2nd Edition

Encyclopedia of Optical and Photonic Engineering (Print) - Five Volume Set

    4088 Pages 3500 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    The first edition of the Encyclopedia of Optical and Photonic Engineering provided a valuable reference concerning devices or systems that generate, transmit, measure, or detect light, and to a lesser degree, the basic interaction of light and matter. This Second Edition not only reflects the changes in optical and photonic engineering that have occurred since the first edition was published, but also:

    • Boasts a wealth of new material, expanding the encyclopedia’s length by 25 percent
    • Contains extensive updates, with significant revisions made throughout the text
    • Features contributions from engineers and scientists leading the fields of optics and photonics today

    With the addition of a second editor, the Encyclopedia of Optical and Photonic Engineering, Second Edition offers a balanced and up-to-date look at the fundamentals of a diverse portfolio of technologies and discoveries in areas ranging from x-ray optics to photon entanglement and beyond. This edition’s release corresponds nicely with the United Nations General Assembly’s declaration of 2015 as the International Year of Light, working in tandem to raise awareness about light’s important role in the modern world.

    Also Available Online
    This Taylor & Francis encyclopedia is also available through online subscription, offering a variety of extra benefits for researchers, students, and librarians, including:

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    • Active reference linking
    • Saved searches and marked lists
    • HTML and PDF format options

    Contact Taylor and Francis for more information or to inquire about subscription options and print/online combination packages.
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    Virendra N. Mahajan and Pantazis Z. Mouroulis

    Adjacency Effect
    Eric F. Vermote

    Arkadi Zilberman

    Anomalous Skin Effect: Reflectance and Scattering
    Harold E. Bennett

    Antireflection Coatings
    Peter Martin and Wendy Bennett

    Artificial Media: Subwavelength Scale Optical Properties
    Philippe LaLanne and Mike Hutley

    James R. Sowell and Donald Bord

    Astronomy: X-Ray
    Leon Golub and Martin Elvis

    Atmospheric Blur and Image Restoration
    Norman S. Kopeika, Arkadi Zilberman, and Yitzhak Yitzhaky

    Atmospheric Optics
    N. S. Kopeika

    Automatic Target Detection
    Alex Lipchen Chan, Nasser M. Nasrabadi, and Sandor Z. Der

    Automatic Target Recognition
    Gary O'Brien

    Fernando Moreno, Jose M. Saiz, and Francisco González

    Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)
    Hendrik Rothe

    Biomedical Spectroscopy
    Valery V. Tuchin

    Yingzi Du

    Biopsy: Optical
    Irving J. Bigio and Judith R. Mourant

    Myrian Tebaldi

    Bonded Optics: Performance Optimization
    Andrew G. Bachmann, Nicole Langer, John R. Arnold, and John G. Daly

    Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics
    H. Walther

    Ichirou Yamaguchi

    Coherence Theory
    William H. Carter

    Collimation Testing Techniques
    Rajpal S. Sirohi, Shyam Singh, and A.R. Ganesan

    Communication Networks: Performance Monitoring
    Zeev Zalevsky and Vardit Eckhouse

    Complex Variables
    Thomas L. Clarke

    Compression Transforms: Hierarchical, Including Wavelets
    Francois Meyer

    Compression Transforms: Image Quality Measures
    Frank M. Caimi and Mark S. Schmalz

    Compressive Sampling for Optical Systems
    J. M. Nichols, C. McLaughlin, J. Michalowicz, and F. Bucholtz

    Computer-Generated Holograms (CGH)
    Mikhail Mozerov

    Crystallography: X-Ray
    Robert M. Sweet

    Data Storage: High Density
    Claire Gu, Guofan Jin, and Liangcai Cao

    Data Storage: Holographic
    Geoffrey W. Burr

    Data Storage: Phase-Change Media
    Takeo Ohta and Stanford R. Ovshinsky

    Data Storage: Volumetric, Ultra-High Density
    Xiangping Li, Geoffrey W. Burr, and Min Gu

    Delta T (Differential Blackbody Temperature)
    J. Glen Vinson

    Detectors: Figures of Merit
    Panos G. Datskos and Nickolay V. Lavrik

    Detectors: Focal Plane Array Technology
    Paul Norton

    Detectors: Infrared and Focal Plane Arrays
    Masafumi Kimata

    Diffractive Optics
    Joseph N. Mait

    Diffractive Optics: Fabrication
    Thomas J. Suleski

    Diffractive Optics: Methods
    Dennis W. Prather

    Digital Image Restoration: Classical
    C. Andrew Segall and Aggelos K. Katsaggelos

    Digital Images: Compression
    Mark S. Schmalz

    Digital Images: Enhancement
    Nikolas P. Galatsanos, C. Andrew Segall, and Aggelos K. Katsaggelos

    Digital Images: Processing
    Russell C. Hardie and Majeed M. Hayat

    Digital Images: Redundancy
    Mark S. Schmalz

    Disk Drives, Optical: Mechanical Design and Servo Systems
    Kurt W. Getreuer

    Display Systems: Binocular and 3-D, Visual Comfort
    Frank L. Kooi and Alexander Toet

    Display Systems: Head-Mounted
    Jannick P. Rolland and Hong Hua

    Display Systems: Stereoscopic
    Jean-Claude Kastelik and Marc Gazalet

    Displays: Retinal Scanning
    Hakan Urey

    Laurence G. Hassebrook and Chun Guan

    Electro-Optical Imaging Systems: Performance Measurement
    Piet Bijl, Alexander Toet, and J. Mathieu Valeton

    Electro-Optical Materials
    Jean-Pierre Huignard and Jean-Paul Pocholle

    Electro-Optical Materials: Inorganic
    Fernando Agulló López, Angel García Cabañes, and José Manuel Cabrera Castillo

    Electro-Optical Scanners
    Daniel D. Stancil


    Emissivity Measurements: Infrared Imaging Radiometric Cameras
    Robert P. Madding

    Stephen J. Pearton

    Eye Movements and Accommodation
    Nicklaus F. Fogt

    Femtosecond Pulses: High Power
    Victor Yanovsky

    Film Thickness Measurement
    Francois Flory and Ludovic Escoubas

    Filters: Circular Polarization
    Akhlesh Lakhtakia and Martin W. McCall

    Fluorescence Microscopy
    Kenneth R. Spring

    F-Number, Numerical Aperture, and Depth of Focus
    John Hall

    Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR)
    Bill Blecha

    Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) and Electro-Optical Sensors: Simulation
    Eddie Jacobs

    Fourier Data Processing in Optics
    Zeev Zalevsky, David Mendlovic, Gal Shabtay, and Uriel Levy

    Fourier Optics and Optical Signal Processing
    Joseph Shamir

    Fourier Spectrometer
    Romuald Jozwicki

    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
    Xudong Xiao and Bing Wang

    Frequency Doubling and Mixing
    Richard L. Sutherland

    Fresnel Equations
    Alexander I. Lvovsky

    William Keel

    Gas Lasers
    Robert C. Sze

    Glass Waveguide Fabrication
    Giancarlo C. Righini and Andrea Chiappinic

    Glassworking: Optical Applications
    Hedser van Brug

    Gyroscopes: Ring Laser
    Sylvain Schwartz

    H. John Caulfield

    Honeybee: Visual System Design
    Adrian Horridge

    Human Vision and Color
    Brian H. Tsou and Vincent A. Billock

    Illumination Optics
    Richard Heinisch

    Image Compression: Applications
    Liviu I. Voicu

    Image Compression: JPEG-2000 Standard
    Christopher M. Brislawn and Mihaela D. Quirk

    Image Compression: Lossless
    S. Sahni, C. Leonard, C. Kapoor, F. Chen, J. Fitzsimmons, and B. C. Vemuri

    Image Compression: Lossy Blockwise
    Thomas H. Drayer

    Image Intensifiers
    C. Bruce Johnson

    Image Processing: Multispectral and Hyperspectral, Initial Processing
    William B. Clodius

    Image Processing: Multispectral and Hyperspectral, Spectral Analysis
    James Theiler, and Christopher M. Brislawn

    Image Processing: Multispectral and Hyperspectral, Transforms, Classification, and Coding
    William B. Clodius, Neal R. Harvey, Mihaela D. Quirk, and James Theiler

    Image Quality Equations and National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS)
    Jon C. Leachtenauer

    Image Restoration
    Carsten Denker, Alexandra Tritschler, and Mats Löfdahl

    Image Segmentation
    Mauro Barni and Franco Bartolini

    Image Sequence Processing
    Jonathan Simpkins, Robert L. Stevenson, and Sean Borman

    Infrared Imaging Systems
    Keith Krapels

    Integral Transforms
    Mikhail S. Belen'kii

    Integrated Optical Circuits
    Ari Tervonen

    Integrated Optical Waveguides
    Cheng-Chung Li

    Interband Cascade Lasers
    Igor Vurgaftman, W.W. Bewley, C.L. Canedy, C.S. Kim, M. Kim, J.R. Lindle, J. Abell, and J.R. Meyer

    John Hayes

    Rajpal S. Sirohi

    Iterated Function Systems
    Michael F. Barnsley

    Laser and Gaussian Beam Propagation and Transformation
    Javier Alda

    Laser Beam Shaping: Aspheric Optics
    David L. Shealy and John A. Hoffnagle

    Laser Range-Gated Imagers
    Richard L. Espinola and Eddie Jacobs

    Laser Transmitters
    Osamu Wada

    Laser-Cooled Atoms and Optical Lattices
    Gilbert Grynberg

    Bradley W. Schilling

    Lasers: Ceramic Materials
    Jasbinder S. Sanghera and Thomas F. Soules

    Lasers: Industrial
    Leonard Miglore

    Lasers: Medical Applications
    Stephen N. Joffe

    Lasers: Surgical Applications
    Lars O. Svaasand

    Lasers: Tunable
    Hongxiang Meng and Minzhi Gu

    Lenses, Mirrors and Prisms
    R. Hradaynath and Ikbal Singh

    Lenses: Design
    Deqing Ren

    Lenses: Fresnel
    Michael D. Watson and Steven M. Scott

    Lenses: Gradient Index (GRIN)
    Andrew Tsiboulia

    Lenses: Spherical and Cylindrical
    José M. Sasián


    Lidar: Aerosol Sensing
    Francesc Rocadenbosch

    Lidar: Remote Sensing
    Matthew J. McGill

    Lidar: Wind, Raman, and Other Sensing
    Francesc Rocadenbosch

    Light Emitting Diodes
    Jaehee Cho and E. Fred Schubert

    Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs): Active Matrix
    Kevin L. Walsh

    Liquid Crystals: Cholesteric, Guest-Host, and Polymer-Dispersed
    Sven T. Lagerwall, Per G. Rudquist, and David S. Hermann

    Liquid Crystals: Electro-Optical Modes and Applications
    Sven T. Lagerwall, Per G. Rudquist, and David S. Hermann

    Liquid Crystals: Non-Linear Optical Effects
    Sven T. Lagerwall, Per G. Rudquist, and David S. Hermann

    Liquid Crystals: Optical Properties and Basic Devices
    Sven T. Lagerwall, Per G. Rudquist, and David S. Hermann

    Lithography: Extreme Ultraviolet
    Donald W. Sweeney

    Living Cells: Optical Manipulation
    Alois K. Popp and Verena Horneffer

    Machine Vision
    Bruce Batchelor

    Machine Vision: Image Processing
    E.R. Davies

    Machine Vision: Lighting
    Kevin G. Harding

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    Annemie Van der Linden and Jan Sijbers

    Michael Friedmann

    Metrology: Optical Shop
    Daniel Malacara-Hernández

    Micro-Optics: Optical System Design
    Eric Logean, Toralf Scharf, Hans Peter Herzig, and Andreas Schilling

    Laimonas Kelbauskas and Honor Glenn

    David Dickensheets

    Microscopy: Living Cells, Tissues, and Organs
    Robert S. McCuskey

    Microscopy: X-Ray
    Michael Feser

    Military Imaging Experiments
    Dawne M. Deaver and Barbara L. O’Kane

    Milky Way
    Richard Sears

    Mirrors: Microroughness and Light Scattering
    Harold E. Bennett

    Modulation and Coding
    B.V.K. Vijaya Kumar and Jingfeng Liu

    Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)
    Arnold Daniels

    Molding Optical Components
    R. Wimberger-Friedl

    Motion Perception
    Scott N.J. Watamaniuk

    Nanophotonics for Photovoltaics
    Francois Flory, Ludovic Escoubas, J.J. Simon, P. Torchio, J. Le Rouzo, and W. Vervisch

    National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS)
    John M. Irvine

    Night Vision Modeling: Historical Perspectives
    John D. O'Connor and James A. Ratches

    Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD)
    José Manuel López-Alonso

    Noise: Fixed Pattern
    Bhaskar Choubey

    Noise: Three-Dimensional
    Curtis M. Webb

    Nonlinear Absorption
    Eric W. Van Stryland and David J. Hagan

    Nonlinear Crystals: Quasi-Phase Matched
    Eric Lallier and Arnaud Grisard

    Nonlinear Molecular Photonics
    Joseph Zyss, Isabelle Ledoux-Rak, Eric Toussaere, Sophie Brasselet, Ariela Donval, and Guillermo Martin-Fuchs

    Nonlinear Refraction
    Mansoor Sheik-Bahae and Michael P. Hasselbeck

    Ocean Optics: Air and Sea Interface
    A. G. Luchinin

    Ocean Optics: Airborne Systems for Seeing Into Water
    R. Norris Keeler

    Ocean Optics: Properties and Effects
    Larry B. Stotts

    Ophthalmic Optics
    Javier Alda and José Manuel López-Alonso

    Optical Amplifiers
    Mário F.S. Ferreira

    Optical Coherence Tomography
    James G. Fujimoto

    Optical Computing
    H. John Caulfield

    Optical Correlators
    Suganda Jutamulia

    Optical Correlators: Applications
    Nazif Demoli

    Optical Correlators: Compact Real-Time
    Aris Tanone

    Optical Correlators: Joint Transform
    Suganda Jutamulia

    Optical Correlators: Spatial Light Modulators
    Feijun Song

    Optical Correlators: Vander Lugt
    Suganda Jutamulia

    Optical Correlators: Wavelet Transform
    Joewono Widjaja

    Optical Design and Fabrication
    Joseph Braat


    Optical Fiber: Structured
    John Canning

    Optical Fibers: Biosensors
    Carlos R. Zamarreño, Abian B. Socorro, Pedro Sanchez, Ignacio R. Matias, and Francisco J. Arregui

    Optical Fibers: Characteristics
    John Gowar

    Optical Fibers: Highly Nonlinear
    Mário F. S. Ferreira

    Optical Fibers: Networks
    Pascal Lorenz, Mário Marques Freire, and Joel J. P. C. Rodrigues

    Optical Fibers: Optical Communications
    John Gowar

    Optical Fibers: Sources
    Geert Morthier

    Optical Heads
    Jean Schleipen, Benno Hendriks, and Sjoerd S. Stallinga

    Optical Logic Gates and Algebra
    Francis T.S. Yu and Chii Maw Uang

    Optical Modulators
    N. K. Dutta and K. Lu

    Optical Neural Networks
    Francis T.S. Yu and Chii Maw Uang

    Optical Parametric Oscillators and Amplifiers
    Razvan Dabu

    Optical Pulse Generation: Ultrafast
    Frank Wise

    Optical System Optimization
    Florian Bociort

    Optical Transfer Functions
    Virendra N. Mahajan

    Optical Tweezers
    Phil Jones

    J. J. Coleman

    Opto-Electronics: Neural Networks
    Paulo E.X. Silveira

    Opto-Electronics: Receivers
    Ilesanmi Adesida, Jae-Hyung Jang, and Patrick Fay

    Paraxial Optics
    Javier Alda

    Partial Differential Equations
    Bhimsen K. Shivamoggi

    Pattern Recognition
    Mohammad S. Alam

    Photodetectors: Avalanche
    Vitaly E. Shubin and Dmitry A. Shushakov

    William Ross McCluney

    Photon Detectors
    Antoni Rogalski

    Photonic Crystals
    Claude Weisbuch and Henri Benisty

    Photonic Integrated Circuits
    Louay Eldada

    Photonic Switches
    Caterina Ciminelli and Mario Armenise

    Photorefractive Materials and Applications
    Cornelia Denz and Vishnu Vardhan Krishnamachari

    Piezoelectric Effect
    Saravanan M. Peelamedu

    Vladimir Bordo

    Point-Spread Functions
    Virendra N. Mahajan

    Polarization Measurements
    Dennis H. Goldstein

    Polarization Phenomena in Optical Systems
    Tomasz R. Wolinski

    Psychophysics and Psychophysical Measurement
    Piet Bijl, Alexander Toet, and J. Mathieu Valeton

    Pulse Image Processing
    Jason M. Kinser

    Pupils and Stops
    G. Smith

    Quantum Dot Devices
    Madalina Furis and Alexander N. Cartwright

    Quantum Efficiency
    Vikram Dhar

    Quantum Information Processing and Cryptography
    P. L. Knight and W. J. Munro

    Quantum Optics
    G.S. Agarwal

    Quantum Optics: Photonic Band Gap Materials
    Gershon Kurizki and Abraham G. Kofman

    Quantum State Engineering and Stabilization
    Paolo Tombesi and David Vitali

    Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP)
    K. K. Choi

    Van A. Hodgkin

    Radiometry: Remote Sensing
    John R. Schott and Julia A. Barsi

    Random Processes
    Ronald L. Phillips


    Ray Tracing: Paraxial
    Javier Alda and Josep Arasa

    Ray Tracing: Real
    Javier Alda

    Remote Sensing
    Robert D. Fiete

    Remote Sensing: Electro-Optical Systems
    Don M. McKeown

    Gustaf Olsson

    Reticles: Missile Seekers
    Craig M. Deyerle

    Reticles: Nutating Systems
    Surng-Gahb Jahng, Hyun-Ki Hong, Jong-Soo Choi, and Sung-Hyun Han

    Reticles: Rotating Systems
    Hyun-Ki Hong, Surng-Gahb Jahng, Kyoung-Soo Doo, and Jong-Soo Choi

    Scanners and Modulators:Acousto-Optical
    Reeder Ward, Mark Montgomery, and Milton Gottlieb

    Scanners: Galvanometric and Resonant
    Jean Montagu

    Scanning and Confocal Microscopy
    Colin Sheppard

    Adam Liebert and Roman Maniewski

    Larry C. Andrews

    Semiconductor Materials: III-V Nonlinear Characteristics
    R. Kuszelewicz and A. Levenson

    Sensor and Image Fusion
    Dean Scribner, Jonathon M. Schuler, Penny Warren, Richard Klein, and J. Grant Howard

    Solar System
    Robert L. Marcialis

    Spatiotemporal Contrast Sensitivity: Threshold and Suprathreshold
    Walter Makous

    Special Functions
    Larry C. Andrews and Cynthia Y. Young

    Carl E. Halford

    Jeffrey H. Hunt

    Spectroscopy: Doppler-Free
    Susan K. Watson

    Spectroscopy: Intracavity Laser
    L. N. Sinitsa

    Spectroscopy: Microwave
    Alan C. Samuels

    Spectroscopy: Saturation
    Thomas U. Kuehl

    Spectroscopy: Surface Nonlinear Optical
    Philippe Guyot-Sionnest

    Spectroscopy: Tissue
    Valery V. Tuchin

    Stellar Characteristics
    Donald Bord

    William Livingston

    Super Resolution
    Jonathon M. Schuler

    Surface Roughness
    Jean M. Bennett

    Synthetic Aperture Radar
    John A. Richards

    Target Signature: Methods
    William R. Reynolds

    Thermal Detectors
    Antoni Rogalski

    Thin Film Deposition
    Ian C. Stevenson

    Three-Dimensional Noncontact Sensing
    Kevin G. Harding

    Tissue--Laser Interactions
    Inci Çilesiz

    Tunable Terahertz-Wave Generation
    Hiromasa Ito

    Universe: Distribution of Matter
    Eliot Malumuth

    Mark D. McDowell

    Velocimetry: Spatial-Filtering
    Yasumasa Itakura

    Visible Sensor Performance Measurements
    Gordon Arthur and George R. Armstrong

    Vision: Nonlinear Dynamic Approaches
    Vincent A. Billock and Brian H. Tsou

    Visual Conspicuity
    Alexander Toet and Piet Bijl

    Visual Information Processing
    Vincent A. Billock and Brian H. Tsou

    Visual Search
    Alexander Toet and Piet Bijl

    Visual Search: Color and Display Issues
    Allen L. Nagy

    Visual Search: Experiments
    Alexander Toet and Piet Bijl

    Wavefront Coding
    Manjunath Somayaji

    Wavelets: Continuous Transform and Series
    Ahmed I. Zayed

    Wireless Communications
    Shlomi Arnon

    X-Rays: Medical Applications
    J. Anthony Seibert

    X-Rays: Optical Elements
    Eberhard Spiller


    Craig A. Hoffman is superintendent of the Optical Sciences Division of the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), and a member of the Senior Executive Service. Dr. Hoffman came to the NRL in 1979 as a National Research Council post-doctoral fellow and joined the NRL staff as a research physicist in 1981. He became the associate superintendent of the NRL Optical Sciences Division in 1998, and served as acting superintendent of the division from February 2007 to March 2008 and from October 2013 to October 2014. As a member of the NRL research staff, Dr. Hoffman received Navy Meritorious Unit Commendation Awards in 1996 and 2006. Widely published, Dr. Hoffman is a fellow of the OSA and a member of IEEE, SPIE, Sigma Xi, and Phi Beta Kappa. He holds a BS in physics from Purdue University, and an MS and Ph.D in physics from Brown University.

    Ronald G. Driggers is CEO of St. Johns Optical Systems, a retired US naval reserve officer, and editor-in-chief of Applied Optics. Previously, he was superintendent of the Optical Sciences Division of the US Naval Research Laboratory and a member of the Senior Executive Service. Before that, he was director of the Modeling and Simulation Division at the US Army’s Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), and worked briefly as chief of the Electro-Optics and Photonics Division at the Army Research Laboratory. He was selected as the 2002 Army Materiel Command’s Engineer of the Year; 2001 Communications-Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center Technical Employee of the Year; 2001 NVESD Technical Employee of the Year; and 2001 Naval Engineering Duty Officer of the Year. Widely published, Dr. Driggers is a fellow of SPIE, OSA, and the Military Sensing Symposium. He holds a doctorate in electrical engineering from the University of Memphis.

    Praise for the First Edition

    "… extraordinarily comprehensive. … detailed, up-to-date information and data. … This is the only reference book you ever need. A must-have!"
    —Gerald Holst, Author and Publisher, Fellow, SPIE, Winter Park, Florida, USA

    "… contents are well chosen, comprehensive, and expanded upon with authority. ... The encyclopedia is a significant addition to our set of reference materials."
    —Brian J. Thompson, Provost Emeritus and Distinguished University Professor, Professor Emeritus of Optics, University of Rochester, New York, USA

    "… has something for everyone."
    —Mark G. Kuzyk, Professor and Associate Chair, Department of Physics, Washington State University, Pullman, USA

    "… structured in a manner that allows a reader not generally familiar with the topic to rapidly gain a penetrating understanding of the terminology, background, scope, application, [and] important analytical relationships."
    —Barry Johnson, Optical E.T.C., Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, USA