Encyclopedia of the Antarctic  book cover
1st Edition

Encyclopedia of the Antarctic

Edited By

Beau Riffenburgh

ISBN 9780415970242
Published October 25, 2006 by Routledge
1272 Pages

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Book Description

The Antarctic is unique, geographically, politically, and scientifically. It is the most remote, hostile, and dangerous continent, while at the same time it is the most pristine and least developed. Antarctica is the only major part of the Earth's landmass not directly governed by one nation, but under the control of a Treaty, with a multitude of acceding nations.

The Encyclopedia of the Antarctic brings together large quantities of information on the wide variety of factors, issues and individuals influencing and relating to the Antarctic. No comparable book currently exists for this region.

The Encyclopedia of the Antarctic discusses scientific activities and topics, but the 'human element' is also a significant part of the work, with entries on history, politics, legal issues, national research programs, scientific bases, historic huts, the United Nation's 'Question of Antarctica,' compliance with the Environmental Protocol, and tourism.

Table of Contents



Albatross, Amsterdam

Albatross, Black Browed

Albatross, Grey-Headed

Albatross, Light Mantled Sooty

Albatross, Royal

Albatross, Sooty

Albatross, Wandering

Albatross, Yellow-Nosed

Albatrosses: Overview

Antarctic Important Bird Area Inventory

Birds: Diving Physiology

Birds: Specially Protected Species


Gull, Kelp

Introduced Species

Penguin, Adélie

Penguin, Chinstrap

Penguin, Crested

Penguin, Emperor

Penguin, Gentoo

Penguin, King

Penguin, Macaroni

Penguins: Overview

Petrel, Antarctic

Petrel, Cape

Petrel, Northern Giant

Petrel, Snow

Petrel, Southern Giant

Petrels: Pterodroma and Procellaria

Prion, Antarctic

Seabird Conservation

Seabird Populations and Trends

Seabirds at Sea

Shearwaters, Short-Tailed and Sooty

Sheathbills, Black-Faced and Pale-Faced

Skuas, Chilean

Skuas, South Polar

Skuas, Subantarctic

Skuas: Overview

Southern Fulmar

Storm Petrel, Wilson’s

Terns, Antarctic

Terns, Arctic

Terns, Kerguelen

Terns: Overview

Terrestrial Birds

Conservation and human impact

Accounts and Bibliographic Materials

Adventurers, Modern

Art, Antarctic

Books, Antarctic

Carbon Cycle

Cartography and Charting


Diseases, Wildlife

Dry Valleys

Fiction and Poetry


Fisheries and Management

Geopolitics of Antarctica

Journals, Academic

Music, Antarctic




Trophic Levels


Air Hydrates

Air-Borne Ice

Antarctic Peninsula, Glaciology

Atmospheric Gas Concentrations From Air Bubbles


Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf

Firn Compaction (Firnification)

Glacial Geology

Ice Ages

Ice Chemistry

Ice Sheet Mass Balance

Ice Sheet Modeling

Ice Sheet: Overview

Ice Shelves

Ice Streams and Glaciers

Ice-Atmosphere Interaction and Near Surface Processes

Ice-core Analysis and Dating Techniques

Ice-Rock Interface


Isotopes in Ice

Lake Ellsworth

Lake Vostok

Lambert Glacier / Amery Ice Shelf

Larsen Ice Shelf


Pollution Levels, Detection

Ross Ice Shelf

Snow Biogenic Processes

Snow Chemistry

Snow Post-Depositional Processes

Sub-Glacial Lakes

Surface Energy Balance and Surface Mass Balance

Surface Features

Thwaites and Pine Island Glacier Basins

Volcanic Events


Marine Mammals

Beaked Whales and Bottlenose Whales

Blue Whale

Crabeater Seal

Diving--Marine Mammals

Fin whale

Fur Seal, Antarctic

Fur Seal, Sub-Antarctic

Humpback Whale

International Whaling Commission (IWC)

Killer Whale

Leopard Seal

Minke Whale

Ross Seal

Seals: Overview

Sei Whale

Southern Elephant Seal

Southern Right Whale

Weddell Seal

Whales: Overview


Solar-terrestrial physics and astronomy

Astronomical Observations from Antarctica

Astronomy, Infrared


Auroral Substorm

Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

Cosmic Rays

Geomagnetic Field

Geospace, Observing from Antarctica


Magnetic Storm

Magnetosphere of Earth

Magnetospheric Convection

Neutrino Astronomy


Radio Noise

Solar Wind

Space Weather

Submillimeter Astronomy

Sun-Earth Interactions

ULF Pulsations


Technology and transport

Aircraft Runways

Archaeology, Historic


Base Technology: Architecture and Design

Base Technology: Building Services



Field Camps

Health Care and Medicine

Ice Roads/Pavements

International Cooperation in Logistics

Living in a Cold Climate

Maritime Transport

Operational Environmental Management

Terrestrial Transport

Atmosphere and Climate

Atmospheric Boundary Layer

Biological Microclimates


Climate Change

Climate Modelling

Climate Oscillations


Earth System, Antarctica as part of

Meteorological Observing

Ozone and the Polar Strastophere


Polar Mesosphere


Synoptic-Scale Weather Systems: Fronts and Jets



Weather Forecasting

Weather Systems, Polar Lows and Mesoscale



Amsterdam Island (Ile Amsterdam)

Antarctic Peninsula

Antarctic: Definitions and Boundaries

Auckland Islands

Balleny Islands


Campbell Islands

Crozet Islands (Iles Crozet)

Deception Island

Gough Island

Heard and McDonald Islands

Kerguelen Islands (Iles Kerguelen)

King George Island

Macquarie Island

McDonald Islands


Peter I Øy


Prince Edward Islands

Ross Island

South Georgia

South Orkney Islands

South Pole

South Sandwich Islands

South Shetland Islands

Southern Ocean


History, exploration, history of science

Amundsen, Roald

Australasian Antarctic Expedition (1911-14)

Belgian Antarctic (Belgica) Expedition (1897-99)

Bellingshausen, Fabian von

Biscoe, John

Borchgrevink, Carsten E.

Bouvet de Lozier, Jean-Baptiste

British Antarctic (Erebus and Terror) Expedition (1839-43)

British Antarctic (Nimrod) expedition (1907-09)

British Antarctic (Southern Cross) Expedition (1898-1900)

British Antarctic (Terra Nova) expedition (1910-13)

British Antarctic (Terra Nova) expedition, Northern Party

British Graham Land Expedition (1934-37)

British Imperial Expedition (1920-22)

British National Antarctic (Discovery) Expedition (1901-04)

British-Australia-New Zealand Antarctic Research Expedition (BANZARE) (1929-31)

Bruce, William Speirs

Byrd, Richard E.

Challenger expedition (1872-76)

Chanticleer expedition (1828-31)

Charcot, Jean-Baptiste

Christensen Antarctic Expeditions (1927-37)

Christensen, Lars

Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1955-58)

Cook, James

Dallman, Eduard

David, T.W. Edgeworth

Davis, John King

De Gerlache de Gomery, Baron Adrien

Debenham, Frank

Diet (including scurvy)

Discovery Investigations (1925-51)

Dogs, Ponies, and Sledging in Expeditions

Drygalski, Erich von

Dumont d’Urville, Jules Sebastien Cesar

Dundee Whaling Expedition (1892-93)

Ellsworth, Lincoln

Enderby, Messrs

Exploration of the Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic: History

Falkland Islands and Dependencies: Aerial Survey Expeditions

Filchner, Wilhelm

Foyn, Svend

French Antarctic (Pourquoi Pas?) expedition (1908-10)

French Antarctic Expedition (1903-05)

French Naval (Astrolabe and Zélée) Expedition (1837-40)

Fuchs, Vivian Ernest

German Antarctic (Deutschland) Expedition (1911-12)

German Antarctic (Gauss) Expedition (1901-03)

German Antarctic (Schwabenland) expedition (1938-39)

Hanssen, Helmer

Hillary, Edmund

Hooker, Joseph Dalton

Imperial Trans-Antarctic (Endurance) Expedition (1914-17)

International Geophysical Year

International Polar Years

Japanese (Shirase) Antarctic Expedition (1910-12)

Kerguélen-Trémarec, Yves-Joseph de

Larsen, Carl Anton

Law, Phillip

Markham, Clements

Marr, J.W.S.

Mawson, Douglas

Nansen, Fridtjof

Neumayer, Georg von

Nordenskjöld, Nils Otto Gustaf

Norwegian (Fram) Expedition (1910-12)

Norwegian (Tønsberg) Whaling Expedition (1893-95)

Norwegian-British-Swedish Antarctic Expedition (1949-52)

Oates, Captain Lawrence Edward Grace

Palmer, Nathaniel Brown

Petermann, August

Photography in the Antarctic

Priestley, Raymond

Riiser-Larsen, Hjalmar

Ronne Antarctic Research Expedition (1947-48)

Ross Sea Party, Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1914-17)

Ross, James Clark

Royal Geographical Society and Antarctic Exploration

Royal Society and Antarctic Exploration and Science

Russian Naval (Vostok and Mirnyy) Expedition (1819-21)

Science: History of in Antarctic

Scott, Robert Falcon

Scottish National Antarctic Expedition (1902-04)

Sealing, History of

Shackleton, Ernest

Shackleton-Rowett Antarctic (Quest) Expedition (1921-22)

Shirase, Nobu

Siple, Paul

South Shetland Islands, Discovery of

Swedish (Antarctic) Expedition (1901-03)

Swedish (Antarctic) Expedition: Relief Expeditions

United States (Byrd) Antarctic Expedition (1928-30)

United States (Byrd) Antarctic Expedition (1933-35)

United States (Byrd) Antarctic Expedition, 1939-1940

United States Exploring Expedition (1838-42)

United States Navy Developments Projects (Operations Highjump and Windmill)

Weddell, James

Whaling, History of

Wild, Frank

Wilkes, Charles

Wilkins, George Hubert

Wilson, Edward Adrian

Wisting, Oscar

Women in the Antarctic

Wordie, James Mann

Worsley, Frank Arthur


Amundsen Sea: Oceanography

Antarctic Divergence

Bellingshausen Sea: Oceanography

Bottom Water: Antarctic

Circumpolar Current: Antarctic

Circumpolar Deep Water

Continental Shelves and Slopes

East Antarctic Continental Margin, Oceanography of

Eddies in the Southern Ocean

Gases: Dissolved Oxygen, Nutrients, CO2 and Others

Geochemical Water Mass Tracers


Intermediate Water

Oceanography Research Platforms and Sampling Equipment

Polar Front

Polynyas, Leads in the Southern Ocean

Ross Sea, Oceanography

Scotia Sea, Bransfield and Drake Passage, Oceanography

Southern Ocean Circulation, Modeling

Southern Ocean: Bathymetry

Southern Ocean: Biogeochemistry

Southern Ocean: Climate Change and Variability

Southern Ocean: Fronts and ‘Frontal Zones’

Southern Ocean: Regional Currents

Southern Ocean: Sediments and Paleoceanography

Southern Ocean: Vertical Structure

Surface Water

Thermohaline and Wind-Driven Circulations

Tides and Waves

Weddell Sea, Oceanography

Weddell, Ross and Other Polar Gyres


Sea Ice

Marginal Ice Zone

Pack Ice and Fast Ice

Remote Sensing

Sea Ice: Crystal Texture and Microstructure

Sea Ice: Microbial Communities and Primary Production

Sea Ice: Types and Formation

Sea Ice: Weather and Climate

Marine Biology

Benthic Communities

Biodiversity, Marine


Deep Sea

Deep Spider Crabs


Fish: Overview

Food Web, Marine



Ice Disturbance and Colonisation


Marine Biology: History and Evolution

Marine Debris

Marine Invasions


Pelagic Communities


Polar Frontal Zone

Productivity and Biomass





Zooplankton and Krill


Antarctic Peninsula, Geology of

Beacon Supergroup

Bransfield Strait and South Shetland Islands, Geology of

Coal, Oil, and Gas

Drake Passage, Opening of

East Antarctic Shield

Ferrar Supergroup

Fossils, Invertebrate

Fossils, Plant

Fossils, Vertebrate

Geological Evolution and Structure of Antarctica


Islands of the Scotia Ridge, Geology of

Marie Byrd Land, Geology of

Marine Geology

McMurdo Volcanic Group



Mountains, Transantarctic: Geology


Plate tectonics


Shackleton Range

Sub-Antarctic Islands, Geology of

Victoria Land, Geology of


Weddell Sea Region, Plate Tectonic Evolution of

West Antarctic Rift System

Terrestrial biology and limnology

Adaptation and Evolution



Algal Mats


Biodiversity, Terrestrial

Biogeochemistry, Terrestrial



Climate Change Biology

Cold Hardiness


Cryoconite Communities

Cryptoendolithic Communities


Desiccation Tolerance

Dry Valleys, Biology of

Ecosystem Functioning



Flowering Plants

Food Web, Freshwater


Gene Flow

Heated Ground







Oases, Biology of

Parasitic Insects: Lice and Fleas

Parasitic Insects: Mites and Ticks

Polar Desert


Restoration: Sub-Antarctic Islands





Streams and Lakes



Research Programs/International Organizations, ATS

Albatross and Petrels, Agreement for the Conservation of

Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany

Amundsen-Scott Station

ANARE/ Australian Antarctic Division

Antarctic Seals, Convention for the Conservation of

Antarctic Treaty System

Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, Russia

Argentina: Antarctic Program

Australia: Antarctic Program

Belgium: Antarctic Program

Brazil: Antarctic Program

British Antarctic Survey

Bulgaria: Antarctic Program

Canada: Antarctic Program

Chile: Antarctic Institute

China: Antarctic Program

Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora: Agreed Measures

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)

Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR)

Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities (CRAMRA)

Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programmes (COMNAP)

Finland: Antarctic Program

France: Antarctic Program

France: Institut Polaire Français Paul-Emile Victor (IPEV) and Terres Australes et Antartiques Françaises (TAAF)

Germany: Antarctic Program

Global Ocean Monitoring Programs in the Southern Ocean


India: Antarctic Program

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL)

International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP)

Italy: Antarctic Program

Japan: Antarctic Program

McMurdo Station

National Antarctic Programs

National Institute for Polar Research, Japan

Netherlands: Antarctic Program

New Zealand: Antarctic Program

Norway: Antarctic Program

Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation, USA

Pakistan, Czech Republic, Malaysia, Estonia: Antarctic Programs

Poland: Antarctic Program

Protected Areas within the Antarctic Treaty Area

Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty

Russia: Antarctic Program

Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR)

Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR)

Scott Polar Research Institute, UK

South Africa: Antarctic Program

South Korea: Antarctic Program

Southern Ocean Coalition

Spain: Antarctic Program

Ukraine: Antarctic Program

United Kingdom: Antarctic Program

United Nations

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)

United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP)

United States: Antarctic Program

Vostok Station

World Climate Research Programme

World Conservation Union (IUCN)

World Meteorological Organization

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'The Encyclopedia of the Antarctic is a work of high academic distinction. It demands the rigorous attention of historians, scientists and environmentalists alike.' - Reference Reviews


"The first authoritative reference point for the Antarctic and provides the reader with a comprehensive range of subjects all laid out clearly and with excellent cross-referencing." - Antarctic Science