International Society of Electrochemistry and the American Chemical Society.


"... one of the best aspects of this book is in the excellent technical details describing other devices (conventional capacitors and batteries) to illustrate the differences between these energy-storage devices. Also, the condensed but very informative descriptions of some of the equipment used to characterize ES materials (SEM, TEM, x-ray analysis) are very enlightening for those who do not typically use these devices. There are excellent descriptions of the theory and application of these imaging and analytical instrumentations. The book provides a wonderful illustration of electrochemical supercapacitors for understanding the practical aspects of the technology. It also provides sufficient technical details on new materials for possible future use in ES components. Readers will gain a comprehensive understanding of the components, designs, and characterizations of ES. Those in industry and academia will benefit from this book."
—John J. Shea, from IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, July/August — Vol. 31, No. 4

"This book offers an essential background to researchers involved in the development of supercapacitors and may represent both a reference and a starting point for academic and industrial scientists. Also students and post-graduate fellows will find it a comprehensive and valuable resource."
—Catia Arbizzani, University of Bologna