Elements of Power Systems: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Elements of Power Systems

1st Edition

By Pradip Kumar Sadhu, Soumya Das

CRC Press

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
New in Paperback: 9781138893115
pub: 2017-07-26
Hardback: 9781498734462
pub: 2015-09-25
eBook (VitalSource) : 9780429183843
pub: 2015-09-18
from $34.98

FREE Standard Shipping!


Elements of Power Systems prepares students for engineering degrees, diplomas, Associate Member of the Institution of Engineers (AMIE) examinations, or corresponding examinations in electrical power systems. Complete with case studies, worked examples, and circuit schematic diagrams, this comprehensive text:

  • Provides a solid understanding of the theoretical aspects of power system engineering
  • Instills a practical knowledge of large-scale power system analysis techniques
  • Covers load characteristics, tariffs, power system stability, and more

Elements of Power Systems is designed as an undergraduate-level textbook, but the book also makes a handy reference for practicing power engineers.


"… a very good contribution that covers many aspects of power systems and components. … I strongly believe that this book will be interesting for students and professionals in electrical power engineering."

—Dr. Dipl.-Ing. M. Popov, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Netherlands

"… provides an important resource for engineers, instructors, applied researchers, and students in the field of power engineering. … This well-written book offers broad coverage of important issues, operating concepts, and control techniques commonly addressed in most textbooks regarding power systems."

—Dr. Chao-Tsung Ma, Department of Electrical Engineering, CEECS, National United University, Miaoli City, Taiwan

"… a very good choice as a complete reference for power systems. Readers will find it worthwhile for their collections and self-reading material."

—Prof. R. P. Maheshwari, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee

"This book offers a simplified and summarized presentation of the majority of topics related to electric power systems. Sadhu (Indian School of Mines) and Das (Burdwan Univ., India) review and briefly discuss the foundations of a particular area in each of the book's 20 chapters. The first four chapters are an overview of basic concepts and terminologies employed in power systems engineering. The next six chapters focus on power overhead transmission lines and underground cables. They also cover issues related to transmission lines, such as corona and electrical insulation. Electric power distribution systems, earthing, and substations are presented in separate chapters. The book goes on to discuss elements of power system protection, including relays, circuit breakers, and fault analysis. Concluding chapters deal with power system stability and load flow. The authors have reduced the mathematical and physical complexities that one may encounter in each of these topics as much as possible, allowing the general reader with some background in power systems to benefit from the book. The worked examples and end-of-chapter questions are very helpful for understanding the material."

—CHOICE, July 2016 Issue

Table of Contents



Significance of Electrical Energy

Basic Concepts of Power System

Single-Line Diagram of a Power Supply Network

Different Types of Energy Sources

Per-Unit Systems


Per-Unit Representation of Basic Electrical Quantities

Change of Base

Per-Unit Quantities in a Three-Phase System

Base Quantities in Terms of kV and MVA

Per-Unit Impedance of a Transformer

Advantages of pu Representation

Worked Examples

Load Characteristics



Variable Load

Connected Load


Demand Interval

Maximum Demand or Peak Load

Demand Factor

Average Load or Average Demand

Load Factor

Diversity Factor

Plant Capacity Factor

Plant Use Factor

Units Generated Per Annum

Loss Factor

Load Curves

Information Obtained From Load Curves

Load Duration Curve

Information Available From Load Duration Curve

Worked Examples



Objectives of Tariff

Desirable Characteristics of a Tariff

Types of Tariff

Worked Examples

Mechanical Design of Overhead Line


Conductor Material

Line Supports

Indian Electricity Rules (1956) for Overhead Lines

Sag in Overhead Lines

Calculation of Sag

Sag Template

Stringing Chart

Worked Examples

Overhead Line Insulators


Insulator Materials

Types of Insulators

Potential Distribution over Suspension Insulator String

String Efficiency

Mathematical Expression

Methods of Improving String Efficiency

Effects of Rain on the String Efficiency

Worked Examples



The Phenomenon of Corona

Theory of Corona Formation

Factors Affecting Corona

Advantages of Corona


Methods of Reducing Corona Effect

Critical Disruptive Voltage

Visual Critical Voltage

Power Loss Due to Corona

Radio Interference

Inductive Interference between Power and Communication Lines

Worked Examples

Transmission Line Parameters


Line Inductance

Flux Linkage Due to a Single Current-Carrying Conductor

Inductance of a Single-Phase Two-Wire Line

Flux Linkages of One Conductor in a Group of Conductors

Inductance of Three-Phase Overhead Line with Unsymmetrical Spacing

Inductance of Three-Phase Line with More than One Circuit


Potential at a Charged Single Conductor

System of Conductors

Capacitance of a Single-Phase Two-Wire Line

Capacitance of a Three-Phase Overhead Lines

Effect of Earth on the Transmission Line Capacitance

Bundled Conductor

Skin Effect

Proximity Effect

Worked Examples

Performance of Transmission Lines


Classification of Lines

Performance of Single-Phase Short Transmission Line

Short Three-Phase Line

Transmission Line as Two Port Network

Line Regulation

Line Efficiency

Performance of Medium Transmission Line

Calculation of Transmission Efficiency and Regulation of Medium Line

Long Transmission Line

Evaluation of ABCD Constants

Ferranti Effect

ABCD Constants

Worked Examples

Underground Cables


Insulating Materials for Cables

Construction of Cables

Classification of Cable

Cables for Three-Phase Service

Laying of Underground Cables

Insulation Resistance of a Single-Core Cable

Capacitance of a Single-Core Cable

Dielectric Stress in a Single-Core Cable

Most Economical Conductor Size in a Cable

Grading of Cables

Capacitance in a Three-Core-Belted Cable

Measurement of Cc and Cs

Current-Carrying Capacity

Thermal Resistance

Thermal Resistance of Dielectric of a Single-Core Cable

Types of Cable Faults

Loop Tests for Location of Faults in Underground Cables

Worked Examples

Distribution System


Classification of Distribution Systems

DC Distribution

Connection Schemes of Distribution System

Types of DC Distributors

DC Distribution Calculations

DC Distributor Fed at One End—Concentrated Loading

DC Distributor Fed at One End—Uniformly Loaded

Distributor Fed at Both Ends—Concentrated Loading

Distributor Fed at Both Ends—Uniformly Loaded

Ring Distributor

Ring Main Distributor with Interconnector

AC Distribution

AC Distribution Calculation

Methods of Solving AC Distribution Problems

Worked Examples

Fault Analysis


Classification of Faults

Symmetrical Component Method

Significance of Positive-, Negative-, and Zero-Sequence Components

Operator (a)

Voltage of the Neutral

Sequence Network Equations

Sequence Impedances of Power System Elements

Analysis of Unsymmetrical Faults

Single Line-to-Ground Fault (L-G)

Line-to-Line Fault

Double Line-to-Ground Fault

L-L-L Fault/Three-Phase Fault/Symmetrical Fault

Worked Examples

Circuit Breakers


Difference between CB and Fuse

Operating Principle of CB

Arc Phenomenon

Principles of Arc Extinction

Methods of Arc Extinction

Some Important Definitions

Expression for Restriking Voltage Transients

Current Chopping

Resistance Switching

CB Ratings


Classification of CBs

Oil CBs

Types of Oil CBs

Plain-Break Oil CBs

Arc Control Oil CBs

Low-Oil CBs

Maintenance of Oil CBs

Air-Blast CBs

Types of Air-Blast CB

Vacuum CBs


High-Voltage DC CB

Worked Examples

Different Types of Relays


Essential Qualities of Protection

Classification of Relay

Basic Relay Terminology

Zones of Protection

Primary and Backup Protection

Classification of Protective Scheme

Construction and Operating Principles of Relay

Overcurrent Protection

Time–Current Characteristics

Current Setting

Plug Setting Multiplier

Time Multiplier Setting

Overcurrent Protection Scheme

Directional Power or Reverse Power Relay

Directional Overcurrent Relay

Protection of Parallel Feeder

Protection of Ring Mains

Earth Fault Protection Scheme

Distance Protection Scheme

Impedance Relay

Reactance Relay

mho Type Distance Relay

Universal Torque Equation

Differential Relays

Simple Differential Relay

Percentage Differential Relay

Balanced Voltage Differential Relay

Translay Relay

Worked Examples

Protection of Alternator and Transformers


Protection of Alternators

Stator Protection

Rotor Protection


Transformer Protection

Percentage Differential Protection

Overheating Protection

Rate of Rise of Pressure Relay

Overcurrent Protection

Overfluxing Protection

Earth Fault Protection

Buchholz Relay

Generator-Transformer Unit Protection

Worked Examples

Travelling Wave


Surge Impedance and Velocity of Propagation

Reflection and Refraction of Waves

Receiving End Transmission Operating on No-Load Condition

Receiving End Operating on Short Circuit Condition

Reflection and Refraction at a T-Junction

Worked Examples



Objects of Earthing

Classification of Earthing

Isolated Neutral or Undergrounded Neutral

Advantages of Neutral Grounding

Methods of Neutral Grounding

Worked Examples




Classification of Substations

Comparison between Outdoor and Indoor Substations

Transformer Substations

Equipment in a Transformer Substation

Bus-Bar Arrangements in Substations

Key Diagram of 11 kV/400 V Indoor Substation

Power System Stability


Stability Limits and Power Transmission Capability

Infinite Bus

Synchronous Generator Connected to an Infinite Bus

Powers-Angle Curve

Power Angle Relations for General Network Configuration

Steady-State Stability Criterion

Transient Stability

Swing Equation

Swing Curves

M and H Constants

Equivalent System

Equivalent M Constant of Two Machines

Equal-Area Criterion of Stability

System Fault and Subsequent Circuit Isolation

Methods of Improving Stability

Worked Examples

Load Flows


Bus Classification

Bus Admittance Matrix

Development of Static Load Flow Equation

Gauss–Seidel Iterative Technique

GS Method of Solution of Load Flow Equation using Ybus

Newton–Raphson Method for Load Flow Solution

Comparison of Load Flow Analysis Methods

Worked Examples

About the Authors

Pradip Kumar Sadhu holds bachelor, post-graduate, and Ph.D degrees in electrical engineering from Jadavpur University, West Bengal, India. Dr. Sadhu has 18 years of experience in teaching and industry. Currently, he is a professor and head of the Electrical Engineering Department of the Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, where he has guided a large number of doctoral candidates and M.Tech students. He holds four patents, has been published in several national and international journals and conference proceedings, and is principal investigator of a number of government-funded projects.

Soumya Das holds a B.Tech from the West Bengal University of Technology and an ME from Jadavpur University, West Bengal, India. He is currently pursuing his Ph.D with the Department of Electrical Engineering at the Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad. He is also an assistant professor in the Electrical Engineering Department of the University Institute of Technology, Burdwan University, West Bengal, India, where he has guided a large number of B.Tech and M.Tech students. Previously, he was an assistant professor in the Electrical Engineering Department at the Bengal Institute of Technology and Management, Santiniketan, India.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Electrical