Energy Efficient Spectrum Resources Usage in WPANs
IEEE 82.15.4 MAC Sub-layer Protocols
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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and the Internet of Things are facing tremendous advances both in terms of energy-efﬁciency as well as in the number of available applications. Consequently, there are challenges that need to be tackled for the future generation of WSNs. After giving an overview of the WSN protocols and IEEE 802.15.4 standard, this book proposes IEEE 802.15.4 Medium Access Control (MAC) sub-layer performance enhancements by employing not only RTS/CTS combined with packet concatenation but also scheduled channel poling (MC-SCP). Results have shown that the use of the RTS/CTS mechanism improves channel efﬁciency by decreasing the deferral time before transmitting a data packet. Furthermore, the Sensor Block Acknowledgment MAC (SBACK-MAC) protocol enables more efficiency as it allows the aggregation of several acknowledgement responses in one special Block Acknowledgment (BACK) response packet. The throughput and delay performance have been mathematically derived under both ideal conditions (a channel environment with no transmission errors) and non-ideal conditions (with transmission errors). Simulation results successfully validate the proposed analytical models. This research reveals the importance of an appropriate design for the MAC sub-layer protocol for the desired WSN application. Depending on the mission of the WSN application, different protocols are required. Therefore, the overall performance of a WSN application certainly depends on the development and application of suitable e.g., MAC, network layer protocols.
Table of Contents
Participants of the Reviewing Process
List of acronyms
List of symbols
2. Medium Access Control and Physical Layers in WSNs
3. Insights on the IEEE802.15.4 Standard
4. Scheduled Channel Polling MAC protocol
5. SCP Performance Evaluation
6. MAC Sub-layer Protocols Employing RTS/CTS with Packet Concatenation
7. Multi-Channel-Scheduled Channel Polling Protocol
8. Conclusions and Suggestions for Future Research
Appendix A. IEEE 802.15.4 PHY Layer
Appendix B. IEEE 802.15.4 Standard MAC Sub-Layer
Appendix C. O-QPSK modulation for the IEEE802.15.4 PHY layer at 2.4GHz
Appendix D. Additional results for the MAC Sub-layer Protocols Employing RTS/CTS with Packet Concatenation
Fernando J. Velez (M’93–SM’05) received the Licenciado, M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in Electrical and Computer Engineering from Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical University of Lisbon in 1993, 1996 and 2001, respectively. Since 1995 he has been with the Department of Electromechanical Engineering of Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal, where he is Assistant Professor. He is also a senior researcher of Instituto de Telecomunicações. Fernando was an IEF Marie Curie Research Fellow in King’s College London (KCL) in 2008/09(OPTIMOBILE IEF) and a Marie Curie ERG fellow at Universidade da Beira Interior from 2010 until March 2013 (PLANOPTI ERG). Fernando is the coordinator of the Instituto de Telecomunicações team in the Marie Sklodowska-Curie ITN Action (TeamUp5G) that started in 2019. He made or makes part of the teams of several European and Portuguese research projects on mobile communications and he was the coordinator of six Portuguese projects. Recently, he was the coordinator of CONQUEST (CMU/ECE/0030/2017), an exploratory project from Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Portugal, a collaboration with the Department of Engineering and Public Policy from CMU. He has authored three books, 14 book chapters, 160 papers and communications in international journals and conferences, plus 39 in national conferences. Fernando is currently the IEEEVTS Region 8 (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Chapter Coordinator (nominated by VTS in 2010) and was the elected IEEE VTS Portugal Chapter coordinator from 2006 until 2014. He is also the adjunct coordinator from the Telecommunications Specialization of Ordem dos Engenheiros. Prof. Velez was the coordinator of the WG2 (on Cognitive Radio/Software Defined Radio Co-existence Studies) of COST IC0905 TERRA. His main research areas are cellular planning tools, traffic from mobility, cross-layer design, spectrum sharing/aggregation, and cost/revenue performance of advanced mobile communication systems.
Luís M. Borges is currently a Senior NPO Engineer at NOKIA (EPDC). Worked as a RAN Engineer at NetOne (Angola) within the WiMAX and LTE project as well as worked in Ericsson within the Vodafone PT SRAN modernization project. Luís M. Borges received the Licenciatura and Ph.D degrees in Electrical Engineering from Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal, in 2006 and 2013, respectively. Luís M. Borges was a Post-Doc researcher in CREaTION project. He was also research assistant at Instituto de Telecomunicações, Covilhã. He made or makes part of the team of COST 2100 and COST IC1004 European projects, and he participated in SMART-CLOTHING and PROENERGY-WSN Portuguese projects. Luís M. Borges is a member of the Ordem dos Engenheiros (EUREL). His main research areas are or were Mobile networks and optimization, WSN, medium access protocols, cross-layer design, hardware development, network modelling, and application development, cognitive radio and energy harvesting.
Norberto Barroca received his Licenciado degree in electronics and telecommunications engineering from Polytechnic Institute of Castelo Branco in 2007 and his M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical and computer engineering from the University of Beira Interior in 2009 and 2014, respectively. He was a research assistant at Instituto de Telecomunicações, while pursuing research for the Ph.D. degree. His research interests included wireless sensor networks and cross-layer design.
Periklis Chatzimisios serves as Professor in the Department of Information and Electronic Engineering of the International Hellenic University (Greece), where he leads the Communications, Cybersecurity and Internet of Things (CCIoT) Research Group. He has been awarded the title of Researcher Professor by the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of New Mexico (USA). He is also a Visiting Fellow in the Faculty of Science & Technology, at Bournemouth University (UK). Prof. Chatzimisios has participated as a researcher and scientific officer in many European and national research and development projects funded by European Commission, Institute of International Education (IIE) and national agencies. He helds various management positions as Coordinator/WG Chair/Vice Chair and Training/Standardization Chair in related research projects such as TeamUp5G, SwiftV2X, COST CA20120 INTERACT. He is/has been involved in several standardization and IEEE activities under the IEEE Communication Society (ComSoc) serving as the Chair of the ComSoc Young Professionals (YP) Standing Committee and as a Member of the ComSoc Education Services Board, the ComSoc Standards Program Development Board, the ComSoc Industry Outreach Board and the ComSoc Online Content Board. He is the Chair of the Communications Chapter and Professional Activities for the IEEE Greece Section. In the past he served as Chair/Vice Chair/Secretary of the Technical Committee on Information Infrastructure and Networking (TCIIN), Vice Chair of the Technical Committee on Big Data (TCBD), Secretary of the Technical Committee on Cognitive Networks (TCCN) and he is an active member of the IEEE Future Networks (5G) Initiative. For more than 15 years he has been a member and/or Chairman of the Scientific/Steering/Organizing Committee of hundreds of international conferences and Founder/Organizer/Co-Chair for many Workshops which are co-allocated with major IEEE conferences. He served as Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Standards E-Magazine (eZine) as well as in editorial board positions for several journals published by IEEE (such as IEEE Network, IEEE Communication Standards Magazine, IEEE Wireless Communication Magazine, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, IEEE Access, IEEE Communication Letters) and other publishing houses. In the past he was the Director during 2014-2016 (co-Director during 2012-2014) for the E-Letter of the IEEE Technical Committee on Multimedia Communications (MMTC). He is the author/editor of 8 books and more than 160 peer-reviewed papers and book chapters on the topics of performance evaluation and standardization of mobile/wireless communications, Internet of Things, 5G communications, the 4th Industrial Revolution, Smart Cities and vehicular networking. He is in the Top 2% Most Influential Scientists in the Stanford University list for 2021 and 2020 in the area of Networking & Telecommunications.