562 Pages
    by CRC Press

    562 Pages 260 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Elements of Power Systems prepares students for engineering degrees, diplomas, Associate Member of the Institution of Engineers (AMIE) examinations, or corresponding examinations in electrical power systems. Complete with case studies, worked examples, and circuit schematic diagrams, this comprehensive text:

    • Provides a solid understanding of the theoretical aspects of power system engineering
    • Instills a practical knowledge of large-scale power system analysis techniques
    • Covers load characteristics, tariffs, power system stability, and more

    Elements of Power Systems is designed as an undergraduate-level textbook, but the book also makes a handy reference for practicing power engineers.

    Significance of Electrical Energy
    Basic Concepts of Power System
    Single-Line Diagram of a Power Supply Network
    Different Types of Energy Sources

    Per-Unit Systems
    Per-Unit Representation of Basic Electrical Quantities
    Change of Base
    Per-Unit Quantities in a Three-Phase System
    Base Quantities in Terms of kV and MVA
    Per-Unit Impedance of a Transformer
    Advantages of pu Representation
    Worked Examples

    Load Characteristics
    Variable Load
    Connected Load
    Demand Interval
    Maximum Demand or Peak Load
    Demand Factor
    Average Load or Average Demand
    Load Factor
    Diversity Factor
    Plant Capacity Factor
    Plant Use Factor
    Units Generated Per Annum
    Loss Factor
    Load Curves
    Information Obtained From Load Curves
    Load Duration Curve
    Information Available From Load Duration Curve
    Worked Examples

    Objectives of Tariff
    Desirable Characteristics of a Tariff
    Types of Tariff
    Worked Examples

    Mechanical Design of Overhead Line
    Conductor Material
    Line Supports
    Indian Electricity Rules (1956) for Overhead Lines
    Sag in Overhead Lines
    Calculation of Sag
    Sag Template
    Stringing Chart
    Worked Examples

    Overhead Line Insulators
    Insulator Materials
    Types of Insulators
    Potential Distribution over Suspension Insulator String
    String Efficiency
    Mathematical Expression
    Methods of Improving String Efficiency
    Effects of Rain on the String Efficiency
    Worked Examples

    The Phenomenon of Corona
    Theory of Corona Formation
    Factors Affecting Corona
    Advantages of Corona
    Methods of Reducing Corona Effect
    Critical Disruptive Voltage
    Visual Critical Voltage
    Power Loss Due to Corona
    Radio Interference
    Inductive Interference between Power and Communication Lines
    Worked Examples

    Transmission Line Parameters
    Line Inductance
    Flux Linkage Due to a Single Current-Carrying Conductor
    Inductance of a Single-Phase Two-Wire Line
    Flux Linkages of One Conductor in a Group of Conductors
    Inductance of Three-Phase Overhead Line with Unsymmetrical Spacing
    Inductance of Three-Phase Line with More than One Circuit
    Potential at a Charged Single Conductor
    System of Conductors
    Capacitance of a Single-Phase Two-Wire Line
    Capacitance of a Three-Phase Overhead Lines
    Effect of Earth on the Transmission Line Capacitance
    Bundled Conductor
    Skin Effect
    Proximity Effect
    Worked Examples

    Performance of Transmission Lines
    Classification of Lines
    Performance of Single-Phase Short Transmission Line
    Short Three-Phase Line
    Transmission Line as Two Port Network
    Line Regulation
    Line Efficiency
    Performance of Medium Transmission Line
    Calculation of Transmission Efficiency and Regulation of Medium Line
    Long Transmission Line
    Evaluation of ABCD Constants
    Ferranti Effect
    ABCD Constants
    Worked Examples

    Underground Cables
    Insulating Materials for Cables
    Construction of Cables
    Classification of Cable
    Cables for Three-Phase Service
    Laying of Underground Cables
    Insulation Resistance of a Single-Core Cable
    Capacitance of a Single-Core Cable
    Dielectric Stress in a Single-Core Cable
    Most Economical Conductor Size in a Cable
    Grading of Cables
    Capacitance in a Three-Core-Belted Cable
    Measurement of Cc and Cs
    Current-Carrying Capacity
    Thermal Resistance
    Thermal Resistance of Dielectric of a Single-Core Cable
    Types of Cable Faults
    Loop Tests for Location of Faults in Underground Cables
    Worked Examples

    Distribution System
    Classification of Distribution Systems
    DC Distribution
    Connection Schemes of Distribution System
    Types of DC Distributors
    DC Distribution Calculations
    DC Distributor Fed at One End—Concentrated Loading
    DC Distributor Fed at One End—Uniformly Loaded
    Distributor Fed at Both Ends—Concentrated Loading
    Distributor Fed at Both Ends—Uniformly Loaded
    Ring Distributor
    Ring Main Distributor with Interconnector
    AC Distribution
    AC Distribution Calculation
    Methods of Solving AC Distribution Problems
    Worked Examples

    Fault Analysis
    Classification of Faults
    Symmetrical Component Method
    Significance of Positive-, Negative-, and Zero-Sequence Components
    Operator (a)
    Voltage of the Neutral
    Sequence Network Equations
    Sequence Impedances of Power System Elements
    Analysis of Unsymmetrical Faults
    Single Line-to-Ground Fault (L-G)
    Line-to-Line Fault
    Double Line-to-Ground Fault
    L-L-L Fault/Three-Phase Fault/Symmetrical Fault
    Worked Examples

    Circuit Breakers
    Difference between CB and Fuse
    Operating Principle of CB
    Arc Phenomenon
    Principles of Arc Extinction
    Methods of Arc Extinction
    Some Important Definitions
    Expression for Restriking Voltage Transients
    Current Chopping
    Resistance Switching
    CB Ratings
    Classification of CBs
    Oil CBs
    Types of Oil CBs
    Plain-Break Oil CBs
    Arc Control Oil CBs
    Low-Oil CBs
    Maintenance of Oil CBs
    Air-Blast CBs
    Types of Air-Blast CB
    Vacuum CBs
    SF6 CBs
    High-Voltage DC CB
    Worked Examples

    Different Types of Relays
    Essential Qualities of Protection
    Classification of Relay
    Basic Relay Terminology
    Zones of Protection
    Primary and Backup Protection
    Classification of Protective Scheme
    Construction and Operating Principles of Relay
    Overcurrent Protection
    Time–Current Characteristics
    Current Setting
    Plug Setting Multiplier
    Time Multiplier Setting
    Overcurrent Protection Scheme
    Directional Power or Reverse Power Relay
    Directional Overcurrent Relay
    Protection of Parallel Feeder
    Protection of Ring Mains
    Earth Fault Protection Scheme
    Distance Protection Scheme
    Impedance Relay
    Reactance Relay
    mho Type Distance Relay
    Universal Torque Equation
    Differential Relays
    Simple Differential Relay
    Percentage Differential Relay
    Balanced Voltage Differential Relay
    Translay Relay
    Worked Examples

    Protection of Alternator and Transformers
    Protection of Alternators
    Stator Protection
    Rotor Protection
    Transformer Protection
    Percentage Differential Protection
    Overheating Protection
    Rate of Rise of Pressure Relay
    Overcurrent Protection
    Overfluxing Protection
    Earth Fault Protection
    Buchholz Relay
    Generator-Transformer Unit Protection
    Worked Examples

    Travelling Wave
    Surge Impedance and Velocity of Propagation
    Reflection and Refraction of Waves
    Receiving End Transmission Operating on No-Load Condition
    Receiving End Operating on Short Circuit Condition
    Reflection and Refraction at a T-Junction
    Worked Examples

    Objects of Earthing
    Classification of Earthing
    Isolated Neutral or Undergrounded Neutral
    Advantages of Neutral Grounding
    Methods of Neutral Grounding
    Worked Examples

    Classification of Substations
    Comparison between Outdoor and Indoor Substations
    Transformer Substations
    Equipment in a Transformer Substation
    Bus-Bar Arrangements in Substations
    Key Diagram of 11 kV/400 V Indoor Substation

    Power System Stability
    Stability Limits and Power Transmission Capability
    Infinite Bus
    Synchronous Generator Connected to an Infinite Bus
    Powers-Angle Curve
    Power Angle Relations for General Network Configuration
    Steady-State Stability Criterion
    Transient Stability
    Swing Equation
    Swing Curves
    M and H Constants
    Equivalent System
    Equivalent M Constant of Two Machines
    Equal-Area Criterion of Stability
    System Fault and Subsequent Circuit Isolation
    Methods of Improving Stability
    Worked Examples

    Load Flows
    Bus Classification
    Bus Admittance Matrix
    Development of Static Load Flow Equation
    Gauss–Seidel Iterative Technique
    GS Method of Solution of Load Flow Equation using Ybus
    Newton–Raphson Method for Load Flow Solution
    Comparison of Load Flow Analysis Methods
    Worked Examples


    Pradip Kumar Sadhu holds bachelor, post-graduate, and Ph.D degrees in electrical engineering from Jadavpur University, West Bengal, India. Dr. Sadhu has 18 years of experience in teaching and industry. Currently, he is a professor and head of the Electrical Engineering Department of the Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, where he has guided a large number of doctoral candidates and M.Tech students. He holds four patents, has been published in several national and international journals and conference proceedings, and is principal investigator of a number of government-funded projects.

    Soumya Das holds a B.Tech from the West Bengal University of Technology and an ME from Jadavpur University, West Bengal, India. He is currently pursuing his Ph.D with the Department of Electrical Engineering at the Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad. He is also an assistant professor in the Electrical Engineering Department of the University Institute of Technology, Burdwan University, West Bengal, India, where he has guided a large number of B.Tech and M.Tech students. Previously, he was an assistant professor in the Electrical Engineering Department at the Bengal Institute of Technology and Management, Santiniketan, India.

    "… a very good contribution that covers many aspects of power systems and components. … I strongly believe that this book will be interesting for students and professionals in electrical power engineering."
    —Dr. Dipl.-Ing. M. Popov, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Netherlands

    "… provides an important resource for engineers, instructors, applied researchers, and students in the field of power engineering. … This well-written book offers broad coverage of important issues, operating concepts, and control techniques commonly addressed in most textbooks regarding power systems."
    —Dr. Chao-Tsung Ma, Department of Electrical Engineering, CEECS, National United University, Miaoli City, Taiwan

    "... a very good choice as a complete reference for power systems. Readers will find it worthwhile for their collections and self-reading material."
    —Prof. R. P. Maheshwari, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee

    "This book offers a simplified and summarized presentation of the majority of topics related to electric power systems. Sadhu (Indian School of Mines) and Das (Burdwan Univ., India) review and briefly discuss the foundations of a particular area in each of the book's 20 chapters. The first four chapters are an overview of basic concepts and terminologies employed in power systems engineering. The next six chapters focus on power overhead transmission lines and underground cables. They also cover issues related to transmission lines, such as corona and electrical insulation. Electric power distribution systems, earthing, and substations are presented in separate chapters. The book goes on to discuss elements of power system protection, including relays, circuit breakers, and fault analysis. Concluding chapters deal with power system stability and load flow. The authors have reduced the mathematical and physical complexities that one may encounter in each of these topics as much as possible, allowing the general reader with some background in power systems to benefit from the book. The worked examples and end-of-chapter questions are very helpful for understanding the material."
    —CHOICE, July 2016 Issue