Electromagnetic Compatibility in Medical Equipment: A Guide for Designers and Installers, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Electromagnetic Compatibility in Medical Equipment

A Guide for Designers and Installers, 1st Edition

By William D. Kimmel, Daryl Gerke

CRC Press

302 pages

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Hardback: 9780935184808
pub: 1995-10-01
$310.00
x
eBook (VitalSource) : 9780203758724
pub: 2018-02-06
from $155.00


FREE Standard Shipping!

Description

Co-published with the IEEE Press, this book is a practical, hands-on guide to EMC issues for medical device designers and installers. It addresses electromagnetic interference and covers the basics of EMC design, physics, and installation, minimizing theory and concentrating upon the correct way to ground and shield. Covering EMC from the inside out, the book provides the basics of electronics, discusses and evaluates problems and common causes, and explores effective remedial techniques at three levels: circuit, box, and interconnect. It contains appendices that provide important reference material such as constants and conversion factors.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

What are the Threats?

Sources, Paths, and Receptors

Summary

EMI STANDARDS FOR MEDICAL DEVICES

Emissions vs Immunity

The EU and the U.S.

The EU

U.S. Requirements

Summary

THE PHYSICS OF EMI

Source-Path-Receptor

The Nature of Interference

Interference is a Current

FAT-ID

Summary

COMPONENTS AND CIRCUITS

Passive Components

Transient Devices

Active Components

EMI Filter Design

Summary

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD DESIGN

Signal Integrity vs EMI

EMI Issues in Printed Circuit Boards

Digital Circuits

Analog Circuits

Where Analog Meets Digital

PCB Partitioning and Critical Circuits

PCB Construction

Multilayer Board Stackup

Isolated Planes

Two-Layer Board Techniques

Power Decoupling

Signal Traces

I/O Techniques

Board Shielding

Software

Summary

GROUNDING FOR EMI CONTROL

What is a Ground?

Different Types of Grounds

Microshock Hazards - A Special Medical Grounding Concern

What Makes a Good Ground?

Ground Topologies

Bonding Considerations

Grounding Design and Guidelines

Summary

POWER AND POWER FILTERING

Power Supplies

Switching Topologies

Interference in Power Supplies

Controlling Interference Generation

Immunity Protection

Filters

Summary

INTERCONNECT AND MOUNTING

Cables as Transmission Lines

Common Mode and Differential Mode on Cables

Cable Layout and Pinouts

Signal Bandwidth

Routing Your Cable

Designing an Enclosure

Summary

SHIELDING AND SHIELDING MATERIALS

The Physics of Shielding

Estimating the Impedance of a Source

Shielding Requirements

Shielding Materials

Where Shielding Fails

Gasketing

Perforations and Screens

Cable Penetrations

Grounding the Shield

How Much Shielding is Needed?

Partial Shields

Local Shields

Summary

CABLES AND CONNECTIONS

Cables as Antennas

Common Mode vs Differential Mode

Bandwidth

Classifying Cables

Cable Shielding and Connectors

Cable Terminations

Cable Design Recommendations

Summary

SPECIAL EMI PROBLEMS IN MEDICAL ELECTRONICS

High Energy Interference Sources

Electromechanical Devices

Radio Sources

Receiving Devices

Leakage Current Limitations

Coping with Internal Threats

Coping with External Threats

Summary

SYSTEMS CONSIDERATIONS

Identifying EMI Threats at the Site

Site Preparation

Maintaining Shielding Effectiveness

Troubleshooting in the Field

When System Fixes Will Not Work

Summary

Glossary

Appendix A: References for EMC Publications

Appendix B: Properties of Common Materials

Appendix C: Constants and Conversions

Appendix D: Miscellaneous Conversions

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC024000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Microwaves
TEC059000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Biomedical