1st Edition

Encyclopedia of Environmental Management, Four Volume Set

    3512 Pages
    by CRC Press

    Winner of an Outstanding Academic Title Award from CHOICE Magazine

    Encyclopedia of Environmental Management gives a comprehensive overview of environmental problems, their sources, their assessment, and their solutions. Through in-depth entries and a topical table of contents, readers will quickly find answers to questions about specific pollution and management issues. Edited by the esteemed Sven Erik Jørgensen and an advisory board of renowned specialists, this four-volume set shares insights from more than 500 contributors—all experts in their fields.

    The encyclopedia provides basic knowledge for an integrated and ecologically sound management system. Nearly 400 alphabetical entries cover everything from air, soil, and water pollution to agriculture, energy, global pollution, toxic substances, and general pollution problems. Using a topical table of contents, readers can also search for entries according to the type of problem and the methodology. This allows readers to see the overall picture at a glance and find answers to the core questions:

    • What is the pollution problem, and what are its sources?
    • What is the "big picture," or what background knowledge do we need?
    • How can we diagnose the problem, both qualitatively and quantitatively, using monitoring and ecological models, indicators, and services?
    • How can we solve the problem with environmental technology, ecotechnology, cleaner technology, and environmental legislation?
    • How do we address the problem as part of an integrated management strategy?

    This accessible encyclopedia examines the entire spectrum of tools available for environmental management. An indispensable resource, it guides environmental managers to find the best possible solutions to the myriad pollution problems they face.

    Also Available Online

    This Taylor & Francis encyclopedia is also available through online subscription, offering a variety of extra benefits for researchers, students, and librarians, including:

    • Citation tracking and alerts
    • Active reference linking
    • Saved searches and marked lists
    • HTML and PDF format options

    Contact us to inquire about subscription options and print/online combination packages.
    US: (Tel) 1.888.318.2367 / (email) [email protected]
    International: (Tel) +44 (0) 20 7017 6062 / (email) [email protected]


    Cleaner Technology
    Comparative Overviews
    Diagnostic Tools
    Environmental Legislation
    Environmental Technology
    Integrated and Holistic Management
    Pollution Problems and Their Sources

    Air Pollution Problems
    Comparative Overviews
    Diagnostic Tools
    Environmental Technology
    Pollution Problems and Their Sources

    Energy Issues
    Cleaner Technology: Alternative Energy
    Cleaner Technology: Energy Conservation
    Comparative Overviews
    Diagnostic Tools
    Environmental Legislation and Policy
    Environmental Technology
    Integrated and Holistic Management
    Pollution Problems and Their Sources

    General Pollution Problems
    Cleaner Technology
    Comparative Overviews: Pollution and Contamination
    Comparative Overviews: Processes, Environmental Quality and Conditions
    Diagnostic Tools
    Environmental Legislation and Policy
    Environmental Technology
    Integrated and Holistic Management
    Pollution Problems and Their Sources: Generally Point Sources
    Pollution Problems and Their Sources: Generally Non-Point and Diffuse Sources

    Global Pollution Problems
    Cleaner Technology
    Comparative Overviews
    Diagnostic Tools
    Environmental Legislation and Policy
    Integrated and Holistic Management
    Pollution Problems and Their Sources

    Terrestrial Pollution Problems
    Cleaner Technology
    Comparative Overviews
    Diagnostic Tools
    Environmental Legislation and Policy
    Environmental Technology
    Integrated and Holistic Management
    Pollution Problems and Their Sources

    Toxic Substances in the Environment
    Cleaner Technology
    Comparative Overviews
    Diagnostic Tools
    Environmental Legislation and Policy
    Environmental Technology
    Integrated and Holistic Management
    Pollution Problems and Their Sources: Generally Point Sources
    Pollution Problems and Their Sources: Generally Non-Point and Diffuse Sources

    Water Pollution Problems
    Cleaner Technology
    Comparative Overviews
    Diagnostic Tools
    Environmental Legislation and Policy
    Environmental Technology
    Integrated and Holistic Management
    Pollution Problems and Their Sources: Generally Point Sources
    Pollution Problems and Their Sources: Generally Non-Point and Diffuse Sources


    Volume I

    Acid Rain
    Acid Rain: Nitrogen Deposition
    Acid Sulfate Soils
    Acid Sulfate Soils: Formation
    Acid Sulfate Soils: Identification, Assessment, and Management
    Acid Sulfate Soils: Management
    Agricultural Runoff
    Agricultural Soils: Ammonia Volatilization
    Agricultural Soils: Carbon and Nitrogen Biological Cycling
    Agricultural Soils: Nitrous Oxide Emissions
    Agricultural Soils: Phosphorus
    Agricultural Water Quantity Management
    Agriculture: Energy Use and Conservation
    Agriculture: Organic
    Agroforestry: Water Use Efficiency
    Air Pollution: Monitoring
    Air Pollution: Technology
    Alexandria Lake Maryut: Integrated Environmental Management
    Alternative Energy
    Alternative Energy: Hydropower
    Alternative Energy: Photovoltaic Modules and Systems
    Alternative Energy: Photovoltaic Solar Cells
    Alternative Energy: Solar Thermal Energy
    Alternative Energy: Wind Power Technology and Economy
    Animals: Sterility from Pesticides
    Animals: Toxicological Evaluation
    Antagonistic Plants
    Aquatic Communities: Pesticide Impacts
    Aral Sea Disaster
    Arthropod Host-Plant Resistant Crops
    Bacillus thuringiensis: Transgenic Crops
    Bacterial Pest Control
    Biodiversity and Sustainability
    Bioenergy Crops: Carbon Balance Assessment
    Bioindicators: Farming Practices and Sustainability
    Biological Controls
    Biological Controls: Conservation
    Bioremediation: Contaminated Soil Restoration
    Biotechnology: Pest Management
    Birds: Chemical Control
    Birds: Pesticide Use Impacts
    Boron and Molybdenum: Deficiencies and Toxicities
    Boron: Soil Contaminant
    Buildings: Climate Change
    Cabbage Diseases: Ecology and Control
    Cadmium and Lead: Contamination
    Cadmium: Toxicology
    Carbon Sequestration
    Carbon: Soil Inorganic
    Chesapeake Bay
    Climate Policy: International
    Coastal Water: Pollution
    Cobalt and Iodine
    Community-Based Monitoring: Ngarenanyuki, Tanzania
    Composting: Organic Farming
    Cyanobacteria: Eutrophic Freshwater Systems
    Desertification: Extent of
    Desertification: Greenhouse Effect
    Desertification: Impact
    Desertification: Prevention and Restoration
    Developing Countries: Pesticide Health Impacts
    Distributed Generation: Combined Heat and Power
    Drainage: Hydrological Impacts Downstream
    Drainage: Soil Salinity Management
    Ecological Indicators: Eco-Exergy to Emergy Flow
    Ecological Indicators: Ecosystem Health
    Economic Growth: Slower by Design, Not Disaster
    Ecosystems: Large-Scale Restoration Governance
    Ecosystems: Planning
    Endocrine Disruptors
    Energy Commissioning: Existing Buildings
    Energy Commissioning: New Buildings
    Energy Conservation
    Energy Conservation: Benefits
    Energy Conservation: Industrial Processes
    Energy Conservation: Lean Manufacturing
    Energy Conversion: Coal, Animal Waste, and Biomass Fuel

    Volume II

    Energy Efficiency: Low-Cost Improvements
    Energy Efficiency: New and Emerging Technology
    Energy Efficiency: Strategic Facility Guidelines
    Energy Master Planning
    Energy Sources: Natural versus Additional
    Energy Use: Exergy and Eco-Exergy
    Energy Use: U.S.
    Energy: Environmental Security
    Energy: Physics
    Energy: Renewable
    Energy: Solid Waste Advanced Thermal Technology
    Energy: Storage
    Energy: Walls and Windows
    Energy: Waste Heat Recovery
    Environmental Legislation: Asia
    Environmental Legislation: EU Countries Solid Waste Management
    Environmental Policy
    Environmental Policy: Innovations
    Erosion and Carbon Dioxide
    Erosion and Global Change
    Erosion and Precipitation
    Erosion and Sediment Control: Vegetative Techniques
    Erosion by Water: Accelerated
    Erosion by Water: Amendment Techniques
    Erosion by Water: Assessment and Control
    Erosion by Water: Empirical Methods
    Erosion by Water: Erosivity and Erodibility
    Erosion by Water: Process-Based Modeling
    Erosion by Water: Vegetative Control
    Erosion by Wind: Climate Change
    Erosion by Wind: Global Hot Spots
    Erosion by Wind: Principles
    Erosion by Wind: Source, Measurement, Prediction, and Control
    Erosion by Wind-Driven Rain
    Erosion Control: Soil Conservation
    Erosion Control: Tillage and Residue Methods
    Erosion: Accelerated
    Erosion: History
    Erosion: Irrigation-Induced
    Erosion: Snowmelt
    Erosion: Soil Quality
    Exergy: Analysis
    Exergy: Environmental Impact Assessment
    Farming: Non-Chemical and Pesticide-Free (European Council Regulations [EED/209/91])
    Farming: Organic
    Farming: Organic Pest Management
    Food Quality Protection Act
    Food: Cosmetic Standards
    Food: Pesticide Contamination
    Fossil Fuel Combustion: Air Pollution and Global Warming
    Fuel Cells: Intermediate and High Temperature
    Fuel Cells: Low Temperature
    Genotoxicity and Air Pollution
    Geographic Information System (GIS): Land Use Planning
    Geothermal Energy Resources
    Giant Reed (Arundo donax): Streams and Water Resources
    Global Climate Change: Carbon Sequestration
    Global Climate Change: Earth System Response
    Global Climate Change: Gas Fluxes
    Global Climate Change: Gasoline, Hybrid-Electric and Hydrogen Fueled Vehicles
    Global Climate Change: World Soils
    Green Energy
    Green Processes and Projects: Systems Analysis
    Green Products: Production
    Groundwater: Arsenic Contamination
    Groundwater: Contamination
    Groundwater: Mining
    Groundwater: Mining Pollution
    Groundwater: Modeling
    Groundwater: Nitrogen Fertilizer Contamination
    Groundwater: Numerical Method Modeling
    Groundwater: Pesticide Contamination
    Groundwater: Saltwater Intrusion
    Groundwater: Treatment with Biobarrier Systems
    Heat Pumps
    Heat Pumps: Absorption
    Heat Pumps: Geothermal
    Heavy Metals
    Heavy Metals: Organic Fertilization Uptake
    Herbicides: Non-Target Species Effects
    Human Health: Cancer from Pesticides
    Human Health: Chronic Pesticide Poisonings
    Human Health: Consumer Concerns of Pesticides
    Human Health: Hormonal Disruption
    Human Health: Pesticide Poisonings
    Human Health: Pesticide Sensitivities
    Human Health: Pesticides
    Hydroelectricity: Pumped Storage
    Industrial Waste: Soil Pollution
    Industries: Network of
    Inland Seas and Lakes: Central Asia Case Study
    Inorganic Carbon: Composition and Formation
    Inorganic Carbon: Global Carbon Cycle
    Inorganic Carbon: Modeling
    Inorganic Compounds: Eco-Toxicity
    Insect Growth Regulators
    Insecticides: Aerial Ultra-Low-Volume Application
    Insects and Mites: Biological Control
    Insulation: Facilities
    Integrated Energy Systems
    Integrated Farming Systems
    Integrated Nutrient Management
    Integrated Pest Management
    Integrated Weed Management

    Volume III

    Invasion Biology
    Irrigation Systems: Sub-Surface Drip Design
    Irrigation Systems: Sub-Surface History
    Irrigation Systems: Water Conservation
    Irrigation: Efficiency
    Irrigation: Erosion
    Irrigation: Return Flow and Quality
    Irrigation: River Flow Impact
    Irrigation: Saline Water
    Irrigation: Sewage Effluent Use
    Irrigation: Soil Salinity
    Lakes and Reservoirs: Pollution
    Lakes: Restoration
    Land Restoration
    Laws and Regulations: Food
    Laws and Regulations: Pesticides
    Laws and Regulations: Rotterdam Convention
    Laws and Regulations: Soil
    Leaching and Illuviation
    Lead: Ecotoxicology
    Lead: Regulations
    LEED-EB: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Existing Buildings
    LEED-NC: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction
    Manure Management: Compost and Biosolids
    Manure Management: Dairy
    Manure Management: Phosphorus
    Manure Management: Poultry
    Methane Emissions: Rice
    Minerals Processing Residue (Tailings): Rehabilitation
    Mines: Acidic Drainage Water
    Mines: Rehabilitation of Open Cut
    Nanomaterials: Regulation and Risk Assessment
    Nanoparticles: Uncertainty Risk Analysis
    Nanotechnology: Environmental Abatement
    Natural Enemies and Biocontrol: Artificial Diets
    Natural Enemies: Conservation
    Nematodes: Biological Control
    Neurotoxicants: Developmental Experimental Testing
    Nitrate Leaching Index
    Nitrogen Trading Tool
    Nitrogen: Biological Fixation
    Nuclear Energy: Economics
    Nutrients: Best Management Practices
    Nutrients: Bioavailability and Plant Uptake
    NutrientWater Interactions
    Oil Pollution: Baltic Sea
    Organic Compounds: Halogenated
    Organic Matter: Global Distribution in World Ecosystems
    Organic Matter: Management
    Organic Matter: Modeling
    Organic Matter: Turnover
    Organic Soil Amendments
    Ozone Layer
    Persistent Organic Compounds: Wet Oxidation Removal
    Persistent Organic Pesticides
    Pest Management
    Pest Management: Crop Diversity
    Pest Management: Ecological Agriculture
    Pest Management: Ecological Aspects
    Pest Management: Intercropping
    Pest Management: Legal Aspects
    Pest Management: Modeling
    Pesticide Translocation Control: Soil Erosion
    Pesticides: Banding
    Pesticides: Chemical and Biological
    Pesticides: Damage Avoidance
    Pesticides: Effects
    Pesticides: History
    Pesticides: Measurement and Mitigation
    Pesticides: Natural
    Pesticides: Reducing Use
    Pesticides: Regulating
    Pests: Landscape Patterns
    Petroleum: Hydrocarbon Contamination
    Pharmaceuticals: Treatment
    Phosphorus: Agricultural Nutrient
    Phosphorus: Riverine System Transport
    Plant Pathogens (Fungi): Biological Control
    Plant Pathogens (Viruses): Biological Control
    Pollutants: Organic and Inorganic
    Pollution: Genotoxicity of Agrotoxic Compounds
    Pollution: Non-Point Source
    Pollution: Pesticides in Agro-Horticultural Ecosystems
    Pollution: Pesticides in Natural Ecosystems
    Pollution: Point and Non-Point Source Low Cost Treatment
    Pollution: Point Sources
    Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
    Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): Sediments and
    Water Analysis
    Precision Agriculture: Engineering Aspects
    Precision Agriculture: Water and Nutrient Management
    Radio Frequency Towers: Public School Placement
    Rain Water: Atmospheric Deposition
    Rain Water: Harvesting
    Rare Earth Elements

    Volume IV

    Remote Sensing and GIS Integration
    Remote Sensing: Pollution
    Rivers and Lakes: Acidification
    Rivers: Pollution
    Rivers: Restoration
    Runoff Water
    Salt-Affected Soils: Physical Properties and Behavior
    Salt-Affected Soils: Plant Response
    Salt-Affected Soils: Sustainable Agriculture
    Sea: Pollution
    Sodic Soils: Irrigation Farming
    Sodic Soils: Properties
    Sodic Soils: Reclamation
    Soil Degradation: Global Assessment
    Soil Quality: Carbon and Nitrogen Gases
    Soil Quality: Indicators
    Soil Rehabilitation
    Solid Waste Management: Life Cycle Assessment
    Solid Waste: Municipal
    Stored-Product Pests: Biological Control
    Sulfur Dioxide
    Sustainability and Planning
    Sustainable Agriculture: Soil Quality
    Sustainable Development
    Sustainable Development: Ecological Footprint in Accounting
    Sustainable Development: Pyrolysis and Gasification of Biomass and Wastes
    Thermal Energy: Solar Technologies
    Thermal Energy: Storage
    Tillage Erosion: Terrace Formation
    Toxic Substances
    Toxic Substances: Photochemistry
    Toxicity Prediction of Chemical Mixtures
    Vanadium and Chromium Groups
    Vertebrates: Biological Control
    Waste Gas Treatment: Bioreactors
    Waste: Stabilization Ponds
    Wastewater and Water Utilities
    Wastewater Treatment: Biological
    Wastewater Treatment: Conventional Methods
    Wastewater Treatment: Wetlands Use in Arctic Regions
    Wastewater Use in Agriculture
    Wastewater Use in Agriculture: Policy Issues
    Wastewater Use in Agriculture: Public Health Considerations
    Wastewater: Municipal
    Water and Wastewater: Filters
    Water and Wastewater: Ion Exchange Application
    Water Harvesting
    Water Quality and Quantity: Globalization
    Water Quality: Modeling
    Water Quality: Range and Pasture Land
    Water Quality: Soil Erosion
    Water Quality: Timber Harvesting
    Water Supplies: Pharmaceuticals
    Water: Cost
    Water: Drinking
    Water: Surface
    Water: Total Maximum Daily Load
    Watershed Management: Remote Sensing and GIS
    Weeds (Insects and Mites): Biological Control
    Wetlands: Biodiversity
    Wetlands: Carbon Sequestration
    Wetlands: Conservation Policy
    Wetlands: Constructed Subsurface
    Wetlands: Methane Emission
    Wetlands: Petroleum
    Wetlands: Sedimentation and Ecological Engineering
    Wetlands: Treatment System Use
    Wind Farms: Noise
    Yellow River


    Dr. Sven Erik Jørgensen is a professor of environmental chemistry at Copenhagen University. He received a doctorate of engineering in environmental technology and a doctorate of science in ecological modeling. He is an honorable doctor of science at Coimbra University, Portugal, and at Dar es Salaam University, Tanzania. He was editor in chief of Ecological Modelling from the journal’s inception in 1975 to 2009. He has also been the editor in chief of the Encyclopedia of Ecology. He is the president of ISEM (International Society of Ecological Modelling) and was chairman of ILEC (International Lake Environment Committee) from 1994 to 2006. In 2004 Dr. Jørgensen was awarded the prestigious Stockholm Water Prize and the Prigogine Prize. He was awarded the Einstein Professorship by the Chinese Academy of Science in 2005. In 2007 he received the Pascal medal and was elected a member of the European Academy of Science. He has written more than 360 papers, most of which have been published in international peer-reviewed journals. He has edited or written 70 books. Dr. Jørgensen has given lectures and courses in ecological modeling, ecosystem theory, and ecological engineering worldwide.

    "... environmental management is maturing into a truly comprehensive interdisciplinary activity including natural, medical, technical, economic, and social sciences. Although some cases have considered (and implemented) almost all of these aspects, the majority of previous studies propose a specific solution, which would have been different if the missing disciplines had been included. This encyclopedia presents a unique collection of almost 400 issues, case studies, and practices. As such, it will be of critical importance for the sustainability of human development as examinations of current state-of-the-art techniques have at last been made available, thus making possible a much faster development towards more refined solutions in the future. Whether discussing the management of air, water, soil quality, or indeed any other issue, including those of global importance, this encyclopedia will be used frequently for years to come by all who hold a stake in the environment, including educational programs related to environmental management, industry, environmental regulatory bodies, and non-governmental organizations."
    —From the Foreword by Tarzan Legović, Secretary General, International Society for Ecological Modelling; Professor and Chairman, Division of Marine and Environmental Research, R. Bošković Institute, Zagreb, Croatia

    "… an excellent resource for finding basic knowledge on environmental systems. Reviewed here in its online version, it is also available as a four-volume print set. Reflecting extensive coverage of the field, the highly informative entries are profusely illustrated with graphs and charts. The editors claim to have included 90-95 percent of the most important problems and solutions facing environmental management today. Entries range from "Acaricides" and "Acid Rain" to "Wind Farms: Noise" and "Yellow River." The entries focus on definitions and on solutions to environmental problems. The solutions involve the use of environmental, ecological, and cleaner technologies as well as environmental legislation. Searching is easy and fast; articles load quickly. The bibliographies are extensive and cross-linked. This is especially helpful for libraries that subscribe to Web of Science <http://thomsonreuters.com/web-of-science/> (CH, Jan'11, 48-2436), since its link resolvers will connect directly to the citations. An extremely helpful Librarians' Area provides detailed information on how to set up link resolvers, use OpenURL linking in catalogs, create usage reports, and more. Pricing is based on a standard fee, based on FTE. This is a valuable resource for all libraries supporting programs in environment studies, earth science, and geography. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Lower-level undergraduates and above; general readers."
    J. C. Stachacz, Wilkes University in CHOICE Magazine