Electroless Nickel Plating: Fundamentals to Applications: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Electroless Nickel Plating: Fundamentals to Applications

1st Edition

Edited by Fabienne Delaunois, Veronique Vitry, Luiza Bonin

CRC Press

496 pages | 10 Color Illus. | 90 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781138605800
pub: 2019-11-19
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The book provides a complete and actualized view of electroless nickel plating, thus greatly improving the accessibility of knowledge on the subject. It touches upon all aspects of electroless nickel, from the fundamentals (including thermodynamics of electroless plating, bath chemistry and substrate preparation) to more applied areas of the field like bath replenishment, composite coatings, post-treatments, polyalloys, graded and multilayer coatings, ultrasound assistance, applications, and properties.

Table of Contents




Chapter 1: Chemistry of Electroless Plating 1

1.1 Chemistry of Electroless Plating 2

1.1.1 Comparison of Electroless Plating with other electrolytic metal deposition processes 5

1.2 Thermodynamic Aspects of Electroless Deposition 7

1.2.1 Contribution of hydrogen evolution reaction to electroless plating 11

1.2.2 Anodic Reactions 13

1.2.3 Cathodic Reactions 13

1.3 Kinetics of Electroless Deposition Processes 16

1.3.1 Kinetics of Half Cell Reactions 17

1.4 Mixed Potential Theory 22

1.5 The Role of Deposition Parameters and Chemical Components on Electroless Nickel Coating Process 28

1.5.1 The role of Deposition Parameters 28

1.5.2 Chemical Components of Electroless Nickel Deposition Baths and their functions 31 Main Components, Nickel ion sources and Reductants 33 Complexing agents 34 Stabilizers 37


2 Chapter 2: Activation, Initiation, and Growth of Electroless Nickel Coatings 1

Abstract 2

2.1 Substrate Cleaning 3

2.1.1 Ferrous Substrates 3

2.1.2 Aluminum Alloys 6

2.1.3 Magnesium Alloys 8

2.1.4 Copper 8

2.1.5 Titanium 9

2.1.6 Polymeric Substrates 10

2.1.7 Ceramic Substrates, Ceramic and Metallic Powders 11

2.2 Substrate Activation 12

2.2.1 Ferrous Substrates 13

2.2.2 Aluminum Alloys 21

2.2.3 Magnesium Alloys 26

2.2.4 Copper 35

2.2.5 Titanium 39

2.2.6 Polymeric Substrates 41

2.3 Morphology Evolution 46

2.3.1 Ferrous Substrates 47

2.3.2 Aluminum Alloys 51

2.3.3 Magnesium Alloys 55

2.4 General Conclusions 63

References 64

Chapter 3 : Electroless Nickel Phosphorus Deposits *

3.1 Introduction *

3.1.1 Types of electroless nickel plating * Alloy and poly-alloy coatings: * Composite coatings: *

3.2 Development and chemistry of electroless NiP deposition *

3.2.1 Components of NiP bath *

3.2.2 Choice of substrate * Activation of non-catalytic surface *

3.2.3 Electroless NiP deposition process * Acid Baths * Alkaline bath *

3.2.4 Effect of bath composition/deposition conditions on electroless nickel properties * Effect of nickel source concentration * Effect of reducing agent concentration * Effect of complexing agent * Effect of stabilizer * Effect of bath pH and need for buffers * Effect of bath temperature * Effect of surfactant * Effect of bath loading *

3.2.5 Effect of agitation on NiP deposition *

3.2.6 Effect of bath age *

3.2.7 Reasons for spontaneous decomposition of electroless nickel bath *

3.3 Microstructural aspects of electroless nickel coating *

3.3.1 Surface morphology and microstructure * Effect of phosphorus content * Influence of heat treatment on coating structure * Phase transformation behavior of electroless nickel coating *

3.4 Specifications and properties of NiP coating (as-plated and heat treated) *

3.4.1 Physical properties * Density * Melting Point * Hardness of electroless nickel deposit * Effect of phosphorus content on the deposit hardness * Effect of heat treatment on hardness of electroless nickel deposits * Other factors affecting hardness *

3.4.2 Mechanical properties * Tensile properties * Ductility * Fatigue behaviour * Adhesion properties * Thermal characteristics *

3.4.3 Roughness of NiP coatings *

3.4.4 Tribological characteristics of the coating * Test methods * Friction behaviour * Wear characteristics * Wear measurement * Wear characteristics of electroless nickel coating * High temperature friction and wear characteristics of electroless nickel coatings * Wear mechanism of electroless nickel coatings under high temperature *

3.4.5 Corrosion characteristics * Porosity * Corrosion behavior of electroless nickel coating *

3.4.6 Corrosive wear behaviour of electroless nickel *

3.4.7 Internal stress *

3.5 Solderability of electroless nickel *

3.5.1 Solder fluxes *

3.6 Graded and duplex coatings *

3.7 Standards pertaining to development of electroless nickel coatings *

3.7.1 ASTM B733 – 15: Standard Specification for Autocatalytic (Electroless) Nickel-phosphorushosphorus Coatings on Metal *

3.7.2 Electroless Nickel Plating MIL-C-26074 *

3.7.3 Electroless Nickel Plating to AMS 2404 *

3.8 Applications of electroless nickel coatings *

3.8.1 Common industrial applications *

3.8.2 From tribological aspect (achieving low friction and high wear resistance) *

3.9 Future of electroless nickel coating *

3.9.1 Demand for low phosphorus deposit *

3.9.2 Demand for bright electroless nickel deposit *

3.9.3 Recommendation for growth of electroless nickel *

3.9.4 Challenges *

3.10 Green electroless nickel coating *

3.11 Closure *

References *

Chapter 4 : Electroless nickel-boron 1

Part a: As-plated electroless nickel-boron 1

4a.1 Chemistry of electroless nickel-boron (EN-B) coatings(Véronique Vitry and Delaunois 2015b; Fabienne Delaunois and Vitry 2015) 2

4a.2 Initiation mechanism of electroless nickel-boron coatings 12

4a.3 Structure, morphology and surface aspect of electroless nickel-boron coatings 13

4a.3.1 Structure 13

4a.3.2 Morphology and surface aspect 21

4a.3.2.1 Influence of bath temperature 25

4a.3.2.2 Influence of deposition time 25

4a.3.2.3 Influence of the reducing agent content 31

4a.3.2.4 Influence of the stabilizer 31

4a.3.2.5 Deposition rate 33

4a.3.2.6 Bath replenishment 37

4a.4 Mechanical properties of electroless nickel-boron coatings 38

4a.4.1 Hardness 38

4a.4.2 Ductility, tensile strength, young’s modulus 41

4a.4.3 Internal stresses 42

4a.4.4 Fatigue resistance 44

4a.4.5 Creep 45

4a.5 Tribological and wear properties of electroless nickel-boron coatings 45

4a.5.1 Roughness 45

4a.5.2 Scratch test resistance 48

4a.5.3 Friction coefficient (COF) 50

4a.5.4 Specific wear rate or sliding wear resistance 52

4a.5.5 Abrasive wear resistance 53

4a.6 Corrosion resistance of electroless nickel-boron coatings 55

4a.7 Catalytic properties 61

4a.8 Physical properties of electroless nickel-boron coatings 62

4a.8.1 Density 63

4a.8.2 Porosity 63

4a.8.3 Melting point 64

4a.8.4 Electrical and magnetic properties 65

4a.8.5 Thermal properties 66

4a.8.6 Suitable for soldering, welding and bonding 67

4a.8.7 Adhesion 68

References 68

4b Post-treatments for electroless nickel-boron 1

Abstract 1

4b.1 Introduction 4

4b.2 Heat treatments 4

4b.2.1 Rationale behind heat treatment of electroless nickel-boron coatings. 5

4b.2.2 Determination of the minimal heat treatment temperature for electroless nickel-boron. 6

4b.2.3 Effect of heat treatment on morphology, microstructure and structure of electroless nickel-boron coatings. 7

4b.2.4 Effect of heat treatments on hardness 11

4b.2.5 Effect of heat treatment on roughness 15

4b.2.6 Effect of heat treatment on tribological properties 16

4b.2.6.1 Effect of heat treatment on abrasive wear of electroless nickel-boron coatings. 16

4b.2.6.2 Effect of heat treatment friction coefficient of electroless nickel-boron coatings. 17

4b.2.6.3 Effect of heat treatment on sliding wear of electroless nickel-boron coatings. 21

4b.2.7 Effect of heat treatment on adhesion and scratch test resistance 24

4b.2.8 Effect of heat treatment on corrosion 26

4b.2.9 Influence of heat treatment on other properties of electroless nickel-boron. 30

4b.3 Thermochemical treatments 33

4b.3.1 Types of nitriding treatments applied to electroless nickel-boron coatings and nitriding conditions. 34

4b.3.2 Chemical and microstructural characterization of nitrided coatings. 34

4b.3.3 Mechanical and tribological properties of nitrided electroless nickel-boron coatings. 36

4b.3.4 Corrosion properties 38

4b.4 Conclusion 38

References 39

About the Editors

Fabienne Delaunois obtained her Engineering Degree in Metallurgy and her PhD from the Engineering Faculty of Mons (FPMs) in 1993 and 2002 respectively. She’s been working of electroless nickel-boron for nearly 20 years and is the authors of about 20 publications in that field. She realizes also many expertise for industries on various fields such as failure and corrosion. She is nowadays Professor and Department Head in the Metallurgy Laboratory, at the Engineering Faculty of the University of Mons, Belgium, where she teaches principally Physical Metallurgy, but also Recycling. She also teaches physical metallurgy at the University of Valenciennes Hainaut-Cambresis in France. She chaired the Chemistry and Materials Science Department at the Engineering Faculty of UMONS from 2010 to 2017 and is a member of the board of Materia Nova and BCRC-INISMa research centers.Véronique Vitry obtained her Engineering Degree in Materials Science from the Engineering Faculty of Mons in 2003 and first worked on optical PVD coatings for a research center. She then went on to get her PhD in Engineering from the Universtity of Mons and graduated in 2010. Her main research interest is electroless nickel plating, which she has been studying for more than 10 years, leading to more than 20 publications in international journals. She’s also involved in research about powder metallurgy, corrosion, recycling and physical metallurgy. She’s now Senior Research and Teaching Associate at the Engineering Faculty of the University of Mons (UMONS) where she teaches process metallurgy and process modelling, thin films, nanotechnologies and spectroscopic methods in chemical and materials analysis. She also teaches surface treatments at the University of Valenciennes Hainaut-Cambresis in France. Dr. Vitry is the regional chair of the board of A3TS (the French Heat Treatment Association) for the North of France and Belgium and sits on the board of administrators of the association. She also chairs the International Relations Committee of the Failure Analysis Society (FAS), an affiliate of ASM. Luiza Bonin is a materials engineer graduated from the Federal University of Santa Catarina (2009-2014) with one year at the École Polytechnique Féminine (Paris- France) by Capes-BRAFITEC program during 2012-2013. She has been working with new compositions of electroless nickel-boron as the mean subject of her PhD since 2014 at the University of Mons. She is also authors of 6 papers in that field.

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