Encyclopedia of Agricultural, Food, and Biological Engineering - 2 Volume Set (Print Version): 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Encyclopedia of Agricultural, Food, and Biological Engineering - 2 Volume Set (Print Version)

2nd Edition

Edited by Dennis R. Heldman, Carmen I. Moraru

CRC Press

2,114 pages | 375 B/W Illus.

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Hardback: 9781439811115
pub: 2010-10-21

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The Definitive Reference for Food Scientists & Engineers

The Second Edition of the Encyclopedia of Agricultural, Food, and Biological Engineering focuses on the processes used to produce raw agricultural materials and convert the raw materials into consumer products for distribution. It provides an improved understanding of the processes used in the production and manufacture of consumer products of agricultural origin. With more than 400 entries, the encyclopedia examines the processes used to convert raw materials info safe, convenient, and nutritious foods as well as the many other consumer products manufactured from raw agricultural materials. In addition to completely new entries based on new developments in the field, this second edition provides updates to existing entries.

  • Applies engineering concepts and principles to production agriculture, including the design of machinery and structures used and the management of water required for these operations
  • Gives specific attention to crop production, including the harvesting, storage, and handling of major and minor crops
  • Focuses on animal production, including all aspects requiring engineering inputs
  • Covers food handling, storage, processing, packaging, and distribution, with specific emphasis on the design of facilities, equipment, and processes needed to deliver safe and high-quality food products to the consumer
  • Addresses unique processes associated with the preservation of foods, using thermal processes, refrigeration, dehydration, and similar processes
  • Explores the more basic engineering concepts associated with biological systems
  • Presents the common fundamentals that have evolved with other biological systems, including those in the environment and in humans

The encyclopedia emphasizes the significant role of engineering in the development and design of the processes and equipment for the production and manufacturing of products of agricultural origin. The entries expand on the original concepts and introduce many new topics based on the evolution of developments in agricultural production, the conversion of raw materials into food products and the biological processes used throughout the system. The second edition continues to address critical components of a system with the capacity to deliver food and other consumer products to an expanding world population. This encyclopedia provides the knowledge necessary for readers to contribute to the safety and nutrition of the global food supply as well as the other products that contribute to a quality of life for consumers.


This Taylor & Francis encyclopedia is also available through online subscription, offering a variety of extra benefits for both researchers, students, and librarians, including:

  • Citation tracking and alerts
  • Active reference linking
  • Saved searches and marked lists
  • HTML and PDF format options
  • Contact Taylor and Francis for more information or to inquire about subscription options and print/online combination packages.

    US: (Tel) 1.888.318.2367; (E-mail) e-reference@taylorandfrancis.com

    International: (Tel) +44 (0) 20 7017 6062; (E-mail) online.sales@tandf.co.uk

    Dennis R. Heldman speaks about his book on the CRC Press YouTube Channel.


    The scope has expanded to include new processes developed at the micro- and nanoscales, applications of new sensory technologies, and sustainability issues related to food and agricultural security. Readers do not need extensive technical backgrounds in order to understand the articles, written by experts from around the world. Useful illustrations, graphs, and formulas continue to enhance the narrative entries. In addition to an excellent index and alphabetical table of contents, a topical table of contents groups articles across both volumes under agricultural, biological, and food engineering taxonomies. … Summing Up: Recommended. Lower-level undergraduates and above; general readers.

    —K.L. Carriveau Jr., Baylor University, in CHOICE, July 2011, Vol.48, No.11

    The concept of a reference on this field of engineering is an important step in recognizing the importance of not only engineers but all scientists in the food and agricultural industries.

    —John J. Classen, Professor of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, USA

    … a valuable resource [for] any library in our field.

    —Mark R. McLellan, Professor and Director, Institute of Food Science and Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA

    … covers a wide ranging set of technical topics and contemporary perspectives.

    —Bernard Y. Tao, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA

    … one of the best encyclopedias I have seen in the area of agricultural, food and biological engineering. Dr. Heldman is to be commended.

    —Daryl Lund, Professor of Food Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA

    … an exhaustive, in-depth and professionally thorough resource.

    MBR: Internet Bookwatch

    This is the first publication to bring together authoritative information in this discipline … highly recommended.


    … articles are carefully written and peer-reviewed … this title fills an existing need. I would recommend it to public, academic, special libraries with programs in agriculture, engineering, and food science.


    Table of Contents

    Activation Energy in Thermal Process Calculations

    Morales-Blancas; Elton F.; Torres, J. Antonio

    Active Packaging

    de Kruijf, N.; van Beest, M. D.

    Aerobic Reactions

    Demirci, Ali

    Agricultural Engineering History

    Isaacs, Gerald W.

    Agricultural Implements

    Agness, Jay B.

    Agricultural Infotronic Systems

    Zhang, Qin

    Airflow Measurement

    Fox, Robert D.; Derksen, Richard C.

    Anaerobic Reactions

    Yang, Shang-Tian; Zhu, Ying

    Animal Structures: Air Quality

    Jacobson, Larry D.

    Animal Waste Management

    Burns, R. T.; Raman, D. Raj

    Animal Waste Treatment

    Burns, R. T.; Raman, D. Raj

    Animal Waste Utilization

    Burns, R. T.; Raman, D. Raj

    Applications of Numerical Analysis to High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing

    Hartmann, Christoph

    Applications of Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensors in Food Science

    Marchesseau, S.; Dupont, D.

    Applications of Time–Temperature Integrators to Thermal Processing of Foods

    Tucker, Gary

    Aquacultural Harvesting Systems

    Wheaton, Fred

    Aquacultural Product Storage Systems

    Wang, Jaw-Kai

    Aquacultural Production Systems

    Piedrahita, Raul H.

    Atmospheric Non-Equilibrium Plasma

    Keener, Kevin M.

    Batch Process Control

    Macaloney, Graeme; Montague, Gary A.

    Bernouilli Equation

    Osorio, Fernando A.

    Biodegradation Waste Treatment

    Álvarez, Pedro M.; Beltrán, Fernando J., García-Araya, Juan F.

    Biofilms in Food Processing

    Frank, Joseph F.

    Biological Engineering Definition

    Dooley, James H.

    Biological Engineering Evolution

    Verma, Brahm P.

    Biological Engineering History

    Loewer, Otto J.

    Biological Reaction Kinetics

    Lima, Marybeth

    Bioluminescence Sensors in Food Processing

    Lo, Y. Martin; Wang, Jing; Lala, Geeta

    Biomass Energy

    Williams, Douglas W.

    Biomass Harvesting Systems

    Larson, Dennis L.

    Biomass Production Systems

    Jenkins, B. M.

    Biomass Transport Systems

    Badger, Phillip C.

    Bioprocess Residence Time Distribution

    Su, Wei Wen

    Bioreactor Landfills

    Hughes, Kerry L.; Christy, Ann D.


    Bajpai, Rakesh; Kim, Joong; Qasim, Mohamed


    De Corcuera, José I. Reyes; Cavalieri, Ralph P.

    Biosensors for Pathogen Detection in Food

    Subramanian, Anand; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    Biosensors: Harnessing Biology for the Detection of Biological Agents

    Rickus, Jenna L.

    Bioseparation of Proteins Expressed in Plant/Animal Products

    Woodard, Susan L.; Nikolov, Zivko

    Biot Number

    Hsu, Chuan-liang

    Blanching of Foods

    De Corcuera, José I. Reyes; Cavalieri, Ralph P.; Powers, Joseph R.


    Bhatnagar, Sandeep; Hanna, Milford A.


    Waller, Peter M.

    CIP of Solids Handling Equipment

    Trinh, Khanh Tuoc

    Cleaning Chemistry and Physics

    Fryer, Peter; Christian, Grace

    Cohesive and Adhesive Forces during Cleaning

    Christian, Grace; Fryer, Peter

    Colloidal Interactions and Stability of Food Dispersions

    Narsimhan, Ganesan; Wang, Zebin

    Commercial Sterilization Systems

    Hardt-English, Pamela K.

    Concentration Using Osmotic Evaporation

    Rodrigues, R. B.; Cabral, L. M. C.; Menezes, H. C.; Matta, V. M.; Dornier, M.

    Continuous Process Control

    Li, Yanbin

    Continuous Processing of Agricultural-Based Films

    Kozempel, Michael F.; Tomasula, Peggy M.

    Controlled Atmosphere Storage

    Raghavan, G. S. V.; Gariépy, Y.; Vigneault, C.

    Controlled Environment Agriculture/Greenhouse Production

    oth, A. J.

    Convection Heat Transfer in Foods

    McKenna, Brian M.

    Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients

    Delgado, Adriana E.; Sun, Da-Wen

    Convective Heat Transfer in Porous Materials

    Ranjan, Rakesh; Reddy, J. N.

    Cooling Tunnels

    Taylor, Timothy A.; Kramer, Heather L.

    Corn Processing for Ethanol Production

    Rausch, Kent D.; Belyea, Ronald L.; Singh, Vijay; Tumbleson, M. E.

    Cutting Time Prediction Methods in Cheese Making

    Castillo, Manuel

    Dairy Production Systems

    Bickert, William G.

    Decimal Reduction Times

    Davidson, P. Michael; Weiss, Jochen

    Deep-Fat Frying

    Moreira, Rosana G.

    Dehydration Process Energy Balances

    Guu, Yuan-Kuang

    Dehydration System Design

    Lazarides, Harris N.

    Dew Point Temperature

    Roberts, John S.

    Dielectric Sensing of Salt Concentrations

    Fagan, C. C.; O’Donnell, C. P.

    Diesel Engine Emission Control

    Wang, Xinlei

    Diesel Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Technologies

    Wang, Xinlei

    Diffusion of Antimicrobials

    Carnet-Pantiez, Anne

    Distillation System Design

    Krokida, M.; Gekas, V.; Maroulis, Z. B.

    Drainage Materials

    Zimmerman, Tommy L.

    Drip Irrigation

    Thompson, Allen L.

    Drum Drying

    Tang, Juming; Feng, Hao; Shen, Guo-Qi

    Dry Air Properties

    Shilton, Nicholas

    Dry Bulb Temperature

    Sokhansanj, Shahab

    Dry Food Transport

    Muthukumarappan, K.

    Drying of Air

    Courtois, Francis

    Drying Theory

    Yang, Wade; Siebenmorgen, Terry J.

    Drying Time Prediction

    Kerkhof, Piet J. A. M.

    Electrical Conductivity of Foods

    Vicente, António A.


    Vidal-Broto´ns, D.; Fito, P.; Gras, M.


    Reznik, David

    Enhancement of Mass Transfer Using Alternating Electric Fields

    Samprovalaki, Konstantina; Fryer, Peter

    Enhancing of Dehydration Using Pulsed Electric Field

    Vorobiev, Eugène

    Enzyme Immobilization Process for Hydrolysis Reactions

    Chen, Xiao Dong

    Enzyme Kinetics

    Riley, Mark R.

    Equilibrium Moisture Content

    Jayas, Digvir S.

    Equilibrium Moisture Contents of Food

    Iglesias, Héctor A.


    Fasina, Oladiran O.


    Hatfield, J. L.; Prueger, J. H.

    Extensional Rheology

    Padmanabhan, Mahesh

    Extraction System Design

    Erickson, Larry

    Extrudate Rheology

    Faller, James; Unlu, Emine

    Extruder Power Requirements

    Hsieh, Fu-hung

    Extrusion Cooking of Legumes: Dry Bean Flours

    Berrios, Jose De J.

    Extrusion System Components

    Fang, Qi; Hanna, Milford A.; Lan, Yubin

    Extrusion System Design

    Fang, Qi; Hanna, Milford A.; Lan, Yubin

    Extrusion System Residence Time Distribution

    Levine, Leon; Miller, Robert C.

    Fermentation Process Material and Energy Balances

    Boudrant, Joseph

    Fermentation Residence Time Distributions

    Cuello, Joel L.; Ono, Eiichi

    Fiber-Optic Measurement Systems: Microwave and Radio Frequency Heating Applications

    Tang, Juming


    Raghavan, G. S. V.; Sanga, E. C. M.

    Fine Wet Milling: Developments

    Anderson, Scott

    Flexible Packaging

    Shellhammer, Thomas H.

    Flow Measurement

    Meyer, George E.; Brand, Rhonda M.; DeBerg, Gary

    Fluid Flow in Porous Materials: Numerical Aspects

    Ranjan, Rakesh

    Fluid Flow in Porous Materials: Transient Solutions

    Ranjan, Rakesh

    Food Engineering Education

    Silva, Juan L.; Kim, Taejo

    Food Engineering History

    Farkas, Daniel F.

    Food Freezing History

    Heldman, Dennis R.; Nesvadba, Paul

    Food Processing Plant Design

    Clark, J. Peter

    Food Texture

    Bourne, Malcolm C.

    Forage Harvesting Systems

    Buckmaster, Dennis R.

    Forage Production Systems—Machine Design

    Koegel, Richard G.

    Forage Storage Systems

    Muck, Richard E.

    Forage Transport Systems

    Straub, Richard J.

    Forest Harvesting Systems

    Brinker, Richard W.

    Forest Products Transport Systems

    Davis, Craig J.

    Fossil Fuel Energy

    Walker, Joel T.

    Fouling Phenomena Using Hot Wire Methods

    Fillaudeau, L.

    Fractal Geometry and Natural Sciences Applications

    Santacruz-Vázquez, Veronica; Santacruz-Vázquez, Claudia; Chanona-Perez, J.; Alamilla-Beltrán, Liliana; Welti-Chanes, J.; Gutierrez-Lopez, Gustavo

    Fractal Theory Applied to Food Science

    Santacruz-Vázquez, Claudia; Santacruz-Vázquez, Verónica; Chanona-Perez, J.; Jaramillo-Flores, Ma. Eugenia; Welti-Chanes, J.; Gutierrez-Lopez, Gustavo

    Freeze Concentration

    Miyawaki, Osato

    Freeze Drying

    Araki, Tetsuya; Sagara, Yasuyuki

    Freezing System Design

    Hung, Yen-Con

    Freezing Time Calculations

    Cleland, D. J.


    Castell-Perez, Maria Elena

    Frozen Food Enthalpy

    van Sleeuwen, Rutger M. T.; Heldman, Dennis R.

    Frozen Food Properties

    Nesvadba, Paul

    Frozen Food Thawing

    Kolbe, Edward

    Frozen Foods Shelf Life

    Reid, David S.

    Fruit Juice Packaging

    Abadio, Fernanda Dias Bartolomeu

    Fruit Storage Systems

    Hellickson, Martin L.

    Fruit Transport System

    Tao, Yang

    Gas Exchange Properties of Foods

    Nicolaï, Bart M.; Hertog, Maarten L. A. T. M.; Ho, Quang T.; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Verboven, Pieter; Verlinden, Bert E.

    Gas Phase Kinetics

    Richard, Tom L.

    Glass Containers

    Barron, Felix H.; Burcham, Joel D.

    Glass Transition Temperatures

    Roos, Yrjö H.

    Global Positioning Systems

    Casady, William W.; Adamchuk, Viacheslav I.

    Grain Harvesting Systems

    Casady, William W.

    Grain Production Systems

    Hanna, H. Mark

    Grashof Number

    Karwe, Mukund V.; Deo, Indrani

    Heat Exchangers for Liquid Foods

    Athanasopoulos, Pete E.

    Heat Transfer

    Keener, Kevin M.

    Heating and Cooling in Agitated Vessels

    Mittal, Gauri S.

    Heating and Cooling Lag Constants

    Stoforos, Nikolaos G.

    Heating of Air

    Góngora-Nieto, M. Marcela; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V.

    High Pressure Food Preservation

    Balasubramaniam, V. M.

    High Pressure Injection Technologies

    Hansen, Conly L.

    High Pressure Supported Thawing of Plant Tissue

    Schlüter, Oliver; Knorr, Dietrich

    High-Pressure Treatment of Food Packaging

    López-Rubio, Amparo; Lagarón, J. M.; Catalá, R.; Gavara, R.

    Homeostasis in Animal Environment

    Albright, Louis

    Human Factors and Ergonomics

    Baker, L. Dale

    Hydrology in Drainage Systems

    Parsons, John E.

    Ice Crystal Kinetics

    Boonsupthip, Waraporn; Lee, Tung-Ching

    Image Analysis

    Hatem, Iyad; Tan, Jinglu

    Indirect Contact Freezing Systems

    Scott, Elaine P.

    Intelligent Packaging

    Rodrigues, Evangelina T.; Han, J. H.

    Ionizing Irradiation, Treatment of Food

    Thayer, Donald W.

    Irreversible Protein Aggregation: Principles and Rationale for Common Stabilization Strategies

    Roberts, Christopher J.

    Irrigation System Components

    Evans, Robert G.

    Irrigation System Efficiency

    Yoder, R. E.

    Irrigation System Operations

    Ayars, James E.

    Irrigation Water Requirements

    Barnes, Edward M.; Hunsaker, Douglas J.

    Kinetic Response of Time–Temperature Integrators for Applications in Food Processing

    Guiavarc'h, Yann P.; Van Loey, Ann M.; Claeys, Wendie; Hendrickx, Marc E.

    Kinetics of Soil Removal During Cleaning

    Nakanishi, Kazuhiro; Sakiyama, Takaharu; Imamura, Koreyoshi

    Laminar Flow

    Belkacemi, K.; Arul, J.

    Light Backscatter Sensor Applications in Milk Coagulation

    Payne, Fred A.; Castillo, Manuel

    Liquid Food Transport

    Sandeep, K. P.

    Machine Area Networks

    Zhang, Qin

    Machine Vision in Precision Agriculture

    Dickson, Monte; Reid, John F.

    Magnetic Field Applications to Foods

    Martín, Fernanda San; Harte, Federico; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V.; Swanson, Barry G.

    Managing Aquatic Systems at the Watershed Scale

    Matlock, Marty D.; Morgan, Robert A.; Haggard, Brian E.; Chaubey, Indrajeet

    Mass Transfer in Biological Membranes

    Johnson, Arthur T.

    Mass Transfer, Steady-State

    Moreira, Rosana G.

    Measurement of Drying Kinetics

    Clemente, Gabriela; Bon, José; Mulet, Antonio

    Measurement of Effective Moisture Diffusivity

    Trujillo, Francisco Javier

    Mechanical Energy Balance

    Zhao, Yanyun

    Mechanical Recompression

    Kerr, William

    Mechanical Separation Systems Design

    Clark, J. Peter

    Membrane Concentration Systems

    Cheryan, Munir

    Membrane Separation Mass Transfer

    Vidal-Broto´ns, D.; Fito, P.; Gras, M.

    Membrane Separation System Design

    Liu, Sean X.

    Membrane Structure

    Ziegler, Gregory R.

    Membrane System Operation

    Vidal-Broto´ns, D.; Fito, P.; Gras, M.

    Membrane Transport Models

    Matsuura, Takeshi

    Metabolic Engineering of Bacteria

    Murarka, Abhishek; Gonzalez, Ramon

    Metal Containers

    Barron, Felix H.; Burcham, Joel D.

    Microbial Genetics

    Stark, Benjamin C.

    Microbial Growth Modeling

    Schaffner, Donald W.

    Microbial Metabolism

    Smerage, Glen H.; Teixeira, Arthur A.

    Microbial Population Dynamics

    Teixeira, Arthur A.; Smerage, Glen H.

    Microencapsulation Systems with Emphasis on Successful Applications in Foods

    Weiss, Jochen; Vladisavljevic, Goran


    Vidal-Broto´ns, D.; Fito, P.; Gras, M.

    Microwave Food Preservation

    Datta, Ashim K.

    Microwave Modification of Wood Properties

    Brodie, Graham

    Milk Pasteurization with Pulsed Electric Fields

    Ortega-Rivas, Enrique

    Minimal Processing Using High Pressure

    Butz, Peter

    Mixing of Air

    Li, Yanbin

    Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    Brody, Aaron L.

    Moisture and Humidity Control in Refrigerated Storage

    Cleland, Donald J.

    Moisture Content Measurement

    Bern, Carl J.; Brumm, Thomas

    Moisture Sorption Isotherms

    Aguilera, José Miguel

    Multiple-Effect Evaporators

    Bakshi, Amarjit S.

    Multispectral Imaging Technology for Site-Specific Crop Fertilization

    Kim, Yunseop; Reid, John F.

    Nanoparticle Risk Assessment

    Cummins, Enda

    Nanoscale Biology: Engineering Applications

    Bhalerao, Kaustubh; Nistala, Goutam

    Nanoscale Prion Detection Strategies

    Dhruv, Harshil; Turner, Nicholas; Britt, David; Britt, David

    Natural Convection

    Hahn, John J.; Jacoby, William A.

    Neural Networks

    Chao, K.; Ting, K. C.

    New Applications in Food Irradiation

    Niemira, Brendan A.; Sommers, Christopher H.

    Newtonian Models

    Chamberlain, Ellen K.

    NIR Chemical Imaging for the Food Industry

    Taghizadeh, Masoud; Gowen, Aoife; O'Donnell, Colm P.; Cullen, P. J.

    Non-Newtonian Models

    Castell-Perez, Maria Elena

    Nusselt Number

    Cronin, Kevin; MacCarthy, Diarmuid

    Ohmic Heating

    Sastry, Sudhir K.

    Ohmic Heating: Quality Improvements

    Lima, Marybeth

    Operating Principles of Biosensors

    Stine, Rory; Pishko, Michael V.

    Operator Process Time

    Toledo, Romeo T.

    Osmotic Dehydration Processes

    Vargas-Ugalde, María Elena

    Osmotic Pressure

    Tollner, Ernest W.

    Ozone Technologies in Food Processing

    Yuan, James

    Ozone Utilization

    Muthukumarappan, K.; O'Donnell, Colm P.; Cullen, P. J.

    Package Functions

    Steven, Matthew D.; Hotchkiss, Joseph H.

    Package Permeability

    Krochta, John M.

    Package Properties

    Barron, Felix H.; Burcham, Joel D.

    Pasteurization Systems

    Gilmore, Thomas M.

    Pesticide Application

    Hewitt, Andrew J.

    Phase Diagrams

    Kaletunç, Gönül

    Physical Properties of Agricultural Products

    Lan, Yubin; Fang, Qi

    Physical States

    Chinachoti, Pavinee


    Cornillon, Paul

    Plate Heat Exchangers

    Simpson, R.; Almonacid, S.

    Polymer Packaging for Foods: Developments

    Robertson, Gordon L.

    Poultry Production Systems

    Zulovich, Joseph M.

    Power Measurement

    Shell, Lon R.

    Power Ultrasound in Food Processing

    Feng, Hao ; Weiss, Jochen

    Prandtl Number

    Ramaswamy, H. S.; Awuah, G. B.; Chen, C. R.

    Pressure Impact on Microbial Populations

    de Marañón, I. Martínez; Pérez, I.

    Primary Packaging

    Chinnan, Manjeet S.; Cha, Dong S.

    Process Control Systems

    Huang, Yanbo; Lan, Yubin

    Processing Waste Land Application

    DeWitt, Christina A. Mireles; Morrissey, Michael T.

    Processing Waste Pretreatment

    Kim, Sang Hun

    Processing Waste Primary Treatment

    Miller, Christopher C.

    Processing Wastewater Recovery

    Raman, D. Raj

    Produce Quality Simulator

    Aggarwal, Deepak; Prussia, Stanley E.; Florkowski, Wojciech J.; Lynd, Don

    Produce Retailing Simulation

    Aggarwal, Deepak; Prussia, Stanley E.; Florkowski, Wojciech J.; Lynd, Don

    Properties of Concentrated Foods

    Buffo, Roberto A.

    Properties of Food Materials During High-Pressure Processing

    Ramaswamy, Raghupathy; Balasubramaniam, V. M.; Sastry, S. K.

    Properties of Food Powders

    Hayashi, Hiromichi

    Protein Stability

    Stoner, Michael R.; Randolph, Theodore W.

    Psychrometrics of Animal Environment

    Hoff, Steven J.

    Pulsed Electric Fields Food Preservation

    Sepúlveda, David R.; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V.; Swanson, Barry G.

    Pulsed Magnetic Field Inactivation of Microorganisms

    Grattepanche, Franck; Marrec, Claire Le; Caubet, Roland; de Sauvage, Renaud Charlet; Audet, Pascal; Moreau, Jacques

    Pulsed X-Ray Treatments of Foods

    Kerr, William


    Taoukis, Petros S.

    Radio Frequency Heating and Other RF Applications Relevant to the Food Industry

    Awuah, George B.; Economides, Athanasia; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S.


    Ghosh, Vikram; Anantheswaran, R. C.; Floros, John D.

    Refrigerated Foods History

    Lim, Miang

    Refrigeration System Components

    Pham, Q. T.

    Rehydration of Dried Food Particulates

    Saguy, I. Sam; Marabi, Alejandro

    Remote Sensing in Agriculture

    Thomasson, J. Alex

    Residence Time Distribution—Biomedical, Food,and Environmental Applications

    Su, Wei Wen

    Retortable Pouches

    Blakistone, Barbara

    Reverse Osmosis

    Berk, Zeki

    Reynolds Number

    Daubert, Christopher R.

    Rheology of Wheat Flour Doughs: Measurement

    Launay, Bernard L.; Michon, Camille


    Barringer, Sheryl; Ratanatriwong, Puntarika

    Rice Kernel Properties

    Siebenmorgen, Terry J.; Cooper, Nora T. W.

    Risk Assessment Models for Microbiological Food Safety

    Bakalis, Serafim; Hoonstra, Erik; Taoukis, Petros S.

    Robotics in Crop Production

    Grift, Tony E.

    Role of Statistics in Evaluation of Kinetic Model

    van Boekel, Martinus A. J. S.

    Role of the Dough Mixing Process in Bread Production

    Millar, Sam

    Schmidt Number

    Hallström, Bengt

    Scraped Surface Heat Exchangers

    Fryer, Peter; Rodriguez, Sandrine

    Secondary Packaging

    Bourque, Raymond A.

    Shear Rheology of Liquid Foods

    Rao, M. A.

    Shear Viscosity Measurement

    Rao, M. A.

    Sheep Production Systems

    Hirning, Harvey J.

    Sherwood Number

    Oliveira, Fernanda A. R.; Oliveira, Jorge C.

    Soil Compaction Management

    Raper, Randy L.

    Soil Dynamics

    Tollner, Ernest W.

    Soil Properties

    Cooke, Richard

    Solar Energy

    Bartok, John W.

    Solid Food Rheology

    Rao, V. N. Mohan; Quintero, Ximena

    Solid Food Transport

    Briggs, Jenni L.

    Specific Heat Capacity Measurement

    Hwang, Chang Hwan; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    Spray Drying

    Yoshii, Hidefumi; Furuta, Takeshi; Soottitantawat, Apinan; Linko, Pekka

    Stability of Food Emulsions

    Narsimhan, Ganesan; Wang, Zebin

    Starch-Based Biodegradable Packaging

    Hanna, Milford A.; Guan, Junjie; Xu, Yixiang

    Steady-State Heat Transfer in Food Processing

    Chen, Xiao Dong

    Steady-State Mass Transfer in Biological Systems

    Kisaalita, William S.

    Steam Infusion Heating

    Bowser, Timothy J.

    Steam Injection Heating

    Bowser, Timothy J.

    Stem Cell-Based Tissue Engineering

    Li, Yan; Yang, Shang-Tian

    Sterilization of Biological Materials

    Rodriguez, Alfredo C.

    Storage Vessels for Suspensions and Concentrates

    Lozano, Jorge E.

    Stress and Thermal Tolerance of Pathogens

    Pardey, Kevin Karsten; Schubert, Helmar

    Substrate Kinetics

    Bower, C. K.; McGuire, J.; Bothwell, M. K.

    Subsurface Drainage Systems

    Izuno, Forrest T.; Garcia, Raymond M.

    Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Foods

    Tomasula, Peggy M.

    Surface Activity

    Narsimhan, Ganesan; Wang, Zebin

    Surface Drainage Systems

    Willardson, Lyman S.

    Surface Fouling During Heating

    Chen, Hongda

    Surface Irrigation

    Yonts, C. Dean

    Surface Tension

    Narsimhan, Ganesan; Wang, Zebin

    Techniques for Screening Toxins

    Riley, Mark R.

    Temperature Measurement

    Wang, S.; Tang, Juming; Younce, F.

    Temperature Sensing During Microwave Heating Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Knoerzer, K.; Regier, M.; Schubert, H.

    Texture and Cellular Structure of Extrudates

    Agbisit, Roderick; Alavi, Sajid

    The Psychrometric Chart

    Pham, Q. T.

    Therapeutics—Biomedical Biomaterials

    Bumgardner, Joel D.

    Thermal Conductivity of Foods

    Choi, Yonghee; Okos, Martin R.

    Thermal Death Time

    Juneja, Vijay K.; Huang, Lihan

    Thermal Defoliation

    Funk, Paul

    Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers

    Singh, Pawan P.

    Thermal Diffusivity

    Murakami, Edgar G.

    Thermal Inactivation of Bacteriophages

    Müller-Merbach, Mareile; Hinrichs, Jörg

    Thermal Process Calculations

    Verboven, Pieter; Scheerlinck, Nico; Nicolaï, Bart M.

    Thermal Processing of Meat Products

    Wang, Pie-Yi

    Thermal Resistance Constant

    Morales-Blancas, Elton F.; Torres, J. Antonio

    Thermal Resistance Parameters, Determination of

    Morales-Blancas, Elton F.; Torres, J. Antonio

    Thermochemical Conversion of Swine Manure into Crude Oil

    Zhang, Yuanhui

    Thermodynamics of Food Freezing

    Schwartzberg, Henry G.

    Thermodynamics of Refrigerants

    Rahman, M. Shafiur; Sablani, Shyam S.

    Thermomechanical Processing of Starch

    Jan, Atze; Einde, René R.M. van den

    Time–Temperature Integrator Applications for Shelf-Life Management

    Taoukis, Petros S.


    Lan, Yubin; Huang, Yanbo

    Transient Heat Transfer Charts

    Sharma, Shri K.

    Tubular Heat Exchangers

    Sagara, Yasuyuki

    Tunnel Drying

    Kincal, N. Suzan

    Turbulent Flow

    Marks, Jay

    UHT Processing—Impact on Dairy Product Quality

    Hansen, Arthur P.


    Trägårdh, Gun

    Ultrasonic Pasteurization of Foods

    Feng, Hao; Martin, Scott E.

    Ultrasound Modulated Optical Tomography for Tissue Imaging

    Yao, Gang

    Unsteady-State Heat Transfer in Biological Systems

    Hsieh, Fu-hung

    Unsteady-State Heat Transfer in Foods

    Ghosh, Vikram; Anantheswaran, R. C.

    Unsteady-State Mass Transfer in Biological Systems

    Ranjan, Rakesh; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    Unsteady-State Mass Transfer in Foods

    Welti-Chanes, J.; Vergara, F.; Bermúdez, D.; Mújica-Paz, H.; Valdez-Fragoso, A.

    Unsteady-State Mass Transfer: Coupled and Nonlinear Problems

    Ranjan, Rakesh; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    Use of Impedance for Measurement of Microbial Activity

    Ribeiro, Thierry

    Use of Ultrasound for the Non-Destructive Evaluation of Food

    Coupland, John N.

    Vacuum Cooling

    Ozen, Banu F.; Singh, Rakesh K.

    Vegetable Production Machine Design

    ER - AU - Glancey, James L.

    Vegetable Storage Systems

    Hellevang, Kenneth

    Viscosity of Suspensions and Concentrates

    Cullen, P. J.; O'Donnell, C. P.

    Water Activity

    Padua, Graciela W.

    Water Quality in Biological Systems

    Hall, Steven G.; Drapcho, Caye

    Water Quality in Precision Agriculture

    Tim, U. Sunday

    Water Table Management

    Evans, Robert O.

    Water Vapor Properties

    Thorpe, Graham

    Wet Bulb Temperature

    Weller, Curtis L.; Amézquita, Alejandro

    WLF Equation

    Yildiz, M. Erhan; Kokini, Jozef L.

    Wood–Plastic Composites

    Harper, David P.; Rials, Timothy G.

    About the Editors

    DENNIS R. HELDMAN is currently Principal, Heldman Associates in San Marcos, California. In addition, he is Adjunct Professor at the University of California-Davis and Professor Emeritus at the University of Missouri. Previously, Heldman has been Director of the Cooperative Research and Development Program at the Center for Advanced Food Technology and Professor of Food Process Engineering, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

    The author, coauthor, editor, or coeditor of numerous professional publications, including the Handbook of Food Engineering (Marcel Dekker, Inc.), he is a member of the Institute of Food Technologists, the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, the Institute of Biological Engineering, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, and the American Association of Cereal Chemists, among other organizations. Professor Heldman currently serves on the Scientific Advisory Council for the World Food Logistics Organization.

    Subject Categories

    BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
    TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Agriculture / General
    TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Engineering