Encyclopedia of Optical and Photonic Engineering (Print) - Five Volume Set: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Encyclopedia of Optical and Photonic Engineering (Print) - Five Volume Set

2nd Edition

Edited by Craig Hoffman, Ronald Driggers

CRC Press

3,858 pages | 3500 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781439850978
pub: 2015-09-22
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The first edition of the Encyclopedia of Optical and Photonic Engineering provided a valuable reference concerning devices or systems that generate, transmit, measure, or detect light, and to a lesser degree, the basic interaction of light and matter. This Second Edition not only reflects the changes in optical and photonic engineering that have occurred since the first edition was published, but also:

  • Boasts a wealth of new material, expanding the encyclopedia’s length by 25 percent
  • Contains extensive updates, with significant revisions made throughout the text
  • Features contributions from engineers and scientists leading the fields of optics and photonics today

With the addition of a second editor, the Encyclopedia of Optical and Photonic Engineering, Second Edition offers a balanced and up-to-date look at the fundamentals of a diverse portfolio of technologies and discoveries in areas ranging from x-ray optics to photon entanglement and beyond. This edition’s release corresponds nicely with the United Nations General Assembly’s declaration of 2015 as the International Year of Light, working in tandem to raise awareness about light’s important role in the modern world.

Also Available Online

This Taylor & Francis encyclopedia is also available through online subscription, offering a variety of extra benefits for researchers, students, and librarians, including:

  • Citation tracking and alerts
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  • Saved searches and marked lists
  • HTML and PDF format options

Contact Taylor and Francis for more information or to inquire about subscription options and print/online combination packages.

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Praise for the First Edition

"… extraordinarily comprehensive. … detailed, up-to-date information and data. … This is the only reference book you ever need. A must-have!"

—Gerald Holst, Author and Publisher, Fellow, SPIE, Winter Park, Florida, USA

"… contents are well chosen, comprehensive, and expanded upon with authority. … The encyclopedia is a significant addition to our set of reference materials."

—Brian J. Thompson, Provost Emeritus and Distinguished University Professor, Professor Emeritus of Optics, University of Rochester, New York, USA

"… has something for everyone."

—Mark G. Kuzyk, Professor and Associate Chair, Department of Physics, Washington State University, Pullman, USA

"… structured in a manner that allows a reader not generally familiar with the topic to rapidly gain a penetrating understanding of the terminology, background, scope, application, [and] important analytical relationships."

—Barry Johnson, Optical E.T.C., Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, USA

Table of Contents



Virendra N. Mahajan and Pantazis Z. Mouroulis

Adjacency Effect

Eric F. Vermote


Arkadi Zilberman

Anomalous Skin Effect: Reflectance and Scattering

Harold E. Bennett

Antireflection Coatings

Peter Martin and Wendy Bennett

Artificial Media: Subwavelength Scale Optical Properties

Philippe LaLanne and Mike Hutley


James R. Sowell and Donald Bord

Astronomy: X-Ray

Leon Golub and Martin Elvis

Atmospheric Blur and Image Restoration

Norman S. Kopeika, Arkadi Zilberman, and Yitzhak Yitzhaky

Atmospheric Optics

N. S. Kopeika

Automatic Target Detection

Alex Lipchen Chan, Nasser M. Nasrabadi, and Sandor Z. Der

Automatic Target Recognition

Gary O'Brien


Fernando Moreno, Jose M. Saiz, and Francisco González

Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)

Hendrik Rothe

Biomedical Spectroscopy

Valery V. Tuchin


Yingzi Du

Biopsy: Optical

Irving J. Bigio and Judith R. Mourant


Myrian Tebaldi

Bonded Optics: Performance Optimization

Andrew G. Bachmann, Nicole Langer, John R. Arnold, and John G. Daly

Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

H. Walther


Ichirou Yamaguchi

Coherence Theory

William H. Carter

Collimation Testing Techniques

Rajpal S. Sirohi, Shyam Singh, and A.R. Ganesan

Communication Networks: Performance Monitoring

Zeev Zalevsky and Vardit Eckhouse

Complex Variables

Thomas L. Clarke

Compression Transforms: Hierarchical, Including Wavelets

Francois Meyer

Compression Transforms: Image Quality Measures

Frank M. Caimi and Mark S. Schmalz

Compressive Sampling for Optical Systems

J. M. Nichols, C. McLaughlin, J. Michalowicz, and F. Bucholtz

Computer-Generated Holograms (CGH)

Mikhail Mozerov

Crystallography: X-Ray

Robert M. Sweet

Data Storage: High Density

Claire Gu, Guofan Jin, and Liangcai Cao

Data Storage: Holographic

Geoffrey W. Burr

Data Storage: Phase-Change Media

Takeo Ohta and Stanford R. Ovshinsky

Data Storage: Volumetric, Ultra-High Density

Xiangping Li, Geoffrey W. Burr, and Min Gu

Delta T (Differential Blackbody Temperature)

J. Glen Vinson

Detectors: Figures of Merit

Panos G. Datskos and Nickolay V. Lavrik

Detectors: Focal Plane Array Technology

Paul Norton

Detectors: Infrared and Focal Plane Arrays

Masafumi Kimata

Diffractive Optics

Joseph N. Mait

Diffractive Optics: Fabrication

Thomas J. Suleski

Diffractive Optics: Methods

Dennis W. Prather

Digital Image Restoration: Classical

C. Andrew Segall and Aggelos K. Katsaggelos

Digital Images: Compression

Mark S. Schmalz

Digital Images: Enhancement

Nikolas P. Galatsanos, C. Andrew Segall, and Aggelos K. Katsaggelos

Digital Images: Processing

Russell C. Hardie and Majeed M. Hayat

Digital Images: Redundancy

Mark S. Schmalz

Disk Drives, Optical: Mechanical Design and Servo Systems

Kurt W. Getreuer

Display Systems: Binocular and 3-D, Visual Comfort

Frank L. Kooi and Alexander Toet

Display Systems: Head-Mounted

Jannick P. Rolland and Hong Hua

Display Systems: Stereoscopic

Jean-Claude Kastelik and Marc Gazalet

Displays: Retinal Scanning

Hakan Urey


Laurence G. Hassebrook and Chun Guan

Electro-Optical Imaging Systems: Performance Measurement

Piet Bijl, Alexander Toet, and J. Mathieu Valeton

Electro-Optical Materials

Jean-Pierre Huignard and Jean-Paul Pocholle

Electro-Optical Materials: Inorganic

Fernando Agulló López, Angel García Cabañes, and José Manuel Cabrera Castillo

Electro-Optical Scanners

Daniel D. Stancil


Emissivity Measurements: Infrared Imaging Radiometric Cameras

Robert P. Madding


Stephen J. Pearton

Eye Movements and Accommodation

Nicklaus F. Fogt

Femtosecond Pulses: High Power

Victor Yanovsky

Film Thickness Measurement

Francois Flory and Ludovic Escoubas

Filters: Circular Polarization

Akhlesh Lakhtakia and Martin W. McCall

Fluorescence Microscopy

Kenneth R. Spring

F-Number, Numerical Aperture, and Depth of Focus

John Hall

Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR)

Bill Blecha

Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) and Electro-Optical Sensors: Simulation

Eddie Jacobs

Fourier Data Processing in Optics

Zeev Zalevsky, David Mendlovic, Gal Shabtay, and Uriel Levy

Fourier Optics and Optical Signal Processing

Joseph Shamir

Fourier Spectrometer

Romuald Jozwicki

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Xudong Xiao and Bing Wang

Frequency Doubling and Mixing

Richard L. Sutherland

Fresnel Equations

Alexander I. Lvovsky


William Keel

Gas Lasers

Robert C. Sze

Glass Waveguide Fabrication

Giancarlo C. Righini and Andrea Chiappinic

Glassworking: Optical Applications

Hedser van Brug

Gyroscopes: Ring Laser

Sylvain Schwartz


H. John Caulfield

Honeybee: Visual System Design

Adrian Horridge

Human Vision and Color

Brian H. Tsou and Vincent A. Billock

Illumination Optics

Richard Heinisch

Image Compression: Applications

Liviu I. Voicu

Image Compression: JPEG-2000 Standard

Christopher M. Brislawn and Mihaela D. Quirk

Image Compression: Lossless

S. Sahni, C. Leonard, C. Kapoor, F. Chen, J. Fitzsimmons, and B. C. Vemuri

Image Compression: Lossy Blockwise

Thomas H. Drayer

Image Intensifiers

C. Bruce Johnson

Image Processing: Multispectral and Hyperspectral, Initial Processing

William B. Clodius

Image Processing: Multispectral and Hyperspectral, Spectral Analysis

James Theiler, and Christopher M. Brislawn

Image Processing: Multispectral and Hyperspectral, Transforms, Classification, and Coding

William B. Clodius, Neal R. Harvey, Mihaela D. Quirk, and James Theiler

Image Quality Equations and National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS)

Jon C. Leachtenauer

Image Restoration

Carsten Denker, Alexandra Tritschler, and Mats Löfdahl

Image Segmentation

Mauro Barni and Franco Bartolini

Image Sequence Processing

Jonathan Simpkins, Robert L. Stevenson, and Sean Borman

Infrared Imaging Systems

Keith Krapels

Integral Transforms

Mikhail S. Belen'kii

Integrated Optical Circuits

Ari Tervonen

Integrated Optical Waveguides

Cheng-Chung Li

Interband Cascade Lasers

Igor Vurgaftman, W.W. Bewley, C.L. Canedy, C.S. Kim, M. Kim, J.R. Lindle, J. Abell, and J.R. Meyer


John Hayes


Rajpal S. Sirohi

Iterated Function Systems

Michael F. Barnsley

Laser and Gaussian Beam Propagation and Transformation

Javier Alda

Laser Beam Shaping: Aspheric Optics

David L. Shealy and John A. Hoffnagle

Laser Range-Gated Imagers

Richard L. Espinola and Eddie Jacobs

Laser Transmitters

Osamu Wada

Laser-Cooled Atoms and Optical Lattices

Gilbert Grynberg


Bradley W. Schilling

Lasers: Ceramic Materials

Jasbinder S. Sanghera and Thomas F. Soules

Lasers: Industrial

Leonard Miglore

Lasers: Medical Applications

Stephen N. Joffe

Lasers: Surgical Applications

Lars O. Svaasand

Lasers: Tunable

Hongxiang Meng and Minzhi Gu

Lenses, Mirrors and Prisms

R. Hradaynath and Ikbal Singh

Lenses: Design

Deqing Ren

Lenses: Fresnel

Michael D. Watson and Steven M. Scott

Lenses: Gradient Index (GRIN)

Andrew Tsiboulia

Lenses: Spherical and Cylindrical

José M. Sasián


Lidar: Aerosol Sensing

Francesc Rocadenbosch

Lidar: Remote Sensing

Matthew J. McGill

Lidar: Wind, Raman, and Other Sensing

Francesc Rocadenbosch

Light Emitting Diodes

Jaehee Cho and E. Fred Schubert

Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs): Active Matrix

Kevin L. Walsh

Liquid Crystals: Cholesteric, Guest-Host, and Polymer-Dispersed

Sven T. Lagerwall, Per G. Rudquist, and David S. Hermann

Liquid Crystals: Electro-Optical Modes and Applications

Sven T. Lagerwall, Per G. Rudquist, and David S. Hermann

Liquid Crystals: Non-Linear Optical Effects

Sven T. Lagerwall, Per G. Rudquist, and David S. Hermann

Liquid Crystals: Optical Properties and Basic Devices

Sven T. Lagerwall, Per G. Rudquist, and David S. Hermann

Lithography: Extreme Ultraviolet

Donald W. Sweeney

Living Cells: Optical Manipulation

Alois K. Popp and Verena Horneffer

Machine Vision

Bruce Batchelor

Machine Vision: Image Processing

E.R. Davies

Machine Vision: Lighting

Kevin G. Harding

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Annemie Van der Linden and Jan Sijbers


Michael Friedmann

Metrology: Optical Shop

Daniel Malacara-Hernández

Micro-Optics: Optical System Design

Eric Logean, Toralf Scharf, Hans Peter Herzig, and Andreas Schilling


Laimonas Kelbauskas and Honor Glenn


David Dickensheets

Microscopy: Living Cells, Tissues, and Organs

Robert S. McCuskey

Microscopy: X-Ray

Michael Feser

Military Imaging Experiments

Dawne M. Deaver and Barbara L. O’Kane

Milky Way

Richard Sears

Mirrors: Microroughness and Light Scattering

Harold E. Bennett

Modulation and Coding

B.V.K. Vijaya Kumar and Jingfeng Liu

Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

Arnold Daniels

Molding Optical Components

R. Wimberger-Friedl

Motion Perception

Scott N.J. Watamaniuk

Nanophotonics for Photovoltaics

Francois Flory, Ludovic Escoubas, J.J. Simon, P. Torchio, J. Le Rouzo, and W. Vervisch

National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS)

John M. Irvine

Night Vision Modeling: Historical Perspectives

John D. O'Connor and James A. Ratches

Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD)

José Manuel López-Alonso

Noise: Fixed Pattern

Bhaskar Choubey

Noise: Three-Dimensional

Curtis M. Webb

Nonlinear Absorption

Eric W. Van Stryland and David J. Hagan

Nonlinear Crystals: Quasi-Phase Matched

Eric Lallier and Arnaud Grisard

Nonlinear Molecular Photonics

Joseph Zyss, Isabelle Ledoux-Rak, Eric Toussaere, Sophie Brasselet, Ariela Donval, and Guillermo Martin-Fuchs

Nonlinear Refraction

Mansoor Sheik-Bahae and Michael P. Hasselbeck

Ocean Optics: Air and Sea Interface

A. G. Luchinin

Ocean Optics: Airborne Systems for Seeing Into Water

R. Norris Keeler

Ocean Optics: Properties and Effects

Larry B. Stotts

Ophthalmic Optics

Javier Alda and José Manuel López-Alonso

Optical Amplifiers

Mário F.S. Ferreira

Optical Coherence Tomography

James G. Fujimoto

Optical Computing

H. John Caulfield

Optical Correlators

Suganda Jutamulia

Optical Correlators: Applications

Nazif Demoli

Optical Correlators: Compact Real-Time

Aris Tanone

Optical Correlators: Joint Transform

Suganda Jutamulia

Optical Correlators: Spatial Light Modulators

Feijun Song

Optical Correlators: Vander Lugt

Suganda Jutamulia

Optical Correlators: Wavelet Transform

Joewono Widjaja

Optical Design and Fabrication

Joseph Braat


Optical Fiber: Structured

John Canning

Optical Fibers: Biosensors

Carlos R. Zamarreño, Abian B. Socorro, Pedro Sanchez, Ignacio R. Matias, and Francisco J. Arregui

Optical Fibers: Characteristics

John Gowar

Optical Fibers: Highly Nonlinear

Mário F. S. Ferreira

Optical Fibers: Networks

Pascal Lorenz, Mário Marques Freire, and Joel J. P. C. Rodrigues

Optical Fibers: Optical Communications

John Gowar

Optical Fibers: Sources

Geert Morthier

Optical Heads

Jean Schleipen, Benno Hendriks, and Sjoerd S. Stallinga

Optical Logic Gates and Algebra

Francis T.S. Yu and Chii Maw Uang

Optical Modulators

N. K. Dutta and K. Lu

Optical Neural Networks

Francis T.S. Yu and Chii Maw Uang

Optical Parametric Oscillators and Amplifiers

Razvan Dabu

Optical Pulse Generation: Ultrafast

Frank Wise

Optical System Optimization

Florian Bociort

Optical Transfer Functions

Virendra N. Mahajan

Optical Tweezers

Phil Jones


J. J. Coleman

Opto-Electronics: Neural Networks

Paulo E.X. Silveira

Opto-Electronics: Receivers

Ilesanmi Adesida, Jae-Hyung Jang, and Patrick Fay

Paraxial Optics

Javier Alda

Partial Differential Equations

Bhimsen K. Shivamoggi

Pattern Recognition

Mohammad S. Alam

Photodetectors: Avalanche

Vitaly E. Shubin and Dmitry A. Shushakov


William Ross McCluney

Photon Detectors

Antoni Rogalski

Photonic Crystals

Claude Weisbuch and Henri Benisty

Photonic Integrated Circuits

Louay Eldada

Photonic Switches

Caterina Ciminelli and Mario Armenise

Photorefractive Materials and Applications

Cornelia Denz and Vishnu Vardhan Krishnamachari

Piezoelectric Effect

Saravanan M. Peelamedu


Vladimir Bordo

Point-Spread Functions

Virendra N. Mahajan

Polarization Measurements

Dennis H. Goldstein

Polarization Phenomena in Optical Systems

Tomasz R. Wolinski

Psychophysics and Psychophysical Measurement

Piet Bijl, Alexander Toet, and J. Mathieu Valeton

Pulse Image Processing

Jason M. Kinser

Pupils and Stops

G. Smith

Quantum Dot Devices

Madalina Furis and Alexander N. Cartwright

Quantum Efficiency

Vikram Dhar

Quantum Information Processing and Cryptography

P. L. Knight and W. J. Munro

Quantum Optics

G.S. Agarwal

Quantum Optics: Photonic Band Gap Materials

Gershon Kurizki and Abraham G. Kofman

Quantum State Engineering and Stabilization

Paolo Tombesi and David Vitali

Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP)

K. K. Choi


Van A. Hodgkin

Radiometry: Remote Sensing

John R. Schott and Julia A. Barsi

Random Processes

Ronald L. Phillips


Ray Tracing: Paraxial

Javier Alda and Josep Arasa

Ray Tracing: Real

Javier Alda

Remote Sensing

Robert D. Fiete

Remote Sensing: Electro-Optical Systems

Don M. McKeown


Gustaf Olsson

Reticles: Missile Seekers

Craig M. Deyerle

Reticles: Nutating Systems

Surng-Gahb Jahng, Hyun-Ki Hong, Jong-Soo Choi, and Sung-Hyun Han

Reticles: Rotating Systems

Hyun-Ki Hong, Surng-Gahb Jahng, Kyoung-Soo Doo, and Jong-Soo Choi

Scanners and Modulators:Acousto-Optical

Reeder Ward, Mark Montgomery, and Milton Gottlieb

Scanners: Galvanometric and Resonant

Jean Montagu

Scanning and Confocal Microscopy

Colin Sheppard


Adam Liebert and Roman Maniewski


Larry C. Andrews

Semiconductor Materials: III-V Nonlinear Characteristics

R. Kuszelewicz and A. Levenson

Sensor and Image Fusion

Dean Scribner, Jonathon M. Schuler, Penny Warren, Richard Klein, and J. Grant Howard

Solar System

Robert L. Marcialis

Spatiotemporal Contrast Sensitivity: Threshold and Suprathreshold

Walter Makous

Special Functions

Larry C. Andrews and Cynthia Y. Young


Carl E. Halford


Jeffrey H. Hunt

Spectroscopy: Doppler-Free

Susan K. Watson

Spectroscopy: Intracavity Laser

L. N. Sinitsa

Spectroscopy: Microwave

Alan C. Samuels

Spectroscopy: Saturation

Thomas U. Kuehl

Spectroscopy: Surface Nonlinear Optical

Philippe Guyot-Sionnest

Spectroscopy: Tissue

Valery V. Tuchin

Stellar Characteristics

Donald Bord


William Livingston

Super Resolution

Jonathon M. Schuler

Surface Roughness

Jean M. Bennett

Synthetic Aperture Radar

John A. Richards

Target Signature: Methods

William R. Reynolds

Thermal Detectors

Antoni Rogalski

Thin Film Deposition

Ian C. Stevenson

Three-Dimensional Noncontact Sensing

Kevin G. Harding

Tissue--Laser Interactions

Inci Çilesiz

Tunable Terahertz-Wave Generation

Hiromasa Ito

Universe: Distribution of Matter

Eliot Malumuth


Mark D. McDowell

Velocimetry: Spatial-Filtering

Yasumasa Itakura

Visible Sensor Performance Measurements

Gordon Arthur and George R. Armstrong

Vision: Nonlinear Dynamic Approaches

Vincent A. Billock and Brian H. Tsou

Visual Conspicuity

Alexander Toet and Piet Bijl

Visual Information Processing

Vincent A. Billock and Brian H. Tsou

Visual Search

Alexander Toet and Piet Bijl

Visual Search: Color and Display Issues

Allen L. Nagy

Visual Search: Experiments

Alexander Toet and Piet Bijl

Wavefront Coding

Manjunath Somayaji

Wavelets: Continuous Transform and Series

Ahmed I. Zayed

Wireless Communications

Shlomi Arnon

X-Rays: Medical Applications

J. Anthony Seibert

X-Rays: Optical Elements

Eberhard Spiller

About the Editors

Craig A. Hoffman is superintendent of the Optical Sciences Division of the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), and a member of the Senior Executive Service. Dr. Hoffman came to the NRL in 1979 as a National Research Council post-doctoral fellow and joined the NRL staff as a research physicist in 1981. He became the associate superintendent of the NRL Optical Sciences Division in 1998, and served as acting superintendent of the division from February 2007 to March 2008 and from October 2013 to October 2014. As a member of the NRL research staff, Dr. Hoffman received Navy Meritorious Unit Commendation Awards in 1996 and 2006. Widely published, Dr. Hoffman is a fellow of the OSA and a member of IEEE, SPIE, Sigma Xi, and Phi Beta Kappa. He holds a BS in physics from Purdue University, and an MS and Ph.D in physics from Brown University.

Ronald G. Driggers is CEO of St. Johns Optical Systems, a retired US naval reserve officer, and editor-in-chief of Applied Optics. Previously, he was superintendent of the Optical Sciences Division of the US Naval Research Laboratory and a member of the Senior Executive Service. Before that, he was director of the Modeling and Simulation Division at the US Army’s Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), and worked briefly as chief of the Electro-Optics and Photonics Division at the Army Research Laboratory. He was selected as the 2002 Army Materiel Command’s Engineer of the Year; 2001 Communications-Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center Technical Employee of the Year; 2001 NVESD Technical Employee of the Year; and 2001 Naval Engineering Duty Officer of the Year. Widely published, Dr. Driggers is a fellow of SPIE, OSA, and the Military Sensing Symposium. He holds a doctorate in electrical engineering from the University of Memphis.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Optics
SCIENCE / Physics