Encyclopedia of Environmental Management, Four Volume Set  book cover
1st Edition

Encyclopedia of Environmental Management, Four Volume Set

ISBN 9781439829271
Published December 13, 2012 by CRC Press
3512 Pages

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Book Description

Winner of an Outstanding Academic Title Award from CHOICE Magazine

Encyclopedia of Environmental Management gives a comprehensive overview of environmental problems, their sources, their assessment, and their solutions. Through in-depth entries and a topical table of contents, readers will quickly find answers to questions about specific pollution and management issues. Edited by the esteemed Sven Erik Jørgensen and an advisory board of renowned specialists, this four-volume set shares insights from more than 500 contributors—all experts in their fields.

The encyclopedia provides basic knowledge for an integrated and ecologically sound management system. Nearly 400 alphabetical entries cover everything from air, soil, and water pollution to agriculture, energy, global pollution, toxic substances, and general pollution problems. Using a topical table of contents, readers can also search for entries according to the type of problem and the methodology. This allows readers to see the overall picture at a glance and find answers to the core questions:

  • What is the pollution problem, and what are its sources?
  • What is the "big picture," or what background knowledge do we need?
  • How can we diagnose the problem, both qualitatively and quantitatively, using monitoring and ecological models, indicators, and services?
  • How can we solve the problem with environmental technology, ecotechnology, cleaner technology, and environmental legislation?
  • How do we address the problem as part of an integrated management strategy?

This accessible encyclopedia examines the entire spectrum of tools available for environmental management. An indispensable resource, it guides environmental managers to find the best possible solutions to the myriad pollution problems they face.

Also Available Online

This Taylor & Francis encyclopedia is also available through online subscription, offering a variety of extra benefits for researchers, students, and librarians, including:

  • Citation tracking and alerts
  • Active reference linking
  • Saved searches and marked lists
  • HTML and PDF format options

Contact us to inquire about subscription options and print/online combination packages.
US: (Tel) 1.888.318.2367 / (email) [email protected]
International: (Tel) +44 (0) 20 7017 6062 / (email) [email protected]

Table of Contents


Cleaner Technology
Comparative Overviews
Diagnostic Tools
Environmental Legislation
Environmental Technology
Integrated and Holistic Management
Pollution Problems and Their Sources

Air Pollution Problems
Comparative Overviews
Diagnostic Tools
Environmental Technology
Pollution Problems and Their Sources

Energy Issues
Cleaner Technology: Alternative Energy
Cleaner Technology: Energy Conservation
Comparative Overviews
Diagnostic Tools
Environmental Legislation and Policy
Environmental Technology
Integrated and Holistic Management
Pollution Problems and Their Sources

General Pollution Problems
Cleaner Technology
Comparative Overviews: Pollution and Contamination
Comparative Overviews: Processes, Environmental Quality and Conditions
Diagnostic Tools
Environmental Legislation and Policy
Environmental Technology
Integrated and Holistic Management
Pollution Problems and Their Sources: Generally Point Sources
Pollution Problems and Their Sources: Generally Non-Point and Diffuse Sources

Global Pollution Problems
Cleaner Technology
Comparative Overviews
Diagnostic Tools
Environmental Legislation and Policy
Integrated and Holistic Management
Pollution Problems and Their Sources

Terrestrial Pollution Problems
Cleaner Technology
Comparative Overviews
Diagnostic Tools
Environmental Legislation and Policy
Environmental Technology
Integrated and Holistic Management
Pollution Problems and Their Sources

Toxic Substances in the Environment
Cleaner Technology
Comparative Overviews
Diagnostic Tools
Environmental Legislation and Policy
Environmental Technology
Integrated and Holistic Management
Pollution Problems and Their Sources: Generally Point Sources
Pollution Problems and Their Sources: Generally Non-Point and Diffuse Sources

Water Pollution Problems
Cleaner Technology
Comparative Overviews
Diagnostic Tools
Environmental Legislation and Policy
Environmental Technology
Integrated and Holistic Management
Pollution Problems and Their Sources: Generally Point Sources
Pollution Problems and Their Sources: Generally Non-Point and Diffuse Sources


Volume I

Acid Rain
Acid Rain: Nitrogen Deposition
Acid Sulfate Soils
Acid Sulfate Soils: Formation
Acid Sulfate Soils: Identification, Assessment, and Management
Acid Sulfate Soils: Management
Agricultural Runoff
Agricultural Soils: Ammonia Volatilization
Agricultural Soils: Carbon and Nitrogen Biological Cycling
Agricultural Soils: Nitrous Oxide Emissions
Agricultural Soils: Phosphorus
Agricultural Water Quantity Management
Agriculture: Energy Use and Conservation
Agriculture: Organic
Agroforestry: Water Use Efficiency
Air Pollution: Monitoring
Air Pollution: Technology
Alexandria Lake Maryut: Integrated Environmental Management
Alternative Energy
Alternative Energy: Hydropower
Alternative Energy: Photovoltaic Modules and Systems
Alternative Energy: Photovoltaic Solar Cells
Alternative Energy: Solar Thermal Energy
Alternative Energy: Wind Power Technology and Economy
Animals: Sterility from Pesticides
Animals: Toxicological Evaluation
Antagonistic Plants
Aquatic Communities: Pesticide Impacts
Aral Sea Disaster
Arthropod Host-Plant Resistant Crops
Bacillus thuringiensis: Transgenic Crops
Bacterial Pest Control
Biodiversity and Sustainability
Bioenergy Crops: Carbon Balance Assessment
Bioindicators: Farming Practices and Sustainability
Biological Controls
Biological Controls: Conservation
Bioremediation: Contaminated Soil Restoration
Biotechnology: Pest Management
Birds: Chemical Control
Birds: Pesticide Use Impacts
Boron and Molybdenum: Deficiencies and Toxicities
Boron: Soil Contaminant
Buildings: Climate Change
Cabbage Diseases: Ecology and Control
Cadmium and Lead: Contamination
Cadmium: Toxicology
Carbon Sequestration
Carbon: Soil Inorganic
Chesapeake Bay
Climate Policy: International
Coastal Water: Pollution
Cobalt and Iodine
Community-Based Monitoring: Ngarenanyuki, Tanzania
Composting: Organic Farming
Cyanobacteria: Eutrophic Freshwater Systems
Desertification: Extent of
Desertification: Greenhouse Effect
Desertification: Impact
Desertification: Prevention and Restoration
Developing Countries: Pesticide Health Impacts
Distributed Generation: Combined Heat and Power
Drainage: Hydrological Impacts Downstream
Drainage: Soil Salinity Management
Ecological Indicators: Eco-Exergy to Emergy Flow
Ecological Indicators: Ecosystem Health
Economic Growth: Slower by Design, Not Disaster
Ecosystems: Large-Scale Restoration Governance
Ecosystems: Planning
Endocrine Disruptors
Energy Commissioning: Existing Buildings
Energy Commissioning: New Buildings
Energy Conservation
Energy Conservation: Benefits
Energy Conservation: Industrial Processes
Energy Conservation: Lean Manufacturing
Energy Conversion: Coal, Animal Waste, and Biomass Fuel

Volume II

Energy Efficiency: Low-Cost Improvements
Energy Efficiency: New and Emerging Technology
Energy Efficiency: Strategic Facility Guidelines
Energy Master Planning
Energy Sources: Natural versus Additional
Energy Use: Exergy and Eco-Exergy
Energy Use: U.S.
Energy: Environmental Security
Energy: Physics
Energy: Renewable
Energy: Solid Waste Advanced Thermal Technology
Energy: Storage
Energy: Walls and Windows
Energy: Waste Heat Recovery
Environmental Legislation: Asia
Environmental Legislation: EU Countries Solid Waste Management
Environmental Policy
Environmental Policy: Innovations
Erosion and Carbon Dioxide
Erosion and Global Change
Erosion and Precipitation
Erosion and Sediment Control: Vegetative Techniques
Erosion by Water: Accelerated
Erosion by Water: Amendment Techniques
Erosion by Water: Assessment and Control
Erosion by Water: Empirical Methods
Erosion by Water: Erosivity and Erodibility
Erosion by Water: Process-Based Modeling
Erosion by Water: Vegetative Control
Erosion by Wind: Climate Change
Erosion by Wind: Global Hot Spots
Erosion by Wind: Principles
Erosion by Wind: Source, Measurement, Prediction, and Control
Erosion by Wind-Driven Rain
Erosion Control: Soil Conservation
Erosion Control: Tillage and Residue Methods
Erosion: Accelerated
Erosion: History
Erosion: Irrigation-Induced
Erosion: Snowmelt
Erosion: Soil Quality
Exergy: Analysis
Exergy: Environmental Impact Assessment
Farming: Non-Chemical and Pesticide-Free (European Council Regulations [EED/209/91])
Farming: Organic
Farming: Organic Pest Management
Food Quality Protection Act
Food: Cosmetic Standards
Food: Pesticide Contamination
Fossil Fuel Combustion: Air Pollution and Global Warming
Fuel Cells: Intermediate and High Temperature
Fuel Cells: Low Temperature
Genotoxicity and Air Pollution
Geographic Information System (GIS): Land Use Planning
Geothermal Energy Resources
Giant Reed (Arundo donax): Streams and Water Resources
Global Climate Change: Carbon Sequestration
Global Climate Change: Earth System Response
Global Climate Change: Gas Fluxes
Global Climate Change: Gasoline, Hybrid-Electric and Hydrogen Fueled Vehicles
Global Climate Change: World Soils
Green Energy
Green Processes and Projects: Systems Analysis
Green Products: Production
Groundwater: Arsenic Contamination
Groundwater: Contamination
Groundwater: Mining
Groundwater: Mining Pollution
Groundwater: Modeling
Groundwater: Nitrogen Fertilizer Contamination
Groundwater: Numerical Method Modeling
Groundwater: Pesticide Contamination
Groundwater: Saltwater Intrusion
Groundwater: Treatment with Biobarrier Systems
Heat Pumps
Heat Pumps: Absorption
Heat Pumps: Geothermal
Heavy Metals
Heavy Metals: Organic Fertilization Uptake
Herbicides: Non-Target Species Effects
Human Health: Cancer from Pesticides
Human Health: Chronic Pesticide Poisonings
Human Health: Consumer Concerns of Pesticides
Human Health: Hormonal Disruption
Human Health: Pesticide Poisonings
Human Health: Pesticide Sensitivities
Human Health: Pesticides
Hydroelectricity: Pumped Storage
Industrial Waste: Soil Pollution
Industries: Network of
Inland Seas and Lakes: Central Asia Case Study
Inorganic Carbon: Composition and Formation
Inorganic Carbon: Global Carbon Cycle
Inorganic Carbon: Modeling
Inorganic Compounds: Eco-Toxicity
Insect Growth Regulators
Insecticides: Aerial Ultra-Low-Volume Application
Insects and Mites: Biological Control
Insulation: Facilities
Integrated Energy Systems
Integrated Farming Systems
Integrated Nutrient Management
Integrated Pest Management
Integrated Weed Management

Volume III

Invasion Biology
Irrigation Systems: Sub-Surface Drip Design
Irrigation Systems: Sub-Surface History
Irrigation Systems: Water Conservation
Irrigation: Efficiency
Irrigation: Erosion
Irrigation: Return Flow and Quality
Irrigation: River Flow Impact
Irrigation: Saline Water
Irrigation: Sewage Effluent Use
Irrigation: Soil Salinity
Lakes and Reservoirs: Pollution
Lakes: Restoration
Land Restoration
Laws and Regulations: Food
Laws and Regulations: Pesticides
Laws and Regulations: Rotterdam Convention
Laws and Regulations: Soil
Leaching and Illuviation
Lead: Ecotoxicology
Lead: Regulations
LEED-EB: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Existing Buildings
LEED-NC: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction
Manure Management: Compost and Biosolids
Manure Management: Dairy
Manure Management: Phosphorus
Manure Management: Poultry
Methane Emissions: Rice
Minerals Processing Residue (Tailings): Rehabilitation
Mines: Acidic Drainage Water
Mines: Rehabilitation of Open Cut
Nanomaterials: Regulation and Risk Assessment
Nanoparticles: Uncertainty Risk Analysis
Nanotechnology: Environmental Abatement
Natural Enemies and Biocontrol: Artificial Diets
Natural Enemies: Conservation
Nematodes: Biological Control
Neurotoxicants: Developmental Experimental Testing
Nitrate Leaching Index
Nitrogen Trading Tool
Nitrogen: Biological Fixation
Nuclear Energy: Economics
Nutrients: Best Management Practices
Nutrients: Bioavailability and Plant Uptake
NutrientWater Interactions
Oil Pollution: Baltic Sea
Organic Compounds: Halogenated
Organic Matter: Global Distribution in World Ecosystems
Organic Matter: Management
Organic Matter: Modeling
Organic Matter: Turnover
Organic Soil Amendments
Ozone Layer
Persistent Organic Compounds: Wet Oxidation Removal
Persistent Organic Pesticides
Pest Management
Pest Management: Crop Diversity
Pest Management: Ecological Agriculture
Pest Management: Ecological Aspects
Pest Management: Intercropping
Pest Management: Legal Aspects
Pest Management: Modeling
Pesticide Translocation Control: Soil Erosion
Pesticides: Banding
Pesticides: Chemical and Biological
Pesticides: Damage Avoidance
Pesticides: Effects
Pesticides: History
Pesticides: Measurement and Mitigation
Pesticides: Natural
Pesticides: Reducing Use
Pesticides: Regulating
Pests: Landscape Patterns
Petroleum: Hydrocarbon Contamination
Pharmaceuticals: Treatment
Phosphorus: Agricultural Nutrient
Phosphorus: Riverine System Transport
Plant Pathogens (Fungi): Biological Control
Plant Pathogens (Viruses): Biological Control
Pollutants: Organic and Inorganic
Pollution: Genotoxicity of Agrotoxic Compounds
Pollution: Non-Point Source
Pollution: Pesticides in Agro-Horticultural Ecosystems
Pollution: Pesticides in Natural Ecosystems
Pollution: Point and Non-Point Source Low Cost Treatment
Pollution: Point Sources
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): Sediments and
Water Analysis
Precision Agriculture: Engineering Aspects
Precision Agriculture: Water and Nutrient Management
Radio Frequency Towers: Public School Placement
Rain Water: Atmospheric Deposition
Rain Water: Harvesting
Rare Earth Elements

Volume IV

Remote Sensing and GIS Integration
Remote Sensing: Pollution
Rivers and Lakes: Acidification
Rivers: Pollution
Rivers: Restoration
Runoff Water
Salt-Affected Soils: Physical Properties and Behavior
Salt-Affected Soils: Plant Response
Salt-Affected Soils: Sustainable Agriculture
Sea: Pollution
Sodic Soils: Irrigation Farming
Sodic Soils: Properties
Sodic Soils: Reclamation
Soil Degradation: Global Assessment
Soil Quality: Carbon and Nitrogen Gases
Soil Quality: Indicators
Soil Rehabilitation
Solid Waste Management: Life Cycle Assessment
Solid Waste: Municipal
Stored-Product Pests: Biological Control
Sulfur Dioxide
Sustainability and Planning
Sustainable Agriculture: Soil Quality
Sustainable Development
Sustainable Development: Ecological Footprint in Accounting
Sustainable Development: Pyrolysis and Gasification of Biomass and Wastes
Thermal Energy: Solar Technologies
Thermal Energy: Storage
Tillage Erosion: Terrace Formation
Toxic Substances
Toxic Substances: Photochemistry
Toxicity Prediction of Chemical Mixtures
Vanadium and Chromium Groups
Vertebrates: Biological Control
Waste Gas Treatment: Bioreactors
Waste: Stabilization Ponds
Wastewater and Water Utilities
Wastewater Treatment: Biological
Wastewater Treatment: Conventional Methods
Wastewater Treatment: Wetlands Use in Arctic Regions
Wastewater Use in Agriculture
Wastewater Use in Agriculture: Policy Issues
Wastewater Use in Agriculture: Public Health Considerations
Wastewater: Municipal
Water and Wastewater: Filters
Water and Wastewater: Ion Exchange Application
Water Harvesting
Water Quality and Quantity: Globalization
Water Quality: Modeling
Water Quality: Range and Pasture Land
Water Quality: Soil Erosion
Water Quality: Timber Harvesting
Water Supplies: Pharmaceuticals
Water: Cost
Water: Drinking
Water: Surface
Water: Total Maximum Daily Load
Watershed Management: Remote Sensing and GIS
Weeds (Insects and Mites): Biological Control
Wetlands: Biodiversity
Wetlands: Carbon Sequestration
Wetlands: Conservation Policy
Wetlands: Constructed Subsurface
Wetlands: Methane Emission
Wetlands: Petroleum
Wetlands: Sedimentation and Ecological Engineering
Wetlands: Treatment System Use
Wind Farms: Noise
Yellow River

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Dr. Sven Erik Jørgensen is a professor of environmental chemistry at Copenhagen University. He received a doctorate of engineering in environmental technology and a doctorate of science in ecological modeling. He is an honorable doctor of science at Coimbra University, Portugal, and at Dar es Salaam University, Tanzania. He was editor in chief of Ecological Modelling from the journal’s inception in 1975 to 2009. He has also been the editor in chief of the Encyclopedia of Ecology. He is the president of ISEM (International Society of Ecological Modelling) and was chairman of ILEC (International Lake Environment Committee) from 1994 to 2006. In 2004 Dr. Jørgensen was awarded the prestigious Stockholm Water Prize and the Prigogine Prize. He was awarded the Einstein Professorship by the Chinese Academy of Science in 2005. In 2007 he received the Pascal medal and was elected a member of the European Academy of Science. He has written more than 360 papers, most of which have been published in international peer-reviewed journals. He has edited or written 70 books. Dr. Jørgensen has given lectures and courses in ecological modeling, ecosystem theory, and ecological engineering worldwide.


"... environmental management is maturing into a truly comprehensive interdisciplinary activity including natural, medical, technical, economic, and social sciences. Although some cases have considered (and implemented) almost all of these aspects, the majority of previous studies propose a specific solution, which would have been different if the missing disciplines had been included. This encyclopedia presents a unique collection of almost 400 issues, case studies, and practices. As such, it will be of critical importance for the sustainability of human development as examinations of current state-of-the-art techniques have at last been made available, thus making possible a much faster development towards more refined solutions in the future. Whether discussing the management of air, water, soil quality, or indeed any other issue, including those of global importance, this encyclopedia will be used frequently for years to come by all who hold a stake in the environment, including educational programs related to environmental management, industry, environmental regulatory bodies, and non-governmental organizations."
—From the Foreword by Tarzan Legović, Secretary General, International Society for Ecological Modelling; Professor and Chairman, Division of Marine and Environmental Research, R. Bošković Institute, Zagreb, Croatia

"… an excellent resource for finding basic knowledge on environmental systems. Reviewed here in its online version, it is also available as a four-volume print set. Reflecting extensive coverage of the field, the highly informative entries are profusely illustrated with graphs and charts. The editors claim to have included 90-95 percent of the most important problems and solutions facing environmental management today. Entries range from "Acaricides" and "Acid Rain" to "Wind Farms: Noise" and "Yellow River." The entries focus on definitions and on solutions to environmental problems. The solutions involve the use of environmental, ecological, and cleaner technologies as well as environmental legislation. Searching is easy and fast; articles load quickly. The bibliographies are extensive and cross-linked. This is especially helpful for libraries that subscribe to Web of Science <http://thomsonreuters.com/web-of-science/> (CH, Jan'11, 48-2436), since its link resolvers will connect directly to the citations. An extremely helpful Librarians' Area provides detailed information on how to set up link resolvers, use OpenURL linking in catalogs, create usage reports, and more. Pricing is based on a standard fee, based on FTE. This is a valuable resource for all libraries supporting programs in environment studies, earth science, and geography. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Lower-level undergraduates and above; general readers."
J. C. Stachacz, Wilkes University in CHOICE Magazine