Water management challenges in many basins of Sub-Saharan Africa are increasing due to rapid urbanisation, poverty and food insecurity, energy demands, and climate change. These challenges put additional demands on existing water institutions, and their capacity to reconcile competing claims. In addition to supply augmentation measures, solving water competition and conflict requires crafting new governance arrangements that can ensure equitable and sustainable use of the limited water resources.
This book discusses how instead of harmony, state intervention in the water sector appears to generate dissonance at the interface with locally evolved water institutions. The book describes and analyses how local level innovation in institutional arrangements for water sharing often emerged around the creation of hydraulic property and/or is negotiated to secure more water flow for downstream users. Unlike most research on collective action in which water asymmetry, inequality and heterogeneity are seen as risks to collective action, the book discusses how they instead dynamically interact and give rise to interdependencies between water users which facilitate coordination and collective action.
The book describes in detail cooperative arrangements as well as conflicts between large- and small-scale irrigation farmers, as well as between irrigation farmers and cities in an African context.
The book makes a novel contribution to existing theories and concepts related to catchment water management. It expands the typology of basin actors’ responses by explicitly introducing a meso layer which depicts the interface where state-led and local-level initiatives and responses are played out. The book also provides conceptual clarity on the dynamics between water asymmetry, inequality in access to land, and heterogeneity sustaining collective action over common pool resources. It further shows that not all the eight institutional design principles proposed by Ostrom (1993) are necessary for a water institution to be effective and to endure over time.
2 Pangani River Basin over time and space: on the interface of local and basin level responses
3 Formalisation of water allocation systems and impacts on local practices in Hingilili sub-catchment, Tanzania
4 Polycentrism and pitfalls - the formation of water users' forums in Kikuletwa catchment, Tanzania
5 The last will be the first: water transfers from agriculture to cities in the Pangani river basin, Tanzania
6 The dynamics between water asymmetry, inequality and heterogeneity sustaining canal institutions in the Makanya catchment, Tanzania
7 Understanding the emergence and functioning of river committees in a catchment of the Pangani basin, Tanzania
8 The role of statutory and local rules in allocating water between large and small-scale irrigators in an African river catchment
9 A game theoretic analysis of evolution of cooperation in small-scale irrigation canal system
10 Discussion and conclusions: the emergence and evolution of water institutions
IHE Delft PhD programme leads to a deepening of a field of specialisation. PhD fellows do scientific research, often with conclusions that directly influence their region. At IHE Delft, PhD researchers from around the world participate in problem-focused and solution-oriented research on development issues, resulting in an inspiring research environment. PhD fellows work together with other researchers from many countries dealing with topics related to water and the environment.
PhD research is often carried out in the ‘sandwich’ model. Preparation and final reporting – the first and last portion of the programme – are carried out in Delft, while actual research is done in the fellow’s home country, under co-supervision of a local institute. Regular contacts with the promotor are maintained through visits and long-distance communication. This enables researchers to employ solutions directly to problems in their geographical region.
IHE Delft PhD degrees are awarded jointly with a university. The degrees are highly valued and fully recognised in all parts of the world.