Energy Systems: A New Approach to Engineering Thermodynamics, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Energy Systems

A New Approach to Engineering Thermodynamics, 1st Edition

By Renaud Gicquel

CRC Press

1,064 pages

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Hardback: 9780415685009
pub: 2012-01-27
SAVE ~$41.00
Currently out of stock
eBook (VitalSource) : 9780429086625
pub: 2011-12-14
from $102.50

FREE Standard Shipping!


Considered as particularly difficult by generations of students and engineers, thermodynamics applied to energy systems can now be taught with an original instruction method. Energy Systems applies a completely different approach to the calculation, application and theory of multiple energy conversion technologies. It aims to create the reader’s foundation for understanding and applying the design principles to all kinds of energy cycles, including renewable energy. Proven to be simpler and more reflective than existing methods, it deals with energy system modeling, instead of the thermodynamic foundations, as the primary objective. Although its style is drastically different from other textbooks, no concession is done to coverage: with encouraging pace, the complete range from basic thermodynamics to the most advanced energy systems is addressed.

The accompanying Thermoptim™ portal ( presents the software and manuals (in English and French) to solve over 200 examples, and programming and design tools for exercises of all levels of complexity. The reader is explained how to build appropriate models to bridge the technological reality with the theoretical basis of energy engineering. Offering quick overviews through e-learning modules moreover, the portal is user-friendly and enables to quickly become fully operational. Students can freely download the Thermoptim™ modeling software demo version (in seven languages) and extended options are available to lecturers. A professional edition is also available and has been adopted by many companies and research institutes worldwide -

This volume is intended as for courses in applied thermodynamics, energy systems, energy conversion, thermal engineering to senior undergraduate and graduate-level students in mechanical, energy, chemical and petroleum engineering. Students should already have taken a first year course in thermodynamics. The refreshing approach and exceptionally rich coverage make it a great reference tool for researchers and professionals also. Contains International Units (SI).


"This is a comprehensive book on energy systems with an almost encyclopedic coverage of the details of the equipment and systems involved in power production, refrigeration, and air-conditioning. The integration of technical content with advanced software allows a range of users from students who are beginning their study to those involved in research on promising cycles. From a teaching perspective, the initial focus on the system level combined with the simulation tool Thermoptim serves to quickly bring students up to speed on applications, and provides motivation for further study. This book promises to be one that engineers will keep on their desks for ready reference and study."

—John W. Mitchell, Kaiser Chair Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Emeritus, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA

"By its content and its character, this book is an encouraging and stylish manifesto of a new teaching practice of engineering thermodynamics. In contrast to existing methods, it spares the reader mathematical contingencies, the aggregation of knowledge, and the immutable laws of thermodynamics in the first steps…ideal for the technicians and engineers we train, who often have a much lower accurate mathematical level at their disposal than when they were still students. Technologies are presented simply at first, and subsequently with increasing detail. In combination with the portal and the possibilities this offers Energy Systems is an appealing textbook and developing tool, a very powerful reference that allows easier implementation into practice than any existing books on the subject.Usage has changed my approach to thermodynamics, both in my engineering work and in preparing course content. The development of a much more accessible and user-friendly approach than encountered earlier made using it a pleasure, both personally and in training. Last but not least, it widely opens the doors to creativity, which is a major requirement for our energy future."

—Alain Lambotte, Content Manager, Competence and Training Center, Electricity Utility, Belgium

Table of Contents

Forewords, About the Author, General introduction, Structure of the book, Objectives, A working tool on many levels, Mind Maps, List of Symbols, Conversion Factors

I First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics

1 A New Educational Paradigm

1.1 Introduction

1.2 General remarks on the evolution of training specifi cations

1.3 Specifi cs of applied thermodynamics teaching

1.4 A new educational paradigm

1.5 Diapason modules

1.6 A three-step progressive approach

1.7 Main pedagogic innovations brought by Thermoptim

1.8 Digital resources of the Thermoptim-UNIT portal

1.9 Comparison with other tools with teaching potential

1.10 Conclusion


2 First Steps in Thermodynamics: Absolute Beginners

2.1 Architecture of the machines studied

2.1.1 Steam power plant

2.1.2 Gas turbine

2.1.3 Refrigeration machine

2.2 Four basic functions

2.3 Notions of thermodynamic system and state

2.4 Energy exchange between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings

2.5 Conservation of energy: first law of thermodynamics

2.6 Application to the four basic functions previously identified

2.6.1 Compression and expansion with work

2.6.2 Expansion without work: valves, filters

2.6.3 Heat exchange

2.6.4 Combustion chambers, boilers

2.7 Reference processes

2.7.1 Compression and expansion with work

2.7.2 Expansion without work: valves, filters

2.7.3 Heat exchange

2.7.4 Combustion chambers, boilers

2.8 Summary reminders on pure substance properties

2.9 Return to the concept of state and choice of state variables to consider

2.10 Thermodynamic charts

2.10.1 Different types of charts

2.10.2 (h, ln(P)) chart

2.11 Plot of cycles in the (h, ln(P)) chart

2.11.1 Steam power plant

2.11.2 Refrigeration machine

2.12 Modeling cycles with Thermoptim

2.12.1 Steam power plant

2.12.2 Gas turbine

2.12.3 Refrigeration machine

2.13 Conclusion

3 First Steps in Thermodynamics: Entropy and the Second Law

3.1 Heat in thermodynamic systems

3.2 Introduction of entropy

3.3 Second law of thermodynamics

3.3.1 Limits of the fi rst law of thermodynamics

3.3.2 Concept of irreversibility

3.3.3 Heat transfer inside an isolated system, conversion of heat into work

3.3.4 Statement of the second law

3.4 (T, s) Entropy chart

3.5 Carnot effectiveness of heat engines

3.6 Irreversibilities in industrial processes

3.6.1 Heat exchangers

3.6.2 Compressors and turbines

3.7 Plot of cycles in the entropy chart, qualitative comparison with the carnot cycle

3.7.1 Steam power plant

3.7.2 Gas turbine

3.7.3 Refrigeration machine

3.8 Conclusion

II Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

4 Introduction

4.1 A two level methodology

4.1.1 Physical phenomena taking place in a gas turbine

4.1.2 Energy technologies: component assemblies

4.1.3 Generalities about numerical models

4.2 Practical implementation of the double analytical-systems approach

4.3 Methodology

4.3.1 Systems modeling: the General System

4.3.2 Systems-analysis of energy technologies

4.3.3 Component modeling

4.3.4 Thermoptim primitive types

4.3.5 Thermoptim assets


5 Thermodynamics Fundamentals

5.1 Basic concepts, definitions

5.1.1 Open and closed systems

5.1.2 State of a system, intensive and extensive quantities

5.1.3 Phase, pure substances, mixtures

5.1.4 Equilibrium, reversible process

5.1.5 Temperature

5.1.6 Symbols

5.2 Energy exchanges in a process

5.2.1 Work δW of external forces on a closed system

5.2.2 Heat transfer

5.3 First law of thermodynamics

5.3.1 Definition of internal energy U (closed system)

5.3.2 Application to a fluid mass

5.3.3 Work provided, shaft work τ

5.3.4 Shaft work and enthalpy (open systems)

5.3.5 Establishment of enthalpy balance

5.3.6 Application to industrial processes

5.4 Second law of thermodynamics

5.4.1 Definition of entropy

5.4.2 Irreversibility

5.4.3 Carnot effectiveness of heat engines

5.4.4 Fundamental relations for a phase

5.4.5 Thermodynamic potentials

5.5 Exergy

5.5.1 Presentation of exergy for a monotherm open system in steady state

5.5.2 Multithermal open steady-state system

5.5.3 Application to a two-source reversible machine

5.5.4 Special case: heat exchange without work production

5.5.5 Exergy efficiency

5.6 Representation of substance properties

5.6.1 Solid, liquid, gaseous phases

5.6.2 Perfect and ideal gases

5.6.3 Ideal gas mixtures

5.6.4 Liquids and solids

5.6.5 Liquid-vapor equilibrium of a pure substance

5.6.6 Representations of real fluids

5.6.7 Moist mixtures

5.6.8 Real fluid mixtures


Further reading

6 Presentation of Thermoptim

6.1 General

6.1.1 Initiation applets

6.1.2 Interactive charts

6.1.3 Thermoptim’s five working environments

6.2 Diagram editor

6.2.1 Presentation of the editor

6.2.2 Graphical component properties

6.2.3 Links between the simulator and the diagrams

6.3 Simulation environment

6.3.1 Main project screen

6.3.2 Main menus

6.3.3 Export of the results in the form of text file

6.3.4 Point screen

6.3.5 Point moist properties calculations

6.3.6 Node screen

6.4 Extension of Thermoptim by external classes

6.4.1 Extension system for Thermoptim by adding external classes

6.4.2 Software implementation

6.4.3 Viewing available external classes

6.4.4 Representation of an external component in the diagram editor

6.4.5 Loading an external class

6.4.6 Practical realization of an external class

6.5 Different versions of Thermoptim

7 Basic Components and Processes

7.1 Compressions

7.1.1 Thermodynamics of compression

7.1.2 Reference compression

7.1.3 Actual compressions

7.1.4 Staged compression

7.1.5 Calculation of a compression in Thermoptim

7.2 Displacement compressors

7.2.1 Piston compressors

7.2.2 Screw compressors

7.2.3 Criteria for the choice between displacement compressors

7.3 Dynamic compressors

7.3.1 General

7.3.2 Thermodynamics of permanent flow

7.3.3 Similarity and performance of turbomachines

7.3.4 Practical calculation of dynamic compressors

7.3.5 Pumps and fans

7.4 Comparison of the various types of compressors

7.4.1 Comparison of dynamic and displacement compressors

7.4.2 Comparison between dynamic compressors

7.5 Expansion

7.5.1 Thermodynamics of expansion

7.5.2 Calculation of an expansion in Thermoptim

7.5.3 Turbines

7.5.4 Turbine performance maps

7.5.5 Degree of reaction of a stage

7.6 Combustion

7.6.1 Combustion phenomena, basic mechanisms

7.6.2 Study of complete combustion

7.6.3 Study of incomplete combustion

7.6.4 Energy properties of combustion reactions

7.6.5 Emissions of gaseous pollutants

7.6.6 Calculation of combustion in Thermoptim

7.6.7 Technological aspects

7.7 Throttling or flash

7.8 Water vapor/gas mixtures processes

7.8.1 Moist process screens

7.8.2 Moist mixers

7.8.3 Heating a moist mixture

7.8.4 Cooling of moist mix

7.8.5 Humidification of a gas

7.8.6 Dehumidification of a mix by desiccation

7.8.7 Determination of supply conditions

7.8.8 Air conditioning processes in a psychrometric chart

7.9 Examples of components represented by external classes

7.9.1 Nozzles

7.9.2 Diffusers

7.9.3 Ejectors


Further reading

8 Heat Exchangers

8.1 Principles of operation of a heat exchanger

8.1.1 Heat flux exchanged

8.1.2 Heat exchange coefficient U

8.1.3 Fin effectiveness

8.1.4 Values of convection coefficients h

8.2 Phenomenological models for the calculation of heat exchangers

8.2.1 Number of transfer units method

8.2.2 Relationship between NTU and ε

8.2.3 Matrix formulation

8.2.4 Heat exchanger assemblies

8.2.5 Relationship with the LMTD method

8.2.6 Heat exchanger pinch

8.3 Calculation of heat exchangers in Thermoptim

8.3.1 “Exchange” processes

8.3.2 Creation of a heat exchanger in the diagram editor

8.3.3 Heat exchanger screen

8.3.4 Simple heat exchanger design

8.3.5 Generic liquid

8.3.6 Off-design calculation of heat exchangers

8.3.7 Thermocouplers

8.4 Technological aspects

8.4.1 Tube exchangers

8.4.2 Plate heat exchangers

8.4.3 Other types of heat exchangers

8.5 Summary


Further reading

9 Examples of Applications

9.1 Steam power plant cycle

9.1.1 Principle of the machine and problem data

9.1.2 Creation of the diagram

9.1.3 Creation of simulator elements

9.1.4 Setting points

9.1.5 Setting of processes

9.1.6 Plotting the cycle on thermodynamic chart

9.1.7 Design of condenser

9.1.8 Cycle improvements

9.1.9 Modification of the model

9.2 Single stage compression refrigeration cycle

9.2.1 Principle of the machine and problem data

9.2.2 Creation of the diagram

9.2.3 Creation of simulator elements

9.2.4 Setting points

9.2.5 Setting of processes

9.3 Gas turbine cycle

9.3.1 Principle of the machine and problem data

9.3.2 Creation of the diagram

9.3.3 Creation of simulator elements

9.3.4 Setting points

9.3.5 Setting of processes

9.4 Air conditioning installation

9.4.1 Principle of installation and problem data

9.4.2 Supply conditions

9.4.3 Properties of the mix (outdoor air/recycled air)

9.4.4 Air treatment

9.4.5 Plot on the psychrometric chart

10 General Issues on Cycles, Energy and Exergy Balances

10.1 General issues on cycles, notations

10.1.1 Motor cycles

10.1.2 Refrigeration cycles

10.1.3 Carnot cycle

10.1.4 Regeneration cycles

10.1.5 Theoretical and real cycles

10.1.6 Notions of efficiency and effectiveness

10.2 Energy and exergy balance

10.2.1 Energy balances

10.2.2 Exergy balances

10.2.3 Practical implementation in a spreadsheet

10.2.4 Exergy balances of complex cycles

10.3 Productive structures

10.3.1 Establishment of a productive structure

10.3.2 Relationship between the diagram and the productive structure

10.3.3 Implementation in Thermoptim

10.3.4 Automation of the creation of the productive structure

10.3.5 Examples

10.3.6 Conclusion


III Main Conventional Cycles

11 Introduction: Changing Technologies

11.1 Limitation of fossil resources and geopolitical constraints

11.2 Local and global environmental impact of energy

11.2.1 Increase in global greenhouse effect

11.2.2 Reduction of the ozone layer

11.2.3 Urban pollution and acid rain

11.3 Technology transfer from other sectors

11.4 Technological innovation key to energy future


Further reading

12 Internal Combustion Turbomotors

12.1 Gas turbines

12.1.1 Operating principles

12.1.2 Examples of gas turbines

12.1.3 Major technological constraints

12.1.4 Basic cycles

12.1.5 Cycle improvements

12.1.6 Mechanical configurations

12.1.7 Emissions of pollutants

12.1.8 Outlook for gas turbines

12.2 Aircraft engines

12.2.1 Turbojet and turboprop engines

12.2.2 Reaction engines without rotating machine


Further reading

13 Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines

13.1 General operation mode

13.1.1 Four- and two-stroke cycles

13.1.2 Methods of cooling

13.2 Analysis of theoretical cycles of reciprocating engines

13.2.1 Beau de Rochas ideal cycle

13.2.2 Diesel cycle

13.2.3 Mixed cycle

13.2.4 Theoretical associated cycles

13.3 Characteristic curves of piston engines

13.3.1 Effective performance, MEP and power factor

13.3.2 Influence of the rotation speed

13.3.3 Indicated performance, IMEP

13.3.4 Effective performance, MEP

13.3.5 Specific consumption of an engine

13.4 Gasoline engine

13.4.1 Limits of knocking and octane number

13.4.2 Strengthening of turbulence

13.4.3 Formation of fuel mix, fuel injection electronic systems

13.4.4 Real cycles of gasoline engines

13.5 Diesel engines

13.5.1 Compression ignition conditions

13.5.2 Ignition and combustion delays

13.5.3 Air utilization factor

13.5.4 Thermal and mechanical fatigue

13.5.5 Cooling of walls

13.5.6 Fuels burnt in diesel engines

13.5.7 Real cycles of diesel engines

13.6 Design of reciprocating engines

13.7 Supercharging

13.7.1 General

13.7.2 Basic principles

13.7.3 Conditions of autonomy of a turbocharger

13.7.4 Adaptation of the turbocharger

13.7.5 Conclusions on supercharging

13.8 Engine and pollutant emission control

13.8.1 Emissions of pollutants: Mechanisms involved

13.8.2 Combustion optimization

13.8.3 Catalytic purification converters

13.8.4 Case of diesel engines

13.9 Technological prospects

13.9.1 Traction engines

13.9.2 Large gas and diesel engines


Further reading

14 Stirling Engines

14.1 Principle of operation

14.2 Piston drive

14.3 Thermodynamic analysis of Stirling engines

14.3.1 Theoretical cycle

14.3.2 Ideal Stirling cycle

14.3.3 Paraisothermal Stirling cycle

14.4 Influence of the pressure

14.5 Choice of the working fluid

14.6 Heat exchangers

14.6.1 Cooler

14.6.2 Regenerator

14.6.3 Boiler

14.7 Characteristics of a Stirling engine

14.8 Simplified Stirling engine Thermoptim model


Further reading

15 Steam Facilities (General)

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Steam enthalpy and exergy

15.3 General configuration of steam facilities

15.4 Water deaeration

15.4.1 Chemical deaeration

15.4.2 Thermal deaeration

15.5 Blowdown

15.6 Boiler and steam generators

15.6.1 Boilers

15.6.2 Steam generators

15.6.3 Boiler operation

15.6.4 Optimization of pressure level

15.7 Steam turbines

15.7.1 Different types of steam turbines

15.7.2 Behavior in off-design mode

15.7.3 Degradation of expansion efficiency function of steam quality

15.7.4 Temperature control by desuperheating

15.8 Condensers, cooling towers

15.8.1 Principle of operation of cooling towers

15.8.2 Phenomenological model

15.8.3 Behaviour models

15.8.4 Modeling a direct contact cooling tower in Thermoptim


Further reading

16 Classical Steam Power Cycles

16.1 Conventional flame power cycles

16.1.1 Basic Hirn or Rankine cycle with superheating

16.1.2 Energy and exergy balance

16.1.3 Thermodynamic limits of simple Hirn cycle

16.1.4 Cycle with reheat

16.1.5 Cycle with extraction

16.1.6 Supercritical cycles

16.1.7 Binary cycles

16.2 Technology of flame plants

16.2.1 General technological constraints

16.2.2 Main coal power plants

16.2.3 Emissions of pollutants

16.3 Nuclear power plant cycles

16.3.1 Primary circuit

16.3.2 Steam generator

16.3.3 Secondary circuit

16.3.4 Industrial PWR evolution


Further reading

17 Combined Cycle Power Plants

17.1 Combined cycle without afterburner

17.1.1 Overall performance

17.1.2 Reduced efficiency and power

17.2 Combined cycle with afterburner

17.3 Combined cycle optimization

17.4 Gas turbine and combined cycles variations

17.5 Diesel combined cycle

17.6 Conclusions and outlook


Further reading

18 Cogeneration and Trigeneration

18.1 Performance indicators

18.2 Boilers and steam turbines

18.3 Internal combustion engines

18.3.1 Reciprocating engines

18.3.2 Gas turbines

18.4 Criteria for selection

18.5 Examples of industrial plants

18.5.1 Micro-gas turbine cogeneration

18.5.2 Industrial gas turbine cogeneration

18.6 Trigeneration

18.6.1 Production of central heating and cooling for a supermarket

18.6.2 Trigeneration by micro turbine and absorption cycle


Further reading

19 Compression Refrigeration Cycles, Heat Pumps

19.1 Principles of operation

19.2 Current issues

19.2.1 Stopping CFC production

19.2.2 Substitution of fluids

19.3 Basic refrigeration cycle

19.3.1 Principle of operation

19.3.2 Energy and exergy balances

19.4 Superheated and sub-cooled cycle

19.4.1 Single-stage cycle without heat exchanger

19.4.2 Single-stage cycle with exchanger

19.5 Two-stage cycles

19.5.1 Two-stage compression cycle with intermediate cooling

19.5.2 Compression and expansion multistage cycles

19.6 Special cycles

19.6.1 Cascade cycles

19.6.2 Cycles using blends

19.6.3 Cycles using ejectors

19.6.4 Reverse Brayton cycles

19.7 Heat pumps

19.7.1 Basic cycle

19.7.2 Exergy balance

19.8 Technological aspects

19.8.1 Desirable properties for fluids

19.8.2 Refrigeration compressors

19.8.3 Expansion valves

19.8.4 Heat exchangers

19.8.5 Auxiliary devices

19.8.6 Variable speed


Further reading

20 Liquid Absorption Refrigeration Cycles

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Study of a NH3-H2O absorption cycle

20.3 Modeling LiBr-H2O absorption cycle in Thermoptim


21 Air Conditioning

21.1 Basics of an air conditioning system

21.2 Examples of cycles

21.2.1 Summer air conditioning

21.2.2 Winter air conditioning


Further reading

22 Optimization by Systems Integration

22.1 Basic principles

22.1.1 Pinch point

22.1.2 Integration of complex heat system

22.2 Design of exchanger networks

22.3 Minimizing the pinch

22.3.1 Implementation of the algorithm

22.3.2 Establishment of actual composite curves

22.3.3 Plot of the Carnot factor difference curve (CFDC)

22.3.4 Matching exchange streams

22.3.5 Thermal machines and heat integration

22.4 Optimization by irreversibility analysis

22.4.1 Component irreversibility and systemic irreversibility

22.4.2 Optimization method

22.5 Implementation in Thermoptim

22.5.1 Principle

22.5.2 Optimization frame

22.6 Example

22.6.1 Determination of HP and LP flow rates

22.6.2 Matching fluids in heat exchangers


Further reading

IV Innovative Advanced Cycles, including Low Environmental Impact

23 External Class Development

23.1 General, external substances

23.1.1 Introducing custom components

23.1.2 Simple substance: example of DowTherm A

23.1.3 Coupling to a thermodynamic properties server

23.2 Flat plate solar collectors

23.2.1 Design of the external component

23.3 Calculation of moist mixtures in external classes

23.3.1 Introduction

23.3.2 Methods available in the external classes

23.4 External combustion

23.4.1 Model of biomass combustion

23.4.2 Presentation of the external class

23.5 Cooling coil with condensation

23.5.1 Modeling a cooling coil with condensation in Thermoptim

23.5.2 Study of the external class DehumidifyingCoil

23.6 Cooling towers

23.6.1 Modeling of a direct contact cooling tower in Thermoptim

23.6.2 Study of external class DirectCoolingTower

23.7 External drivers

23.7.1 Stirling engine driver

23.7.2 Creation of the class: visual interface

23.7.3 Recognition of component names

23.7.4 Calculations and display

23.8 External class manager

24 Advanced Gas Turbines Cycles

24.1 Humid air gas turbine

24.2 Supercritical CO2 cycles

24.2.1 Simple regeneration cycle

24.2.2 Pre-compression cycle

24.2.3 Recompression cycle

24.2.4 Partial cooling cycle

24.3 Advanced combined cycles

24.3.1 Air combined cycle

24.3.2 Steam fl ash combined cycle

24.3.3 Steam recompression combined cycle

24.3.4 Kalina cycle


25 Evaporation, Mechanical Vapor Compression, Desalination, Drying by Hot Gas

25.1 Evaporation

25.1.1 Single-effect cycle

25.1.2 Multi-effect cycle

25.1.3 Boiling point elevation

25.2 Mechanical vapor compression

25.2.1 Evaporative mechanical vapor compression cycle

25.2.2 Types of compressors used

25.2.3 Design parameters of a VC

25.3 Desalination

25.3.1 Simple effect distillation

25.3.2 Double effect desalination cycle

25.3.3 Mechanical vapor compression desalination cycle

25.3.4 Desalination ejector cycle

25.3.5 Multi-stage fl ash desalination cycle

25.3.6 Reverse osmosis desalination

25.4 Drying by hot gas


26 Cryogenic Cycles

26.1 Joule-Thomson isenthalpic expansion process

26.1.1 Basic cycle

26.1.2 Linde cycle

26.1.3 Linde cycles for nitrogen liquefaction

26.2 Reverse Brayton cycle

26.3 Mixed processes: Claude cycle

26.4 Cascade cycles


27 Electrochemical Converters

27.1 Fuel cells

27.1.1 SOFC modeling

27.1.2 Improving the cell model

27.1.3 Model with a thermocoupler

27.1.4 Coupling SOFC fuel cell with a gas turbine

27.1.5 Change in the model to replace H2 by CH4

27.2 Reforming

27.2.1 Modeling of a reformer in Thermoptim

27.2.2 Results

27.3 Electrolysers

27.3.1 Modeling of a high temperature electrolyser in Thermoptim

27.3.2 Results


28 Global Warming and Capture and Sequestration of CO2

28.1 Problem data

28.2 Carbon capture and storage

28.2.1 Introduction

28.2.2 Capture strategies

28.3 Techniques implemented

28.3.1 Post-combustion techniques

28.3.2 Pre-combustion techniques

28.3.3 Oxycombustion techniques


29 Future Nuclear Reactors

29.1 Introduction

29.2 Reactors coupled to Hirn cycles

29.2.1 Sodium cooled fast neutron reactors

29.2.2 Supercritical water reactors

29.3 Reactors coupled to Brayton cycles

29.3.1 Small capacity modular reactor PBMR

29.3.2 GT-MHR reactors

29.3.3 Very high temperature reactors

29.3.4 Gas cooled fast neutron reactors

29.3.5 Lead cooled fast reactors

29.3.6 Molten salt reactors

29.3.7 Thermodynamic cycles of high temperature reactors

29.4 Summary


30 Solar Thermodynamic Cycles

30.1 Direct conversion of solar energy

30.1.1 Introduction

30.1.2 Thermal conversion of solar energy

30.1.2 Thermodynamic cycles considered

30.2 Performance of solar collectors

30.2.1 Low temperature solar collectors

30.2.2 Low temperature fl at plate solar collector model

30.2.3 High temperature solar collectors

30.2.4 Modeling high temperature concentration collectors

30.3 Parabolic trough plants

30.3.1 Optimization of the collector temperature

30.3.2 Plant model

30.4 Parabolic dish systems

30.5 Power towers

30.6 Hybrid systems


31 Other than Solar NRE cycles

31.1 Solar ponds

31.1.1 Analysis of the problem

31.1.2 Plot of the cycle in the entropy chart

31.1.3 Exergy balance

31.1.4 Auxiliary consumption

31.2 Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)

31.2.1 OTEC closed cycle

31.2.2 OTEC open-cycle

31.2.3 Uehara cycle

31.3 Geothermal cycles

31.3.1 Direct-steam plants

31.3.2 Simple fl ash plant

31.3.3 Double fl ash plant

31.3.4 Binary cycle plants

31.3.5 Kalina cycle

31.3.6 Combined cycles

31.3.7 Mixed cycle

31.4 Use of biomass energy

31.4.1 Introduction

31.4.2 Modeling thermochemical conversion


32 Heat and Compressed Air Storage

32.1 Introduction

32.2 Methodological aspects

32.3 Cold storage in phase change nodules

32.4 Project Sether (electricity storage as high temperature heat)

32.5 Compressed air storage devices

32.5.1 CAES (Compressed Air Energy Storage) concept

32.5.2 Peaker concept of Electricite de Marseille company

32.5.3 Hydropneumatic energy storage HPES


33 Calculation of Thermodynamic Solar Installations

33.1 Specific solar problems

33.2 Estimation of the solar radiation received by a solar collector

33.3 Cumulative frequency curves of irradiation

33.3.1 Curve construction

33.3.2 Curve smoothing

33.3.3 Estimation of CFCS from empirical formulas

33.3.4 Interpolation on tilt

33.4 Hourly simulation models

33.5 Simplified design methods

33.5.1 Principle of methods

33.5.2 Usability curves


V Technological Design and Off-design Operation

34 Technological Design and Off-design Operation, Model Reduction

34.1 Introduction

34.2 Component technological design

34.2.1 Heat exchangers

34.2.2 Displacement compressors

34.2.3 Expansion valves

34.2.4 Practical example: design of a cycle

34.3 Off-design calculations

34.3.1 Principle of computing coupled systems in Thermoptim

34.3.2 Off-design equations of the refrigerator

34.3.3 After processing of simulation results

34.3.4 Effect of change in UA

34.4 Development of simplified models of systems studied

34.4.1 Model reduction principle

34.4.2 Model reduction example

34.5 Methodological difficulties


35 Technological Design and Off-design Behavior of Heat Exchangers

35.1 Introduction

35.1.1 General

35.1.2 Reminders on the NTU method

35.2 Modeling of heat transfer

35.2.1 Extended surfaces

35.2.2 Calculation of Reynolds and Prandtl numbers

35.2.3 Calculation of the Nusselt number

35.2.4 Calculation of multi-zone exchangers

35.3 Pressure drop calculation

35.3.1 Gas or liquid state pressure drop

35.3.2 Two-phase pressure drop

35.4 Heat exchanger technological screen

35.4.1 Heat exchanger technological screen

35.4.2 Correlations used in Thermoptim

35.5 Model parameter estimation

35.5.1 Direct setting from geometric data

35.5.2 Identification of exchanger parameters


36 Modeling and Setting of Displacement Compressors

36.1 Behavior models

36.1.1 Operation at rated speed and full load

36.1.2 Operation at partial load and speed

36.2 Practical modeling problems

36.2.1 Technological screen of displacement compressors

36.2.3 Identification of compressor parameters

36.2.4 Calculation in design mode

36.2.5 Calculation in off-design mode

36.2.6 Fixed Vi screw compressors


37 Modeling and Setting of Dynamic Compressors and Turbines

37.1 Supplements on turbomachinery

37.1.1 Analysis of the velocity triangle

37.1.2 Degree of reaction of one stage

37.1.3 Theoretical characteristics of turbomachinery

37.1.4 Real characteristics of turbomachinery

37.1.5 Factors of similarity

37.2 Pumps and fans

37.3 Dynamic compressors

37.3.1 Performance maps of dynamic compressors

37.3.2 Analysis of performance maps of dynamic compressors

37.3.3 Technological screen of dynamic compressors

37.4 Turbines

37.4.1 Performance maps of turbines

37.4.2 Isentropic efficiency law

37.4.3 Stodola’s cone rule

37.4.4 Baumann rule

37.4.5 Loss by residual velocity

37.4.6 Technological screen of turbines

37.4.8 Identification of turbine parameters

37.5 Nozzles


38 Case Studies

38.1 Introduction

38.2 Compressor filling a storage of compressed air

38.2.1 Modeling of the heat exchanger

38.2.2 Design of the driver

38.2.3 Analysis of the cooled compressor

38.2.4 Use of the model to simulate the filling of a compressed air storage

38.3 Steam power plant

38.3.1 Introduction, results

38.4 Refrigeration machine

38.4.1 Introduction, results

38.4.2 Principle of resolution

38.5 Single flow turbojet

38.5.1 Introduction, results

38.5.2 Presentation of the external class 3

About the Author

Renaud Gicquel is Professor at the École des Mines de Paris (Mines ParisTech), France. He has a special interest and passion for the combination of thermodynamics and energy-powered system education with modern information technology tools and developed various software packages to facilitate the teaching of applied thermodynamics and the simulation of energy systems.

Professional background: Renaud Gicquel was trained as a mining engineer and obtained his PhD in the same discipline an the Paris VI University in Paris. In the early eighties, he started his professional life as a Special Assistant to the Secretary General at the United Nations Conference in New York on new and renewable sources of energy. After positions at the French General Electric Company and the Ministry of Research and Technology, he was the advisor for Internatioanl Issues at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS). IN 1986, together with Michel Grenon, he founded the Mediterranean Energy Observatory (OME) in Sophia Antipolis in the South of France. In the early nineties, he was the Deputy Director of the Ecole des Mines de Nantes (EMN) and Head of the Energy Systems and Environment Department. He also acted at the coordinator of ARTEMIS, a thermal energy research group, which he created in partnership with the University of Nantes and Polytech Nantes. Since the mid eighties, Dr Gicquel continued his academic career at the Centre for Energy Studies of the Ecole de Mines de Paris. Acting as the head and as a full professor, he teaches applied thermodynamics, global energy issues and energy system modeling. His research activities are focused on the optimization of complex thermodynamic plants and on the use of information and communication technologies for scientific instructions. He developed several software packages and published two textbooks. To facilitate the student’s learning of applied thermodynamics and the simulation of energy systems better, he developed the Thermoptim software system, which has been supported since 2006 by the portal

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Energy
SCIENCE / Mechanics / Dynamics / Thermodynamics
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General