Encyclopedia of Soil Science: 3rd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Encyclopedia of Soil Science

3rd Edition

By Rattan Lal

CRC Press

2,804 pages

CHOICE 2018 Outstanding Academic Title Award Winner
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Hardback: 9781498738903
pub: 2016-11-01
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Description

New and Improved Global Edition: Three-Volume Set

A ready reference addressing a multitude of soil and soil management concerns, the highly anticipated and widely expanded third edition of Encyclopedia of Soil Science now spans three volumes and covers ground on a global scale. A definitive guide designed for both coursework and self-study, this latest version describes every branch of soil science and delves into trans-disciplinary issues that focus on inter-connectivity or the nexus approach.

For Soil Scientists, Crop Scientists, Plant Scientists and More

A host of contributors from around the world weigh in on underlying themes relevant to natural and agricultural ecosystems. Factoring in a rapidly changing climate and a vastly growing population, they sound off on topics that include soil degradation, climate change, soil carbon sequestration, food and nutritional security, hidden hunger, water quality, non-point source pollution, micronutrients, and elemental transformations.

New in the Third Edition:

  • Contains over 600 entries
  • Offers global geographical and thematic coverage
  • Entries peer reviewed by subject experts
  • Addresses current issues of global significance

Encyclopedia of Soil Science, Third Edition: Three Volume Set expertly explains the science of soil and describes the material in terms that are easily accessible to researchers, students, academicians, policy makers, and laymen alike.

Also Available Online

This Taylor & Francis encyclopedia is also available through online subscription, offering a variety of extra benefits for researchers, students, and librarians, including:

  • Citation tracking and alerts
  • Active reference linking
  • Saved searches and marked lists
  • HTML and PDF format options

Contact Taylor and Francis for more information or to inquire about subscription options and print/online combination packages.

US: (Tel) 1.888.318.2367; (E-mail) e-reference@taylorandfrancis.com

International: (Tel) +44 (0) 20 7017 6062; (E-mail) online.sales@tandf.co.uk

Table of Contents

Accounting: Emergy Analysis / Jay F Martin and D.R. Tilley

Acid Mine Drainage / Jerry M Bigham and Charles A Cravotta III

Acid Rain: Nitrogen Deposition / George F Vance

Acid Sulfate Soils / Delvin S Fanning

Acid Sulfate Soils: Distribution and Extent / Wim Andriesse and M.E.F van Mensvoort

Acid Sulfate Soils: Formation / Martin C Rabenhorst, Delvin S Fanning, and Steven N Burch

Acid Sulfate Soils: Management / Michael D Melville, Ian White, and Robert Quirk

Acid Sulfate Soils: Problems / Martin C Rabenhorst and Delvin S Fanning

Actinobacteria / Marketa Ságová-Marecková and Jan Kopecký

Aeration: Measurement / Robert E Sojka and H.D Scott

Aeration: Tillage Effects / Dave J Horne and Robert E Sojka

Aggregates: Tensile Strength / Humberto Blanco-Canqui and Rattan Lal

Aggregation / Sjoerd W Duiker

Aggregation: Soil Organic Matter (SOM) and / Cynthia A Cambardella

Aggregation: Structural Stability Measurement / Edmund Perfect, Martín Díaz-Zorita, and John Grove

Agricultural Lands: Flooding and Levee Breaches / Kenneth R Olson and Lois Wright Morton

Agricultural Management: Root Growth / Susanne Schroetter, Jutta Rogasik, and Ewald Schnug

Agricultural Soil Carbon: Trading / Bruce A McCarl, Sung Ju Cho, Jinxiu Ding, Pei Huang, Layla Shiva, and Chin-Hsien Yu

Air Permeability / Manoj K Shukla and Rattan Lal

Albedo / Endre Dobos

Alfisols / Rienk Miedema

Allophanes / Leslie Louise Baker and Jodi Johnson-Maynard

Alpine Soils / Jérôme Poulenard and Pascal Podwojewski

Aluminum / Johannes Bernhard Wehr, Frederick Paxton Cardell Blamey, and Neal William Menzies

Amazon Basin Soils / Stanley W Buol

Amendments and Ameliorants / David C McKenzie

Ammonia: Volatilization from Agricultural Soils / Paul G Saffigna and John R Freney

Amoozemeter / Aziz Amoozegar

Anaerobic Processes / Paul A McDaniel and Daniel G Strawn

Andisols / Jon Chorover

Andisols: Iceland / Olafur Arnalds

Animals: Ecosystem Functioning / Alan J Franzluebbers

Animals: Microbial Interactions and Nutrient Cycling / Lisa Cole and Richard D Bardgett

Antimony / Gudny Okkenhaug and Jan Mulder

Ants / Walter G Whitford

Archaeology / John E Foss

Arid Soils / H Curtis Monger

Arsenic: Southeast Asia / Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman and Ravi Naidu

Art and Soil / Christian Feller

Atterberg Limits / Thomas Baumgartl

Bacteria / Mary Ann Bruns

Biochar and Soil Characteristics / Atanu Mukherjee and Rattan Lal

Biochar and Soil Quality / David A Laird and Jeffrey M Novak

Biochar: Soil Carbon and Fertility / Adam O’Toole and Daniel Rasse

Biodegradation and Bioremediation / Owen P Ward and Ajay Singh

Biodiversity and Sustainability / Odo Primavesi

Bioenergy Crops: Carbon Balance Assessment / Rocky Lemus and Rattan Lal

Biofuels versus Agricultural Soils / David Pimentel

Biological Crusts / Jayne Belnap

Biological Nitrogen Fixation / Robert H Burris

Biological Nitrogen Fixation: Contributions to Agriculture / Mark B Peoples

Biological Nitrogen Fixation: Enhancement Techniques / David Francis Herridge

Biological Nitrogen Fixation: Forms and Regulating Factors / Ken E Giller and Paul Mapfumo

Biota / Lev O Karpachevsky and Mikhail Karpachevsky

Biota and Disease-Suppressive Soils / Nicola Lorenz

Biotechnology / Manas R Banerjee and Laila Yesmin

Boreal Forest / Galina Mazhitova

Boron and Molybdenum / Umesh C Gupta and J.A MacLeod

Brick Making: Soil Degradation / G.S Dheri, Babu S Brar, and Debankur Sanyal

Bulk Density / Kwong Yin Chan

Bunch Planting: Water Conservation / B.A Stewart

Calcification / Janis L Boettinger

Calcium / Zdenko Rengel

Carbon Assessment: Spectroscopic Methods / James B Reeves III and Gregory W McCarty

Carbon Sequestration: Fish Ponds / Subhendu Adhikari and Rattan Lal

Carbon Sequestration: Geologic / Eswaran Padmanabhan

Carbon Sequestration: Iceland / Anna María Ágústsdóttir

Carbon Sequestration: Nutrient Management / M.C Manna, Muneshwar Singh, R.H Wanjari, Asit Mandal, and A.K Patra

Carbon Sequestration: Sediments / Eswaran Padmanabhan

Carbon Sequestration: Semiarid Regions of India / Cherukumalli Srinivasa Rao, Sumanta Kundu, and Srinivas K

Carbon Sequestration: Urban Ecosystems / Adam Louis Selhorst

Carbon Sink Capacity: Soil Profile Characteristics / Yuri Lopes Zinn

Carbon: Inelastic Neutron Scattering / Lucian Wielopolski

Carbon: Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy / Michael H Ebinger, Ronny D Harris, and Clifton W Meyer

Carbon: Physical Protection / Jennifer A.J Dungait and David W Hopkins

Carbonates / Douglas W Ming

Carbonates: Secondary and Pedogenic / Ahmet R Mermut and A Landi

Carbonates: Water and / Michael Duniway

Care of Soil / Delia C Catacutan

Cerrado / Igo F Lepsch

Chemical Composition / Goro Uehara

Chemisorption / N.J Barrow

Chernozems / Boris Boincean and Rattan Lal

Chlorine / Uzi Kafkafi and Guohua Xu

Classification Systems / Stephen Nortcliff

Classification Systems: Arab Traditional, Moroccan Case / Mohamed Sabir and Hassan Ben Jelloun

Classification Systems: Australian and New Zealand / Terry A Isbell and A.E Hewitt

Classification Systems: Brazilian / A.C.S da Costa and M.R Nanni

Classification Systems: Canadian / Charles Tarnocai

Classification Systems: Chinese / Zi-Tong Gong

Classification Systems: French / Jean-Paul Legros

Classification Systems: Historical Developments / Dan H Yaalon

Classification Systems: Indian / Mariappan Velayutham, Tapas Bhattacharyya, and Dilip Kumar Pal

Classification Systems: Indigenous / Erhan Akça and Selim Kapur

Classification Systems: Major / Lars Krogh

Classification Systems: Netherlands / Alfred E Hartemink and Henk de Bakker

Classification Systems: Russian / Maria Gerasimova

Classification Systems: South African / Jeffrey C Hughes

Clay Minerals / C.D Barton and Anastasios D Karathanasis

Clay Minerals: Charge Properties / Christopher John Matocha

Clay Minerals: Weathering and Alteration of / Anastasios D Karathanasis

Climate / Alexander N Gennadiyev and Serge S Chernyanskii

Climate Change: Gas Fluxes / Pascal Boeckx and Oswald Van Cleemput

Climate Change: Soil Carbon Sequestration / Sherwood E Idso and Keith E Idso

Cobalt and Iodine / Ronald G McLaren

Collembola / Steve P Hopkin

Color / Robin N Thwaites

Compaction / William E Wolfe

Conditioning Index / Ted M Zobeck, M Lee Norfleet, and Douglas L Karlen

Conservation Tillage / Jack Cline and Robert Hendershot

Conserved Lands: Stewardship / Peter August, Janet Coit, and David Gregg

Consistence / Ray McBride

Consolidation / Tarunjit Singh Butalia

Controlled Traffic / Randall C Reeder

Copper / Judith F Pedler and David R Parker

Cover Crops / Jorge A Delgado, D Wayne Reeves, and Ronald F Follett

Crop Evapotranspiration: Measurement System / Huanjie Cai, Pute Wu, Zhijun Li, Xiaotao Hu, and Yufeng Zou

Crop Management: Seasonally Frozen Soil / Brenton S Sharratt

Crop Plants: Phosphorus Availability / Bettina Eichler-Löbermann and Ewald Schnug

Crop Residue Management / David L Schertz and Dan Towery

Crop Root Response to Temperature: Temperate Zone / Thomas C Kaspar

Crop Rotation and Farming Systems: Temperate Zone / Martin R Carter

Crop Rotation and Farming Systems: Tropical Smallholder Farm Systems /

Stefan Hauser, Lindsey Norgrove, and Tarcisius Nyobe

Crop Rotation and Farming Systems: Tropics and Subtropics and Swelling Soils / D.M Freebairn, G.D Smith, Robin D Connolly, and Jeff N Tullberg

Crop Yield: Compaction / Muhammad Ishaq and Rattan Lal

Croplands / B.A Stewart

Crops: Flooding Tolerance / Tara T VanToai, Getachew Boru, and Jianhuan Zhang

Cultivation: Raised-Bed / Kenneth D Sayre

Culture: Soil-less / Nazim Gruda, Giorgio Prosdocimi Gianquinto, Yuksel Tuzel, and Dimitrios Savvas

Cycling: Carbon and Nitrogen (C/N) / Sylvie M Brouder and Ronald F Turco

Debris Flow / Jau-Yau Lu

Degradation / Rosa M Poch Claret and José A Martínez-Casasnovas

Degradation: Biological / Ibrahim Ortaş

Degradation: Chemical / M Rifat Derici

Degradation: Critical Limits and Irreversible Degradation / Anthony R Dexter and Michael A Zoebisch

Degradation: Economic Incentives and Investments / Dennis Wichelns

Degradation: Farm-Level Economic Implications / Dennis Wichelns and Ellen Burnes

Degradation: Food Aid Needs in Low-Income Countries / Shahla Shapouri and Stacey Rosen

Degradation: Food Security and Poverty / Pierre Crosson

Degradation: Greenhouse Effect / Eddy De Pauw and Michael A Zoebisch

Degradation: Mapping by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) / Zhanquo Bai and David Dent

Degradation: Off-Farm Economic Implications / Dennis Wichelns and Ellen Burnes

Degradation: Physical / Michael A Zoebisch and Anthony R Dexter

Degradation: Quality and / Rattan Lal

Desertification: Biological Productivity Decline / Uriel N Safriel

Desertification: Extent / Victor R Squires

Desertification: Greenhouse Effect / Craig Idso and Sherwood E Idso

Desertification: Humid Environment in Iceland / Andres Arnalds

Desertification: Impact / David A Mouat and Judith Lancaster

Desertification: Mapping Constraints and Challenges / Pandi Zdruli, Michael Cherlet, and Claudio Zucca

Desertification: Prevention and Restoration / Claudio Zucca, Susana Bautista, and

Franco Previtali

Desertification: Productivity / Kris M Havstad

Desertification: Restoration / Alon Tal

Desertification: Reversal / David Tongway and John Ludwig

Desertization: Irreversible Extension of Desert Land / Henry Noel LeHouérou

Developing Countries: Economics of Soil Management / Stefano Pagiola

Diagnostic Horizons / E.M Bridges

Diffusivity: Measurement / Toru Nakajima

Digital Soil Mapping / Budiman Minasny, Alex B McBratney, and Florence Carré

Drainage: Aeration and Trafficability / Norman R Fausey

Drainage: Anaerobiosis / Robert O Evans

Drainage: Water Quality / James L Baker

Drought: Drought Resistance / Graeme C Wright and Nageswararao C Rachaputi

Drought: Precipitation, Evapotranspiration, and Soil Moisture / Joshua B Fisher and Konstantinos M Andreadis

Earthworms / Patrick J Bohlen

Eco-Agriculture / Norman Uphoff and Janice E Thies

Ecology: Cycling of Carbon and Nitrogen / Alan J Franzluebbers

Economics of Soil Management: U.S / Jeffrey W Hopkins

Ecosystems: Life Attributes and Environment / Dennis R Linden

Enchytraeidae / María Jesús Iglesias Briones

Entisols / Larry T West

Environmentally Friendly Indigenous Technologies / Selim Kapur and Erhan Akça

Enzymes / Veronica Acosta-Martinez and Susanne Klose

Erosion / Dennis C Flanagan

Erosion Management: Hill Soils / Narendra Kumar Lenka and B Krishna Rao

Erosion Tolerance / David L Schertz and Mark A Nearing

Erosion: Aggregate Breakdown Mechanisms / Yves Le Bissonnais

Erosion: Agronomic Practices / Glenn A Weesies, David L Schertz, and William F Kuenstler

Erosion: Assessment / John Boardman

Erosion: Carbon Dioxide / Pierre A Jacinthe and Rattan Lal

Erosion: Controlling Irrigation-Induced / Robert E Sojka and David L Bjorneberg

Erosion: Crop Yield / Michael Stocking

Erosion: Disturbed Lands / William J Elliot

Erosion: Effects on Human Life / Neroli Pedro Cogo and Renato Levien

Erosion: Fly-Ash Spheres as Time Marker / Kenneth R Olson and Alexander N Gennadiyev

Erosion: Global Change / Xingxiang Wang, Taolin Zhang, Longxi Cao, and Yin Liang

Erosion: On-Site and Off-Site Impacts / Jerry L Hatfield

Erosion: Overland Research and Measurement Techniques / Chia Chun Joseph Wu

Erosion: Perennial Crop Plantations / Alfred E Hartemink

Erosion: Sedimentation Control Amendment Techniques / X.-C (John) Zhang

Erosion: Sedimentation Control Vegetative Techniques / Samson D Angima

Erosion: Snowmelt / Donald K McCool

Erosion: Soil Conservation / Eric T Craswell

Erosion: Water Quality / Andreas Klik

Erosivity and Erodibility / Peter I.A Kinnell

Ethics / John Ronald Engel

Eutrophication / Thomas G Franti and Kyle D Hoagland

Evaporation / William P Kustas

Evolution: Soil Seed Bank / Paul B Cavers and David Susko

Fauna / Mary C Savin

Fauna and Microflora: Macrofauna / Judy Tisdall

Fertility Decline: Definitions and Assessment / Alfred E Hartemink

Fertility: Environmentally Compatible Management / Bal Ram Singh

Fertility: Evaluation Systems / Ram C Dalal and A Subba Rao

Fertility: Low Input and Traditional Maintenance Methods / Miguel Altieri

Fertility: North China Plains / Xiangbin Kong and Rattan Lal

Fertilizers: Application Methods / John Ryan

Fertilizers: Leaching Losses / Paul G Saffigna and Ian R Phillips

Fertilizers: Mineral / L.L Hammond and Balu L Bumb

Fertilizers: Organic / Gary J Gascho

Fertilizers: Types and Formulations / Douglas Robert McGuffog

Fertilizers: Urban Waste and Sludges / Rory O Maguire and James Thomas Sims

Fire and Soils / Partap K Khanna and John Raison

Fluid Flow: Modeling / John L Nieber

Food Crops: Zinc and Iron Biofortification / Yashbir Singh Shivay and Rajendra Prasad

Food Security and Soil Water Management / Mark W Rosegrant, Ephraim Nkonya, and Rowena A Valmonte-Santos

Food Security: Agricultural Productivity and Resources / Keith D Wiebe

Food Security: Soil Degradation, Global Scale / Michael A Zoebisch and Eddy De Pauw

Food Security: Soil Degradation, Local and Eco-Regional Scale / Sara J Scherr

Forest Soils / Nicholas Comerford and Thomas Fox

Forest Soils: Calcium Depletion / Tom G Huntington

Forest Soils: Major / Ken Van Rees

Forest Soils: Nutrient Cycling / Neil W Foster and Jagtar S Bhatti

Forest Soils: Properties and Site Productivity / Paul A Arp and Helmut H Krause

Freeze and Thaw: Diurnal / Joseph L Pikul

Frozen Soils: Water Relations / John M Baker

Fungi / Serita Frey

Future of Soil Science / Eric C Brevik, Samuel J Indorante, Dylan E Beaudette, and Richard W Arnold

Gas and Vapor Phase Transport / Dennis E Rolston

Gelisols / James G Bockheim

Geologic Carbon Capture and Storage / Sean I Plasynski, John T Litynski, Timothy R Carr,

Howard G McIlvried, and Rameshwar D Srivastava

Geology and Soil / Kenneth R Olson

Geomorphology / Robin N Thwaites

Geophysical Methods / Barry J Allred, Viacheslav I Adamchuk, Raphael A Viscarra Rossel,

Jim Doolittle, Robert S Freeland, Katherine R Grote, and Dennis L Corwin

Geostatistics / Anja Gassner and Ewald Schnug

GIS Integration: Remote Sensing / Egide Nizeyimana

Global Resources / Paul Reich and Hari Eswaran

Grass Strip Hydrology / Hossein Ghadiri and Calvin W Rose

Grasslands Soils / Douglas D Malo

Grazing Lands: Gaseous Emissions / Lipismita Samal, Veerasamy Sejian, M Bagath,

R.U Suganthi, Raghavendra Bhatta, and Rattan Lal

Green Revolution: China North Eastern Plains / Xiangbin Kong and Rattan Lal

Greenhouse Effect / Rattan Lal

Growing Media / Nazim Gruda, Jean Caron, Munoo Prasad, and Michael Maher

Gulley Erosion / Fenli Zheng, Chihua Huang, and Ximeng Xu

Gypsic Soils / Juan Herrero and Jaime Boixadera

Gypsic Soils: Gypsum Formation / Ahmet R Mermut and Hossein Khademi

Hard-Setting Soils / Richard S.B Greene

Health / Robin F Harris and D.E Romig

Heat and Water Movement / Gerald N Flerchinger

Heat Capacity / Surinder Kumar Jalota and B.S Ghuman

Heat Flux / Thomas J Sauer

Heavy Metals / Mike J McLaughlin

History of Soil Science / Eric C Brevik and Artemi Cerdà

History of Soil Science: 1927–2000 / Fred P Miller

History of Soil Science: Early to Mid-20th Century / John P Tandarich

Histosols / David L Lindbo and Deborah A Kozlowski

Human Culture and Soils / Daniel Hillel

Human Dimensions: Soil Sustainability / Mary Seely, Patrik Klintenberg, and Claus Hager

Human Health and Soil / Charles F Sing and David B Sing

Human Society and Soil / Rattan Lal

Human Society and the Planet: Soil as a Heritage / Fred P Miller

Hydraulic Conductivity / Jacob H Dane, Marc Jalbert, and Jan W Hopmans

Hydrologic Cycle / Keith R.J Smettem

Hydropedology / Henry Lin

Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Compounds / Tomas Simon

Hydrophobicity / Joerg Bachmann, Abraham Marmur, and Markus Deurer

Inceptisols / John M Galbraith, Kenneth Scheffe, and Shawn McVey

India: Problems and Potentialities / S.K Singh, S Chattaraj, N.G Patil, S.K Ray, and S Chatterji

Indigenous Soil Management / Karl Herweg

Indo-Gangetic Plain: Agro-Ecological Regions / Jaya N Surya, R.P Yadav, G.S Sidhu, and S.K Singh

Industrial Waste / Warren Dick

Infiltration: Management / Jutta Rogasik, Kerstin Panten, Ewald Schnug, and Helmut Rogasik

Infiltration: Properties / Walter J Rawls

Inorganic Carbon: Analysis / Richard R Drees and C Tom Hallmark

Inorganic Carbon: Climate and Time / Lee C Nordt

Inorganic Carbon: Composition and Formation / H Curtis Monger and Larry P Wilding

Inorganic Carbon: Global Carbon Cycle / William H Schlesinger

Inorganic Carbon: Global Stocks / Larry P Wilding, Lee C Nordt, and John M Kimble

Inorganic Carbon: Land Use Impacts / Donald L Suarez

Inorganic Carbon: Modeling / Leslie D McFadden and Ronald G Amundson

Insect Survival: Subzero Temperature / Mike M Ellsbury

Integrated Nutrient Management / Bal Ram Singh and Ram C Dalal

Integrated Nutrient Management: Sustainability / G.S Saroa and Rattan Lal

International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC) / David Dent

International Union of Soil Sciences / Stephen Nortcliff

Ion Exchange / Bryon W Bache

Iron Oxides / Nikolla P Qafoku and James Amonette

Irrigation / Jack Keller

Irrigation: Efficiency / Terry A Howell

Irrigation: Erosion / Robert E Sojka and David L Bjorneberg

Irrigation: Historical Perspective / Robert E Sojka, David L Bjorneberg, and J.A Entry

Irrigation: Soil Salinity / James D Rhoades

Jhum: Cultivation / Arun Jyoti Nath, Biplab Brahma, Rattan Lal, and Ashesh Kumar Das

Jhum: Shifting Agriculture / P.S Ramakrishnan

Land Capability Analysis / Michael J Singer

Land Capability Classification / Thomas E Fenton

Land Evaluation / J Herbert Huddleston

Land Forms / Carolyn G Olson

Land Husbandry / Francis Shaxson and Malcolm Douglas

Land Restoration / Richard W Bell

Land Use: Historic / J Douglas Helms, Hari Eswaran, and Paul Reich

Land Use: Land Cover / Andrew K Skidmore

Land Use: Planning and Geographic Information System (GIS) / Egide Nizeyimana and

Landfill Sites: Revegetation / Gilbert Yuk-sing Chan and Ming H Wong

Landscape / George Hall

Landscape: Classification / Philip Schoeneberger

Landscape: Development and Erosion / Jon Harbor

Landscape: Elements / Douglas Wysocki and C William Zanner

Landscape: Relationships / Timothy A Quine

Landslide and Landcreep / Jau-Yau Lu and Hao-Jung Shieh

Law and Legal Issues / Ian Hannam and Ben Boer

Law and Legal Issues: Land as Property / Paul Martin and John Page

Leaching and Illuviation / Lynn E Moody

Liming and Lime Materials / Mark K Conyers

Loess / Fred E Rhoton and Helaine W Markewich

Loess Plateau / Fenli Zheng, Ximeng Xu, and Xiubin He

Low-Carbon Technology: Brazilian Semiarid Ecosystems / Antonio Pereira Filho,

Vanderlise Giongo, Tony Jarbas Ferreira Cunha, Jose Texeira Filho, Tayane de Lima Santos,

and Luiz Fernando Carvalho Leite

Lower Himalayas: Soil Management / Anup Das, Ramkrushna Gi, Badapmain Makdoh,

Dibyendu Sarkar, Jayanta Layek, Sandip Mandal, and Rattan Lal

Macroporosity / Daniel Gimenez and Daniel Hirmas

Magnesium / N.S Bolan, K Arulmozhiselvan, and P Paramasivam

Manganese: Brazilian Soils / Diego Antonio França de Freitas, Nilton Curi, and

Nestor Kämpf

Manure Management: Gaseous Emissions / Veerasamy Sejian, Lipismita Samal, M Bagath, R.U Suganthi, Raghavendra Bhatta, and Rattan Lal

Manure: Compost and Biosolids / Bahman Eghball and Kenneth A Barbarick

Mapping Soil Carbon / Budiman Minasny, Brendan Malone, and Alex B McBratney

Mapping Soil Carbon: Stocks in Turkey / Gönül Aydın, Mehmet Ali Çullu, Sabit Erşahin,

Erhan Akça, Emrah Erdoğan, Levent Atatanır, Alper Yorulmaz, Ahmet Çilek, Merve Ersoy,

Somayyeh Rezzaghi Miavaghi, Selim Kapur, and Rattan Lal

Materials and Soils / Selim Kapur, Erhan Akça, and Takanori Nagano

Mediterranean Agriculture: Rainfed, Nitrogen Use Efficiency / Àngela D Bosch Serra

Metal—Clay Interactions / Dean Hesterberg

Microbial Biomass: Measurement / K.R Islam and S.R Wright

Microbial Communities / K.R Islam and S.R Wright

Micromorphology and Soil Quality / Ahmet R Mermut

Micronutrients and Human Health / Ram Phal Narwal, R.S Malik, S.K Malhotra, and Bal Ram Singh

Mine Soils: Measuring Geogenic Carbon / David A.N Ussiri and Rattan Lal

Mine Soils: Miscanthus Platations / Jose G Guzman and Rattan Lal

Mine Soils: Open Cut Mine Rehabilitation / Douglas J Dollhopf

Mine Soils: Reclamation and Soil Carbon Sequestration / Vasant A Akala and Rattan Lal

Minerals: Amorphous / April L Ulery

Minerals: Primary / Nikolaos I Barbayiannis and Vissarion Z Keramidas

Minerals: Secondary / Deborah A Soukup

Minerals: Solubility / Wayne P Robarge

Minirhizotron / Verónica Muñoz-Romero, Luis López-Bellido, F Javier López-Bellido, and Rafael J López-Bellido

Mites / Hans Klompen

Modern Civilization and Soils / Kenneth R Olson

Mulch Farming / Rattan Lal

Mycorrhiza of Forest Ecosystems / Ian A Dickie

Mycorrhizae: Soil Quality / Ibrahim Ortaş

Nanofertilizers / Ruiqiang Liu and Rattan Lal

Natural Resources: Interaction with Soil / Dennis J Greenland

Nematodes / Christien H Ettema

Nematodes and Soil / Wilfrida Decraemer

Nexus Approach: Resource Management for Soil Productivity / Kai Schwärzel,

Reza Ardakanian, Tamara Avellán, and Lulu Zhang

Nitrate Leaching Index / Harold M van Es and Jorge A Delgado

Nitrate Leaching Management / John J Meisinger, Jorge A Delgado, and Ashok Alva

Nitrogen and its Transformations / Oswald Van Cleemput and Pascal Boeckx

Nitrogen Index / Jorge A Delgado

Nitrogen-15: Utilization / Jorge Benitez-Vega, Luis López-Bellido, Ramón Redondo, and

Rafael J López-Bellido

Nitrous Oxide Emissions: Agricultural Soils / John R Freney

Nitrous Oxide Emissions: Paddy Soils / Jianfu Xue, Xin Zhao, and Hailin Zhang

Nitrous Oxide Emissions: Sources, Sinks, and Strategies / Katsu Minami

No Till / Paul W Unger

Nutrient Management / Jorge A Delgado

Nutrient Management: Fertility and / John L Havlin

Nutrients: Deficiency and Toxicity Symptoms / Noel J Grundon

Nutrients: Diffusion, Bioavailability, and Plant Uptake / Niels Erik Nielsen

Nutrients: Interactions in Soil—Plant System / Fusuo S Zhang, J Shen, and Y.-G Zhu

Nutrients: Water Interactions / Ardell D Halvorson

Organic Agriculture / Kathleen Delate

Organic Carbon: Assessment Methods / K.R Islam

Organic Carbon: Sequestration Concepts / Kenneth R Olson

Organic Carbon: Subsoil Pools / Klaus Lorenz and Rattan Lal

Organic Farming: China / Yuxin Miao, Fusuo Zhang, and Fanghao Wang

Organic Fertilization: Heavy Metal Uptake / Ewald Schnug, Alexandra Izosimova, and Renata Gaj

Organisms and Soil Food Webs / David C Coleman

Organo-Mineral Relationships / Claire Chenu, Alain F Plante, and Pascale Puget

Oxisols / Stanley W Buol

Pampas, The / Martín Díaz-Zorita and Daniel E Buschiazzo

Pantanal, The / Henrique de Oliveira, Amaury de Carvalho Filho, Carlos Ernesto Reynauld G Schaefer, and Evaldo Luis Cardoso

Paramos Soils / Pascal Podwojewski and Jérôme Poulenard

Particle Density / Keith R.J Smettem

Particle Packing / Satish C Gupta and D.P Thoma

Particle Shape / Brian M Schafer

Particle Size / Hwat Bing So and Harold R Geering

Peatlands / Dale H Vitt and Paul Short

Pedological Modeling / Ronald G Amundson

Pedometrics / Alex B McBratney and Budiman Minasny

Pedotransfer Functions / J.H.M Wösten

Permafrost: Soil Temperature and Special Problems / Douglas Kane and Julia Boike

Petrocalcic Horizons / Alain Ruellan

pH / Grant W Thomas

Phosphorus / John Ryan and Abdul Rashid

Phosphorus: Manure and Diet Modification / Rory O Maguire, John T Brake, and

Peter W Plumstead

Phosphorus: Plant Nutrition and Microorganism Contribution / Bettina Eichler-Löbermann, Christel Baum, Silke Ruppel, and Ewald Schnug

Phosphorus: Spatial Speciation in Agricultural Soils / Anja Gassner and Ewald Schnug

Phytoremediation / Khan Towhid Osman and Md Abul Kashem

Plant Growth: Oxygen Diffusion Rate / Witold Stepniewski

Plant Nutrients / Volker Roemheld

Plant Nutrients: Intensity, Quantity, and Buffer Power / Ram C Dalal

Plant Nutrients: Sufficiency and Requirements / Kanwar L Sahrawat

Plastic Properties / Gunnar Kirchhof

Plinthite and Petroplinthite / Eswaran Padmanabhan and Hari Eswaran

Podzols / Peter Buurman

Polar Regions, The / Charles Tarnocai and Iain Campbell

Pollution / Zulkuf Kaya

Pollution: Industrial Waste / Winfried E.H Blum, Walter W Wenzel, Wolfgang Friesl-Hanl,

and Martin H Gerzabek

Pollution: Non-Point Source / Ravendra Naidu, Mallavarapu Megharaj, Peter Dillon,

Rai Kookana, Ray Correll, and Walter W Wenzel

Pollution: Organic and Inorganic / A Paul Schwab

Pollution: Persistent Organic / Mark Radosevich and E Danielle Rhine

Pollution: Point Source / Ravendra Naidu, Mallavarapu Megharaj, Peter Dillon, Rai Kookana, Ray Correll, and Walter W Wenzel

Porosity: Pore Size Distribution / Keith C Cameron and Graeme D Buchan

Potassium / Philippe Hinsinger

Potassium: Dynamics and Mineralogy / A.V Shanwal and S.S Dahiya

Potassium: Nutrition in Semi-Arid Tropics / D.L Oswalt

Power Plants: Carbon Dioxide Capture / Sean I Plasynski, Thomas J Feeley, Timothy Fout,

Howard G McIlvried, and Rameshwar D Srivastava

Precision Agriculture: Engineering Aspects / Joel T Walker, Reza Ehsani, and Matthew O Sullivan

Precision Agriculture: Fertilization / Silvia H Haneklaus and Ewald Schnug

Precision Agriculture: Nutrient Cycling / Robert J Lascano

Precision Agriculture: Remote Sensing / Kerstin Panten, Holger Lilienthal, Erik Zillmann,

Silvia H Haneklaus, and Ewald Schnug

Productivity: Natural and Anthropogenic Disturbances / Douglas G Maynard and Charlotte E Norris

Protection: Policy of the European Union / Irene L Heuser and Luca Montanarella

Protozoa / Bryan S Griffiths

Pyrite / Michael J Borda

Pyrogenic Carbon / Barry G Rawlins

Quality / Ed G Gregorich

Quality Index: Soil / Toru Nakajima

Quality: Assessment by Interpolation Techniques / Vincent Obade

Quality: Carbon and Nitrogen Gases / Philippe Rochette, Reynald Lemke, and Sean McGinn

Quality: Critical Limits and Standardization / Martin R Carter

Quality: Erosion / Craig Ditzler

Quality: Indicators / Graham P Sparling

Quality: Productivity / Mike H Beare

Quality: Soil and Water / Todd Nissen and Michelle Wander

Radiometric Survey / Barry G Rawlins and Raphael A Viscarra Rossel

Radionuclides / Philip M Jardine

Raindrop Impact and Splash Erosion / Hossein Ghadiri

Rapid Soil Analysis: Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy / Keith D Shepherd and Markus G Walsh

Rare Earth Elements / Zhengyi Hu, Gerd Sparovek, Silvia H Haneklaus, and Ewald Schnug

Redox Phenomena / Bruce R James

Rehabilitation: Indicators and Monitoring / David Jasper

Religious Aspects of Soil—Human Relationships / Verena Winiwarter and Winfried E.H Blum

Rendzina / Thomas E Fenton

Resilience / Moses M Tenywa, J.G.M Majaliwa, and A Lufafa

Resilience: Land Use and Soil Management / Soojin J Park

Resilience: Quality and / Rattan Lal

Resilience: Restoration / F.W.T Penning de Vries and Eric T Craswell

Respiration / Pierre A Jacinthe and Rattan Lal

Restoration Ecology / Richard Hobbs

Restoration: Success and Completion Criteria / Sam C Ward

Rice Paddies: Methane Emissions / Ronald L Sass

Rice Paddies: Methane Emissions, Mitigating / Kazuyuki Yagi

Rice Paddies: Methanogenesis / Ronald L Sass

Rice Paddies: Soil Management / Xin Zhao, Jianfu Xue, and Hailin Zhang

Rocks / Vsevolod V Dobrovolsky

Root Growth: Pressure at the Soil—Root Interface / Rabi K Misra

Root Monitoring System / Zhikuan Jia, Pute Wu, Qingfang Han, Junfeng Nie, Ruixia Ding, and Yufeng Zou

Salt-Affected Soils / Anna Eynard, Rattan Lal, and Keith D Wiebe

Salt-Affected Soils: Nitrous Oxide Emissions / G.S Dheri, Babu S Brar, and Debankur Sanyal

Satellite Mapping / Bruce E Frazier

Scaling Effects / Yakov A Pachepsky, Walter J Rawls, and John W Crawford

Sediment: Influence on Aquatic Life / Suzanne M Gray

Sedimentation Control and Erosion: Engineering Techniques / Jose Miguel Reichert and Elemar Antonino Cassol

Seepage / Patricia M Gallagher

Selenium / Gunnar Gissel-Nielsen

Serpentinitic Soils / Rebecca Burt and Michael A Wilson

Sesquioxides / Joey N Shaw and Larry T West

Shrinkage / Des McGarry and Don F Yule

Silica: Pedogenic Accumulation / Katherine J Kendrick

Silicon and Sodium / Jian Feng Ma

Slaking, Dispersion, and Crust Formation / Hwat Bing So

Social and Behavioral Sciences’ Contribution to Soil Science / Sven B Lundstedt

Sodic Soils / Pichu Rengasamy

Sodic Soils: Formation and Global Distribution / Brian Murphy

Sodic Soils: Humid Regions / Samuel J Indorante

Sodic Soils: Irrigation Farming / David Burrow

Sodic Soils: Physical Properties and Behavior / Hwat Bing So

Sodic Soils: Processes, Characteristics, and Classification / Pichu Rengasamy

Sodic Soils: Reclamation / Jock Churchman

Sodicity: Subsoil / Kwong Yin Chan

Soil Carbon Map: Africa / Arwyn Jones, Roland Hiederer, and Luca Montanarella

Soil Carbon Sequestration: Ethiopia / Ambachew Demessie, Bal Ram Singh, and Rattan Lal

Soil Carbon: Compositional and Isotopic Analysis / James Moran, M Lizabeth Alexander, and Alexander Laskin

Soil Carbon: Farming and Economic Aspects / Bruce A McCarl

Soil Conservation: Incentives / David Sanders

Soil Conservation: Strategies / Winfried E.H Blum

Soil Conservation: U.S Historical Perspective / Dana D York

Soil Degradation: Global Assessment / Selim Kapur and Erhan Akça

Soil Enzymes / Cherukumalli Srinivasa Rao, Minakshi Grover, Sumanta Kundu, and Susheelendra Desai

Soil Organic Matter (SOM) / Rattan Lal

Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Accumulation / Sylvie A Quideau

Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Available Water Capacity / Tom G Huntington

Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Characterization / Christian Feller

Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Composition and Dynamics / Cornelia Rumpel, M.F Dignac, and Abad Chabbi

Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Global Carbon Cycle / Keith Paustian

Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Global Distribution / Wilfred M Post

Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Historical Concepts / Christian Feller

Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Landscape / Henry H Janzen, B.H Ellert, and D.W Anderson

Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Management / R Cesar Izaurralde and Carlos C Cerri

Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Mass Spectrometry Data Analysis / Nikola Tolic, Malak M Tfaily, Yufeng Shen, Rosalie Chu, Thomas Fillmore, Rui Zhao, Kent Bloodsworth, Errol Robinson, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, and Nancy J Hess

Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Modeling / Peter Smith

Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Molecular Simulations / Amity Andersen

Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Nutrient Dynamics / Charles W Rice

Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Solvent-Based High Resolution Mass Spectrometry / Malak M Tfaily, Yufeng Shen, Nikola Tolic, Jennifer Kyle, Rosalie Chu, Thomas Fillmore,

Rui Zhao, Kent Bloodsworth, Errol Robinson, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, and Nancy J Hess

Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Structure and Characterization / Georg Guggenberger

Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Turnover / Johan Six and Julie D Jastrow

Soluble Salts: Translocation and Accumulation / Jimmie L Richardson

Solute Transport / Arne E Olsen and James W Jawitz

Spectral Mixtures: Soil—Plant / Alfredo R Huete

Spodosols / Delbert Mokma

Strontium / Silvia H Haneklaus and Ewald Schnug

Structure / Eileen J Kladivko

Structure: Belowground Management / Ken A Olsson and Bruce Cockroft

Structure: Earthworms / Martin Shipitalo and Tayfun Korucu

Structure: Pedological Concepts and Water Flow / Clinton C Truman and

Donald P Franzmeier

Structure: Plant Establishment / Douglas L Karlen

Structure: Roots / Alvin J.M Smucker

Sub-Irrigation / Norman R Fausey

Sugarcane Fields: Harvest Systems and Residue Management / Newton La Scala Jr.,

Ricardo De Oliveira Bordonal, Eduardo Barretto De Figueiredo, Alan Rodrigo Panosso, Mara Regina Moitinho, and Mariana Marotti Corradi

Sulfate and Sulfide Minerals / Delvin S Fanning and Steven N Burch

Sulfur / Ewald Schnug, Silvia H Haneklaus, and Elke Bloem

Sulfur: Chemical Behavior in the Rhizosphere / Zhengyi Hu, Silvia H Haneklaus, and Ewald Schnug

Sulfur: Nutrition / Silvia H Haneklaus, Elke Bloem, and Ewald Schnug

Surface Area: Specific / L.A Graham Aylmore

Surface Management / Kwong Yin Chan

Surface Water: Nitrogen Enrichment / Tim P Burt and Penny E Widdison

Surface Water: Pollution by Nitrogen Fertilizers / Gregory McIsaac

Sustainable Agriculture: Social Aspects / Frederick H Buttel

Sustainable Agriculture: Soil Quality / John W Doran and Ed G Gregorich

Sustainable Development and Sustainability / Alan D Hecht and Joseph Fiksel

Tailings: Minerals Processing Residue Rehabilitation / Lloyd R Hossner and Hamid Shahandeh

Taxonomies: U.S Soil Taxonomy and Indian Scenario / Tapas Bhattacharyya and Dilip Kumar Pal

Taxonomy / Mark H Stolt

Temperature Measurement / Kevin McInnes

Tepetates: Mexico / Jorge D Etchevers, Claudia Hidalgo, C Prat, and P Quantin

Termites / David E Bignell and John A Holt

Terra Preta (Black Earths) / Kurt Spokas, Jose Marques Jr., Newton La Scala Jr., Ed Nater, and Diego S Siqueira

Terra Preta de Indio / Johannes Lehmann

Testing / Yash P Kalra and Jagtar S Bhatti

Texture / Harold R Geering and Hwat Bing So

Tillage Erosion: Description and Process / Michael J Lindstrom

Tillage Erosion: Measurement Techniques / David A Lobb

Tillage Erosion: Properties and Productivity Effects / Tom E Schumacher

Tillage Erosion: Relationship to Water Erosion / Gerard Govers

Tillage Erosion: Terrace Formation / Seth M Dabney and Dalmo A.N Vieira

Tillage: Gas Exchange / Donald C Reicosky

Tilth / Jerry L Hatfield

Time and Space: Soils in / Neil E Smeck and C Lee Burras

Torrential Erosion: Himalayas / Ram Prashad Yadav

Trace Metal Contamination / Åsgeir Rossebø Almås and Bal Ram Singh

Tropics and Subtropics / Hari Eswaran and Eswaran Padmanabhan

Turbations / Brad D Lee and Robert C Graham

Turfgrass: Protection of Soil and Water / James A Murphy and Stephanie L Murphy

Ultisols / Joey N Shaw

Uranium Contamination / Ewald Schnug, Roberta Bottino Montolar Sparovek, Maria del

Carmen Lamas, Sylvia L Kratz, Jurgen Fleckenstein, and Susanne Schroetter

Urban Lands: Abandoned / Joshua W Beniston and William D Shuster

Urban Lands: and Construction Sites / Wolfgang Burghardt

Urban Lands: Management / Klaus Lorenz

Urban Wastewater for Irrigation: Heavy Metals / P.S Minhas and K Lal

Urea: Subsoiling and Controlled Release / Tangyuan Ning, Rattan Lal, Zengjia Li, and Min Zhang

Value of Soil to Humans / Rattan Lal

Variability / Josef H Görres

Variability: Spatial / Brian Slater

Variable Charge Soils: Mineralogy and Chemistry / Eric Van Ranst, Nikolla P Qafoku,

Andrew Noble, and Ren-kou Xu

Vertisols / Wouter A Blokhuis

Vertisols: Surface Crack Management / J Somasundaram, Nishant K Sinha, Ashok K Patra,

and Rattan Lal

Vesicular Crusts / Patrick Drohan

Village Bamboos / Arun Jyoti Nath, Ashesh Kumar Das, and Rattan Lal

Waste Rock and Overburden Dumps: Rehabilitation / Martin V Fey, R.D O’Brien, and A.J Mills

Wastewater: Treatment and Utilization in Irrigation / Yona Chen and Jorge Tarchitzky

Water Conservation / Paul W Unger

Water Content / Tom J Jackson

Water Content: Passive and Active Microwave Remote Sensing / Eric D Warner and Gary W Petersen

Water Erosion / David Favis-Mortlock

Water Erosion: Empirical Models / John M Laflen

Water Erosion: Hybrid Models / Jeffrey G Arnold, Kevin W King, and Jimmy R Williams

Water Erosion: Modeling / Calvin W Rose

Water Erosion: Process-Based Modeling / Mark A Nearing

Water Infiltration / Manoj K Shukla and Rattan Lal

Water Management: Computer Modeling / Laj R Ahuja and Liwang Ma

Water Management: Harvesting / Gary W Frasier

Water Management: Use Efficiency / David C Nielsen

Water Measurement: Methods / Des McGarry

Water Range: Least-Limiting / Alvaro Pires da Silva, Beverly D Kay, Cássio A Tormena, Silvia Imhoff, Douglas L Karlen, and Joseph G Benjamin

Water Retention / Satish C Gupta and Dong Wang

Water: Plant-Available / Argyrios Gerakis and Joe T Ritchie

Water-Repellent Soils / Anna Eynard, Rattan Lal, and Keith D Wiebe

Watershed Approach / Timothy R Green and Jan van Schilfgaarde

Watershed Management: Remote Sensing and GIS Applications / A.V Shanwal and S.P Singh

Weathering / Dominique Righi

Weathering: Carbon Sequestration / William Berry Lyons, Jerry M Bigham, Anne E Carey, and Rattan Lal

Wetlands / Ralph W Tiner

Wetlands: Biodiversity / Jean-Claude Lefeuvre and Virginie Bouchard

Wetlands: Carbon Sequestration / Virginie Bouchard and Matthew Cochran

Wetlands: Conservation Policy / Clayton Rubec

Wetlands: Economic Value / Gayatri Acharya

Wetlands: Gaseous Emissions / S.K Nag

Wetlands: Methane Emission / Anna Ekberg and Torben Røjle Christensen

Wetlands: Sedimentation and Ecological Engineering / Timothy C Granata and Jay F Martin

Wind Erosion: Climate Change / Alan Busacca and David Chandler

Wind Erosion: Control Measures / Gary L Tibke

Wind Erosion: Environmental Effects / R Scott Van Pelt

Wind Erosion: Field Measurement / R Scott Van Pelt and Ted M Zobeck

Wind Erosion: Global Hot Spots / Andrew Warren

Wind Erosion: Micrometeorology / Giles F.S Wiggs

Wind Erosion: Modeling / Lawrence J Hagen

Wind Erosion: Principles / Larry D Stetler

Wind Erosion: Soil Quality and Productivity / John Leys

Windblown Dust / Dale Gillette

Wind-Driven Rain: Erosion / Gunay Erpul, L Darrell Norton, and Donald Gabriels

World Reference Base for Soil Resources / Peter Schad and Stefaan Dondeyne

About the Author

Rattan Lal, Ph.D., is a distinguished university professor of soil science and director of the Carbon Management and Sequestration Center at The Ohio State University, and is an adjunct professor at the University of Iceland. After completing his education at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (B.Sc., 1963), Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi (M.Sc., 1965), and the Ohio State University, Columbus (Ph. D,1968), he served as a fellow with the University of Sydney, Australia (1968-69), soil physicist at IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria (1969-87), and professor of soil science at OSU (1987-to-date). He has written 12 books and edited/co-edited 56 books.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
NAT011000
NATURE / Environmental Conservation & Protection
SCI086000
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / General
TEC003000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Agriculture / General