Electromagnetic Compatibility: Methods, Analysis, Circuits, and Measurement, Third Edition, 3rd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Electromagnetic Compatibility

Methods, Analysis, Circuits, and Measurement, Third Edition, 3rd Edition

By David A. Weston

CRC Press

1,160 pages | 11 Color Illus. | 1026 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2016-09-29
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Description

Revised, updated, and expanded, Electromagnetic Compatibility: Methods, Analysis, Circuits, and Measurement, Third Edition provides comprehensive practical coverage of the design, problem solving, and testing of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in electrical and electronic equipment and systems.

This new edition provides novel information on theory, applications, evaluations, electromagnetic computational programs, and prediction techniques available. With sixty-nine schematics providing examples for circuit level electromagnetic interference (EMI) hardening and cost effective EMI problem solving, this book also includes 1130 illustrations and tables. Including extensive data on components and their correct implementation, the myths, misapplication, misconceptions, and fallacies that are common when discussing EMC/EMI will also be addressed and corrected.

Reviews

"The third edition adds more than 60 percent new knowledge with respect to second edition; it seems fully updated and is very practical in explaining an unusually wide spectrum of issues related to electromagnetic compatibility in/of electric/electronic equipment of astonishing diversity."

—Ion Boldea, University Politehnica Timisoara, Romania

"A comprehensive tome, containing a wealth of practical information and worked examples."

—John F. Dawson, University of York, United Kingdom

"While I’ve reviewed many books on EMC, this one by David A. Weston, is the most complete in coverage yet. The 1157-page book covers not only basic and advanced theory of EMC, but includes product design, commercial and military measurement techniques, and mitigation to obtain electromagnetic compatibility. The 12 chapters and six appendices are well-illustrated with numerous charts, graphs, and figures. It also includes ample case studies with solved example equations helping to illustrate the concepts."

Interference Technology, May 2017

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Electromagnetic Compatibility. Introductions to Electromagnetic Interference. Effects of Electromagnetic Interference. Electromagnetic Interference Coupling Modes. General. Introduction to Electromagnetic Interference Regulations. Military Regulations. Commercial Regulations. Unregulated Equipment. Electromagnetic Environment. Natural Sources of Electromagnetic Noise. Man-made Electromagnetic Noise. Industrial, Scientific, and Medical Equipment. FCC Part 18. Measured Fields from Industrial Equipment. Interference from High-Voltage Transmission Lines and E and H Field Close to the Line. Magnetic Field. Electric Field. Currents Induced into Metal Buildings Close to the Power Line. Noise from Traffic, Fluorescent Tubes, Microwave Ovens, and Magnetic Fields in the Home and Office. Hospital Environment. Intentional Emitters. Low-Power Intentional Radiators. High-Power Intentional Radiators. Conducted Noise on Power Lines. References. Chapter 2 Introduction to E and H, Near and Far Fields, Radiators, Receptors, and Antennas. Static and Quasi-Static Fields. DC Electric Field. DC Magnetic Field. Twisted-Pair Wires. DC and Quasi-Static Fields from a Loop. Electric Waves on Wires and in Free Space. Radiation. Current Elements as Radiators. Current Loops. Spherical Waves. Receiving Properties of a Loop. Far-Field Radiation from a Twisted Wire Pair. Radiated Power. Units of Measurement. Receiving Properties of an Antenna. Conversation of Power Density to Electric Field Intensity. Conversion of Power Density to Electric Field Intensity in terms on Antenna Gain. Antenna Factor. Receiving Properties of an Isolated Conductor/Cable. Monopole Antenna as a Measuring Device and in Prediction of Electromagnetic Compatibility. Simple, Easy Constructed E- and H-Field Antennas. Shielded Loop Antenna. Balanced Loop Antenna. E-Field Bow Tie Antenna. Monopole Antennas. Tuned Resonant Dipole Antennas. Helical Spiral Antennas. Small Toroid Antenna. 0/1-1000MHz H-Field Probe. Calibration. Nonionizing Electromagnetic Field Exposures Safety Limits. Clinical Studies on Human Beings. Canadian Limits. American Standards. East European, European, and Other Standards, ICNIRP, CENELEC, IRPA, and CEU Limits. Measurement of Electromagnetic Field Levels. DC and Power Frequency Fields. Computer Programs. Computer Programs for Radiation from Wires. Computer Program for the Electric Field, Magnetic Field, and Wave Impedance for a Current Element (Electric Dipole). Computer Program for the Electric Field, Magnetic Field, and Wave Impedance for a Current Loop (Frame Antenna). Computer Program for the Radiation from a Resonant Transmission Line. Computer Programs for Coupling to Wires/Cables. Computer Program for the Receiving Properties of a Loop (I). Computer Program for Calculating the Receiving Properties of a Transmission Line (T). Properties of a Nonresonant Monopole Antenna. References. Chapter 3 Typical Sources and Characteristics of Radiated and Conducted Emissions. Introduction to Noise Sources. Harmonically Related Noise from Single and Periodic Pulses. Frequency Spectrum Occupancy of a Step Function. Fourier Transform Methods and Computer Programs. Case Study 3.1: Noise Levels Generated by DC-to-DC Converters. General Test Setup and Method. Summary of +24 to 24 V Converter Conducted Emissions. (CE102) and Radiated Emissions (RE102) from the Input Power Test Results. Differential-Mode and Common-Mode Conducted Noise at the Output of a 24-5 V Converter. Transmitter-Generated Noise. References. Chapter 4 Cross Talk and Electromagnetic Coupling between Printed Circuit Board Tracks, Wires, and Cables. Introduction to Cross Talk and Electromagnetic Coupling. Capacitive Cross Talk and Electric Field Coupling between Wires and Cables. Inductive Cross Talk and Magnetic Field Coupling between Wires and Cables. Combined Inductive and Capacitive Cross Talk. Use of the Characteristic Impedance of PCB Tracks and Wires over a Ground Plane for Predicting Cross Talk. Cross Talk in Twisted-Pair, Cross-Stranded Twisted-Pair, Shielded Twisted-Pair, and Ribbon Cables. Cross Talk on Lines with a Long Propagation Delay Relative to the Rise Time of the Source. Cross-talk Computer Programs. Cross Talk between PCB Traces and Coupling around Components on a PCB. Stripline Coupling. Radiated Coupling. Electromagnetic Coupling. Computer Program for Evaluating Shielded and Unshielded Cable/Wire-to-Cable/Wire Coupling. References. Chapter 5 Components, Emission Reduction Techniques, and Noise Immunity. Components. Introduction to the Use of Components in Electromagnetic Compatibility. Impedances of Wires, Printed Circuit Board Tracks, and Ground Planes. General Wiring Guidelines. Circuit Classification. Wire Separation. Internal Unit/Equipment Wiring. External Unit/Equipment Wiring. Wire Shielding. Radio Frequency Shielding. Components Used in Emission Control and to Increase Noise Immunity. Capacitors. Inductors. Ferrite Beads. Baluns. Common-Mode Chokes. Commercial Power Inductors. Resistors. Power-Line Filters. Custom-Design Filters. Common-Mode Filter with Resonant Capacitor. Power-Line Filter to Meet Space Requirements. Separating the Low- and High-Frequency Filter Components. Case Study 5.1: Filter Design. Continuation of Case Study 3.1. AC Power-Line Filter. Output Power-Line Filters. Signal Filters. Active Filters. Passive Filters. Microwave Filters. PCB Microwave Filters. Connectorized Filters. Low-Frequency Passive High-Pass, Low-Pass, Notch and Band-Pass Filters. Example of Filter Design. Commercially Available Filters. Case Study 5.2. Filter Connectors. Emission Reduction Techniques. Signal and Power Generation Characteristics. Circuit Topology. Reservoir and Decoupling Capacitors. Heat Sinks. Circuit Layout. Noise Immunity. Inter-face Circuit Noise Immunity. Receivers and Drivers. VMOSFET Driver and Optocoupler Receiver PLD2 and PLR2 DC-50 kHz Interface. Transformer Coupled 10 MHz Interface HAD-1 and HAR-1. VMOSFET Driver, Differential Input Receiver, 2 MHz Interface: HD-1, HR-1, and PHR-1. Typical Integrated Circuit Response to Noise and Immunity Test Levels. Digital Logic Noise Immunity. Analog Video and Radio Frequency Circuit Noise and Immunity. Thermal Noise. Coupling Modes to Analog/Video and Radio Frequency Circuits. Noise Sources and Levels. Radio Frequency and Wireless. Shielding. Radio Frequency Grounding. Filtering. Radiated Emission Reduction. Transient Protection. Transient Protection Devices. Lightning Protection. Electrostatic Protection. Electromagnetic Pulse Protection. References. Chapter 6 Electromagnetic Shielding. Reflection, Absorption, and Shielding Effectiveness. Reflection in a Perfect Conductor. Transmission-Line Theory Applied to Shielding. Metal Impedance, Skin Depth, Barrier Impedance. Reflection in Practical Conductors. Absorption. Re-Reflection Correction. Shielding Effectiveness. Caution in the Use of the Shielding Effectiveness Equation. Isolated Metal Plate with and without Gap. New Shielding Materials: Conductive Paints and Thermoplastics, Plastic Coatings, and Glue. Magnetic Shielding Effectiveness of Conductive Coatings. Correlation between SE and Surface Resistivity. Electric Field Shieling Effectiveness of Conductive Coatings. Conductively Coasted Plastic Enclosures versus Aluminum in Meeting MIL-STD-461 Requirements. Coated Plastic Enclosures versus Metal Enclosures. Enclosure Types. Tests Performed. RS101: 10-100 kHz. H Field: 100 kHz to 10 MHz. RS103 Electromagnetic Wave Using E-Field and H-Field Probes. RS101 Test Setup for Shielding Effectiveness. H-Field Shielding Effectiveness Test Results with and without Gaskets. Role of Fasteners. Prediction Tool for Magnetic Field Shielding Effectiveness. Magnetic Field Shielding Effectiveness Tests from 100 kHz to 10 MHz or Greater. RS103 Tests on the Enclosures from 10 to 250 Mhz. 10 MIL-STD-461 Comparison. Conductive Cloth. Hospital Room Shielded Using Aluminum Foil. Conceptual Design of a Room. Enclosure under Test. Plane-Wave Shielding of an Enclosure with Seams. Mechanism for E-Field Coupling through an Enclosure with Seams. Prediction of the Internal E Field Using a 1 m x 0.7 m x 1 m 0.075 mm Thick Aluminum Foil Enclosure. Predicting the E Field Inside the Enclosure. E-Field and Place-Wave Shielding of a Small Enclosure with No Seams. Conductive Cloth Suit. Conductive Adhesives and Absorbers. Seams, Joints, Ventilation, and Other Apertures. E-Field Coupling through an Aperture in Thin Material. Aperture Coupling Measurements versus the Equations in Reference 9 and the FEKO Program. Waveguide Below Cutoff Effect in Thick Materials. Attenuation of Enclosure with Joints and Apertures to an H Field. Attenuation of a Six-Sided Thin Foil Enclosure with Seams to an H Field, with Virtually the Same Current Inside and Outside the Enclosure. Magnetic Fields Generated by the Transmitting Loop and Induced into the Enclosure and the Fields Generated by the Enclosure Currents. H-Field Shielding Effectiveness of Enclosure with Seams and Apertures. Examples of H-Field Attenuation of Enclosures. Measured Attenuation of a Magnetic Field Source within an Enclosure. Shielding a Room in a Hospital Using Aluminum Foil. Gasketing Theory, Gasket Transfer Impedance, Gasket Types, and Surface Finish. Gasket Theory. Gasket Test Methods. Relative Performance of Gasket Materials. Modern Gasket Materials. Shielding Effectiveness of Enclosure with Gasketed Seam. Factors Affecting Gasket Choice. Waveguide Gaskets. Conductive Finishes, DC Resistance, and Corrosion Effects on Gasket Materials. Practical Shielding and Limitation on Effectiveness. Compartmentalization. Shielding Effectiveness of Buildings. Computer Program for Evaluation Shielding Effectiveness. References. Chapter 7 Cable Shielding, Coupling from E and H Fields, and Cable Emissions. Introduction to Cable Coupling and Emissions. Cable Shielding Effectiveness/Transfer Impedance. Frequency Dependency: 60 Hz-100 kHz. Frequency Dependency: 100 kHz-22 GHz Transfer Impedance. Military and RG Cable Transfer Impedance. Shielding Twisted-Pair Transfer Impedance. Conduit Transfer Impedance. Flexible Shields. Flexible Conductive Cloth-Shielded Cable Transfer Impedance. Semirigid Cable. Long-Line Effects. Transfer Admittance. Shielding Effectiveness of Long Cables. Shield Termination Effects on Transferred Voltage. Coupling from E and H Fields. Use if the NEC Program to Model the Coupling to Cables in, or Close to, Free Space Conditions. Cable Shieling Effectiveness in Gigahertz. Shielding Effectiveness of Cables up to 12 GHz. Polarization and Angle of Incidence. Shield Termination to Ground. Emissions from Cables and Wires. Emission from Loops. Emissions from Transmission-Line Geometries. Emissions from Loops with and without Attached Cables. Loop Termination. Reduction in the Emission of E and H Fields from Cables. Shielded Connectors, Backshells, and Other Shield Termination Techniques. Ethernet and USB Connectors. Alternative Cable Shield Termination Techniques. Practical Level of Cable Shielding Required to Meet MIL-STD/DO-16OC or Commercial Radiated Emission Requirements. Connections of Shield to the Outside or Inside of the Enclosure? References, Chapter 8 Grounding and Bonding. Introduction to Grounding. Safety Grounds, Earth Grounds, and Large-System Grounding. Earth Ground. Earth Resistance. Signal Ground and Power Ground. Signal Ground. Grounding Philosophy. Single-Point Ground. Floating the Analog Ground on the Digital Ground. Modified Differential Op Amp Circuit. Guidelines for Signal Grounding. Power and Grounding Diagrams. Grounding for Lightning Protection. Lightning Conductors. Ground Potential. Case Study 8.1: Grounding for Lightning Protection at a Communication Site. Bonding. General. MIL-B-5087, MIL-HDB-419A, and MIL-STD-464. MIL-STD-464 Methods of Electrical Bonding. MIL-HDBK-419A Bonding Practices. Corrosion, Dissimilar Metals, and Oxidation. Bonding Test Methods. Grounding Software. References. Chapter 9 EMI Measurements, Control Requirements, and Test Methods. Introduction. EMI Test Laboratories. Test Equipment. Oscilloscope. Spectrum Analyzer. Preamplifiers. EMI Receivers. Signal Generator and Power Amplifiers. Current Probes. Magnetic Field Antennas. BB Antennas. 41 in. (1.04 m) Monopole Receiving Antenna. Diagnostic Measurements. Radiated Measurement. Magnetic Field Measurements. Current Probe Test Method. Conducted Measurements. Susceptibility/Immunity Tests. Commercial EMI Requirements and Measurement. FCC Rules on Emissions from Digital Devices. Antenna Calibration. Test Sites. Radiated Emission Test Setup and OATS Case Studies. Canadian Requirements. German Regulations. Chinese Standards. Japanese EMI Requirements on Computing Devices. Taiwanese Standards. Australian and New Zealand Standards. South Korea. European Economic Union Directive 2004/108/EC. Radiated and Conducted Emissions. Immunity Tests. Emission Tests. Shielding Rooms, Anechoic Chambers, Transmission Lines, and Cell Antennas. Shielded-Enclosure Internal Fields and Antenna Errors. GTEM, TEM, and Other Cells. TEM and Other Cells. GTEM Cells. Military EMI Requirements and Measurement Techniques. MIL-STD-461: Electromagnetic Emission and Susceptibility Requirements for the Control of EMI. MIL-STD-462: Measurement of EMI Characteristics. Test Plan and Test Procedures. Test Plan. Test Procedures. General Test Guidelines. Emission Tests. Susceptibility Tests. Typical EMI Receiver or S/A Bandwidths for MIL-STD-461 A-C. Determination of Either NB or BB (BB) Emissions. MIL-STD 461F Bandwidths and General Emission Guidelines. Measurement to Very Low-Level Radiated Emissions Limits, Typically in Notches for Receivers. MIL-STD-461A, B, and C EMI Measurements. Description of CE01 and CE03 Tests. MIL-STD 461F, CE101, and CE103. Description of MIL-STD 461B/C RE02 compared to MIL-STD-461E-G Electric Field Tests. Common Errors in RE02/RE102 Measurements. Description of MIL-STD 461B/C RE01, RE04, and MIL-STD 461E RE101 Magnetic Field Tests. RS03/ RS103 Radiated Susceptibility Test. Most Common Errors Incurred in Radiated Susceptibility Measurements. Description of MIL-STD 461B/ C RS101 and MIL-STD 461F RS101. Description of MIL-STD 461B/ C RS02. Description of CS01/CS101 and CS02 Tests. Description of CS06 Test. Most Common Errors Incurred in Conducted Susceptibility Measurements. RTCA/DO-160 Requirements. References. Chapter 10 System EMC and Antenna Coupling. System-Level Electromagnetic Compatibility. MIL-STD System-Level Requirements. General. MIL-STD-464. MIL-STD-1541A (USAF) EMC Requirements for Space Systems. Antenna-Coupled EMI. Antenna-to-Antenna Coupling. Measurement Techniques. Simple Equation for Shading. Measurements on the 1/10th-Scale Model. Measurements on the Full-Scale Aircraft. Measurements on the Aircraft with Flight Transmitters/Receivers and Antennas Installed. Aperture Coupling on an Aircraft. Desensitizing of Receivers by High-Power Transmitters. SIMOPS. Antenna-to-Antenna Coupling Mitigation Techniques. Absorber. Filters and an "In-Band" EMI Solution. Filters. In-Band EMI Solution. Limiters. RF Switch and Blanking. Delay and Phase-Shift Cancelation. Cable Attenuation. Antenna Coupling from Lightning. Scattering from Surfaces. Case Study 10.1: Hazardous Zone around a Transmitting Parabolic Reflector Antenna. General. Safety Limit. Calculation of the Hazardous Zone. Ambient Site Predictions and Surveys. Passive Intermodulation. Mitigation. Case Study 10.2: Electromagnetic Ambient Site Predictions and Site Surveys. Case Study 10.3: Coupling into HV AC Line from HF Phased-Array Radar. Prediction of Level of EMI. Method 1. References. Chapter 11 Printed Circuit Boards. Introduction. Principles of Radiation from Printed Circuit Boards. Low-Level Radiation PCB Layout: Test Data, Layout Comparison, and Recommendations. PCBs Tested. Summary of the Best and Worst PCB Configurations in the Differential Configuration. Common-Mode Current Flow on the PCBs. PCB Test Setup. PCB Layouts Tested. Basic PCB Description. PCB Dimensions and Trace Characteristic Impedance as Built. Microstrips. Striplines. Transmission Lines. Trace Dimensions and Impedances. Summary of Differential Configuration Results and Conclusions at Low Frequency. Trace Types. Measured Data and Detailed PCB Comparisons for the Differential PCB Configuration and Transmission Lines. Microstrip Comparison. Differential Trace Stripline Comparison. Transmission-Line Comparison. Adding a Cable. Summary of Single-Sided Signal PCB Configurations at Low Frequency and High Frequency. Measure Data and Detailed PCB Comparisons for Single-Sided Configurations. Microstrip with and without Attached Cable. Stripline Comparisons at Low Frequency. Single-Stripline Radiation Compared to Microstrip. How Much Better Is a Practical Stripline PCB Layout than a MicroStrip? Effect of Shielding the Connector and Load. Practical Striplines versus the Microstrip. Via Spacing. Practical PCB Layout. High-Frequency (1 GHz and above) Radiation from PCBS. Comparison of Logic Types. Circuit-Level Reduction Techniques. PCB Grounding. Common-Mode Voltage Developed across a PCB. "Good" and "Bad" PCB Ground Planes. Grounding a PCB within an Enclosure. Shielding a Printed Circuit Board. PCB Radiation, Cross-Talk Prediction, and CAD Programs. Using NEC to Predict Radiation Compared to Measurements. PCB Simulation and Test Setup. Modeling Techniques. Computer Programs Specifically for PCB and IC Radiation, Cross-Talk, Coupling, and SI Prediction. Program Comparison and Alternatives. Near-Field Measurements on PCBs. PCB Decoupling Capacitors, Imbedded Capacitance, and the EBG. PCB Layout Case Studies. Case Study 11.1: Grounding Analog and Digital Circuits Sharing the Same PCB. Case Study 11.2: Good Grounding Technique for a Video Circuit on a PCB. Case Study 11.3: Coupling between Digital Signals and an Analog Signal within the Analog-Shielded Section of a Board. Case Study 11.4: Out-of-Specification Radiated Emissions from Telephone Equipment. Circuit-Level EMC Modifications. PCB-Level Radiation Reduction. Increased Printed Circuit Board Immunity. Chapter 12 EMI and EMC Control, Case Studies, EMC Prediction Techniques, and Computational Electromagnetic Modeling. EMC Control. EMC Control Plans. EMC Control Program Plan. Quality Control. EMI Investigations 1059. Case Study 12.1: EMI Investigation into Intra-Equipment Susceptibility. Case Study 12.2: Reducing Radiated Emissions on a Computing Device to FCC Class A Limits. EMC Predictions: General Approach. Case Study 12.3: EMC Predictions for Meeting RTCA-DO. Requirements on an "A" Model Fiber-Optic Plotter. AC-Line Noise Current Measurement. AC-Line Filter Selection. Radiated Emissions Predictions. Case Study 12.4: EMC Predictions on a Power Controller. Fields Generated by the Internal 20-kHz Distribution System. Fields from Internally Generated Signals above 20 kHz. Radiated Emissions from Interconnecting Cables. Conducted Emissions. Susceptibility of Internal Circuitry to Internally Generated Fields (Cross Talk). Susceptibility of Internal Circuitry to Externally Generated Fields. Case Study 12.5: Antenna-to-Cable Coupling on the Space Shuttle (Orbiter). Shield Current. Common-Mode Interference Voltage. Compensation for Cable Resonances. Common-Mode Voltage. Conclusions. Case Study 12.6: Coupling from Radar to the Landing Control Signal on an Aircraft. Case Study 12.7: Coupling from an AM Transmitter to a Satellite Communication System. Case Study 12.8: Spurious Response in a Transmitter/Receiver. EMC, Computational Electromagnetic Modeling, and Field Solver Computer Programs. Simple Computer Programs. EMC Analysis Programs. The RS AnalystTM is a Radiated Susceptibility Program. CS Analyst Is a Conducted Susceptibility Program. CE AnalystTM Is a Conducted Emission Program. EMIT (An Antenna-to-Antenna Coupling Program). MOM, MLFMM, FEM, FEM-MOM, GO, PO, UTD, GTS, FEM, BEM, FDTD, PTD, GMT, TLM, FIT, CG-FFT, PEEC, Analytical Techniques. FEM Method. FDTD Method. FDFD Method. MOM or Boundary Element Method. MLFMM Method. PEEC Method. GMT Method. CGM Method. GTD Method. UTD Method. PO Method. GO Method. PTD Method. TLM Method. CG-FFT Method. MOM-FEM. Finite Element Method and Combined FEM/MOM Techniques. GMT. MMP. CGM. Computer Electromagnetic Codes. NEC. MININEC. MMANA-GAL basic. 4nec2. GreenMentor Graphics (formerly Zeland Software), Wilsonville California. GEMACS Hybrid Solution for Large, Complex Structures. FEKO. MefistoTM. APLAC. EZ-EMC. Penn State FDTD Code. EMAP5. Students’ Quickfield. HFSS. 3D MMP. InCa3D. ELECTRO 2D/RS. EMPIRE XPU. AN-SOF. EMA3D. CST Studio Suite. CST Microwave Studio (CST MWS). FEST3D. Wave3D. WIPL-D Pro. WIPL-D Time-Domain Solver. EmPro 3D Simulation Software. Field Precision LLC. Poynting MW. PAM-CAM/FD. CRIPTE. 3D/MTL Coupling. EM.TERRANO. 34 Efield®. EMA3D. RF MODULE. FASANT. Integrated Engineering Software. SINGULA. CHRONOS. Electrostatic, Magnetostatic, Low Frequency and Quasi-Static Field Analysis. MAXWELL 2D-3D. ANSYS/EMAG. Integrated Engineering Software. MAGNETO. ELECTRO 2D/RS. COULOMB. OERSTED. AMPERES. FARADAY. INDUCTO. FLUX. Infolytica. Errors Seen in the Use of Electromagnetic Analysis Programs. Appendix A: Characteristic Impedance of Conductors, Wires, and Cables. Appendix B: Units and Conversion Factors. Appendix C: Electric Field Strength to Magnetic Field to Power Density Conversions. Appendix D: Commonly Used Related Formulas. Appendix E: Data on Bare Solid Copper Wire (Dimensions, Weight, and Resistance). Appendix F: Permittivity of Materials.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
COM083000
COMPUTERS / Security / Cryptography
TEC008010
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / Circuits / General
TEC024000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Microwaves