Energy Systems : A New Approach to Engineering Thermodynamics book cover
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Energy Systems
A New Approach to Engineering Thermodynamics




ISBN 9780415685009
Published January 16, 2012 by CRC Press
1064 Pages

 
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Book Description

Considered as particularly difficult by generations of students and engineers, thermodynamics applied to energy systems can now be taught with an original instruction method. Energy Systems applies a completely different approach to the calculation, application and theory of multiple energy conversion technologies. It aims to create the reader’s foundation for understanding and applying the design principles to all kinds of energy cycles, including renewable energy. Proven to be simpler and more reflective than existing methods, it deals with energy system modeling, instead of the thermodynamic foundations, as the primary objective. Although its style is drastically different from other textbooks, no concession is done to coverage: with encouraging pace, the complete range from basic thermodynamics to the most advanced energy systems is addressed.

The accompanying Thermoptim™ portal (http://direns.mines-paristech.fr/Sites/Thopt/en/co/_Arborescence_web.html) presents the software and manuals (in English and French) to solve over 200 examples, and programming and design tools for exercises of all levels of complexity. The reader is explained how to build appropriate models to bridge the technological reality with the theoretical basis of energy engineering. Offering quick overviews through e-learning modules moreover, the portal is user-friendly and enables to quickly become fully operational. Students can freely download the Thermoptim™ modeling software demo version (in seven languages) and extended options are available to lecturers. A professional edition is also available and has been adopted by many companies and research institutes worldwide - www.thermoptim.org

This volume is intended as for courses in applied thermodynamics, energy systems, energy conversion, thermal engineering to senior undergraduate and graduate-level students in mechanical, energy, chemical and petroleum engineering. Students should already have taken a first year course in thermodynamics. The refreshing approach and exceptionally rich coverage make it a great reference tool for researchers and professionals also. Contains International Units (SI).

Table of Contents

Forewords, About the Author, General introduction, Structure of the book, Objectives, A working tool on many levels, Mind Maps, List of Symbols, Conversion Factors


I First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics

1 A New Educational Paradigm
1.1 Introduction
1.2 General remarks on the evolution of training specifi cations
1.3 Specifi cs of applied thermodynamics teaching
1.4 A new educational paradigm
1.5 Diapason modules
1.6 A three-step progressive approach
1.7 Main pedagogic innovations brought by Thermoptim
1.8 Digital resources of the Thermoptim-UNIT portal
1.9 Comparison with other tools with teaching potential
1.10 Conclusion
References

2 First Steps in Thermodynamics: Absolute Beginners
2.1 Architecture of the machines studied
2.1.1 Steam power plant
2.1.2 Gas turbine
2.1.3 Refrigeration machine
2.2 Four basic functions
2.3 Notions of thermodynamic system and state
2.4 Energy exchange between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings
2.5 Conservation of energy: first law of thermodynamics
2.6 Application to the four basic functions previously identified
2.6.1 Compression and expansion with work
2.6.2 Expansion without work: valves, filters
2.6.3 Heat exchange
2.6.4 Combustion chambers, boilers
2.7 Reference processes
2.7.1 Compression and expansion with work
2.7.2 Expansion without work: valves, filters
2.7.3 Heat exchange
2.7.4 Combustion chambers, boilers
2.8 Summary reminders on pure substance properties
2.9 Return to the concept of state and choice of state variables to consider
2.10 Thermodynamic charts
2.10.1 Different types of charts
2.10.2 (h, ln(P)) chart
2.11 Plot of cycles in the (h, ln(P)) chart
2.11.1 Steam power plant
2.11.2 Refrigeration machine
2.12 Modeling cycles with Thermoptim
2.12.1 Steam power plant
2.12.2 Gas turbine
2.12.3 Refrigeration machine
2.13 Conclusion

3 First Steps in Thermodynamics: Entropy and the Second Law
3.1 Heat in thermodynamic systems
3.2 Introduction of entropy
3.3 Second law of thermodynamics
3.3.1 Limits of the fi rst law of thermodynamics
3.3.2 Concept of irreversibility
3.3.3 Heat transfer inside an isolated system, conversion of heat into work
3.3.4 Statement of the second law
3.4 (T, s) Entropy chart
3.5 Carnot effectiveness of heat engines
3.6 Irreversibilities in industrial processes
3.6.1 Heat exchangers
3.6.2 Compressors and turbines
3.7 Plot of cycles in the entropy chart, qualitative comparison with the carnot cycle
3.7.1 Steam power plant
3.7.2 Gas turbine
3.7.3 Refrigeration machine
3.8 Conclusion

II Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

4 Introduction
4.1 A two level methodology
4.1.1 Physical phenomena taking place in a gas turbine
4.1.2 Energy technologies: component assemblies
4.1.3 Generalities about numerical models
4.2 Practical implementation of the double analytical-systems approach
4.3 Methodology
4.3.1 Systems modeling: the General System
4.3.2 Systems-analysis of energy technologies
4.3.3 Component modeling
4.3.4 Thermoptim primitive types
4.3.5 Thermoptim assets
References

5 Thermodynamics Fundamentals
5.1 Basic concepts, definitions
5.1.1 Open and closed systems
5.1.2 State of a system, intensive and extensive quantities
5.1.3 Phase, pure substances, mixtures
5.1.4 Equilibrium, reversible process
5.1.5 Temperature
5.1.6 Symbols
5.2 Energy exchanges in a process
5.2.1 Work δW of external forces on a closed system
5.2.2 Heat transfer
5.3 First law of thermodynamics
5.3.1 Definition of internal energy U (closed system)
5.3.2 Application to a fluid mass
5.3.3 Work provided, shaft work τ
5.3.4 Shaft work and enthalpy (open systems)
5.3.5 Establishment of enthalpy balance
5.3.6 Application to industrial processes
5.4 Second law of thermodynamics
5.4.1 Definition of entropy
5.4.2 Irreversibility
5.4.3 Carnot effectiveness of heat engines
5.4.4 Fundamental relations for a phase
5.4.5 Thermodynamic potentials
5.5 Exergy
5.5.1 Presentation of exergy for a monotherm open system in steady state
5.5.2 Multithermal open steady-state system
5.5.3 Application to a two-source reversible machine
5.5.4 Special case: heat exchange without work production
5.5.5 Exergy efficiency
5.6 Representation of substance properties
5.6.1 Solid, liquid, gaseous phases
5.6.2 Perfect and ideal gases
5.6.3 Ideal gas mixtures
5.6.4 Liquids and solids
5.6.5 Liquid-vapor equilibrium of a pure substance
5.6.6 Representations of real fluids
5.6.7 Moist mixtures
5.6.8 Real fluid mixtures
References
Further reading

6 Presentation of Thermoptim
6.1 General
6.1.1 Initiation applets
6.1.2 Interactive charts
6.1.3 Thermoptim’s five working environments
6.2 Diagram editor
6.2.1 Presentation of the editor
6.2.2 Graphical component properties
6.2.3 Links between the simulator and the diagrams
6.3 Simulation environment
6.3.1 Main project screen
6.3.2 Main menus
6.3.3 Export of the results in the form of text file
6.3.4 Point screen
6.3.5 Point moist properties calculations
6.3.6 Node screen
6.4 Extension of Thermoptim by external classes
6.4.1 Extension system for Thermoptim by adding external classes
6.4.2 Software implementation
6.4.3 Viewing available external classes
6.4.4 Representation of an external component in the diagram editor
6.4.5 Loading an external class
6.4.6 Practical realization of an external class
6.5 Different versions of Thermoptim

7 Basic Components and Processes
7.1 Compressions
7.1.1 Thermodynamics of compression
7.1.2 Reference compression
7.1.3 Actual compressions
7.1.4 Staged compression
7.1.5 Calculation of a compression in Thermoptim
7.2 Displacement compressors
7.2.1 Piston compressors
7.2.2 Screw compressors
7.2.3 Criteria for the choice between displacement compressors
7.3 Dynamic compressors
7.3.1 General
7.3.2 Thermodynamics of permanent flow
7.3.3 Similarity and performance of turbomachines
7.3.4 Practical calculation of dynamic compressors
7.3.5 Pumps and fans
7.4 Comparison of the various types of compressors
7.4.1 Comparison of dynamic and displacement compressors
7.4.2 Comparison between dynamic compressors
7.5 Expansion
7.5.1 Thermodynamics of expansion
7.5.2 Calculation of an expansion in Thermoptim
7.5.3 Turbines
7.5.4 Turbine performance maps
7.5.5 Degree of reaction of a stage
7.6 Combustion
7.6.1 Combustion phenomena, basic mechanisms
7.6.2 Study of complete combustion
7.6.3 Study of incomplete combustion
7.6.4 Energy properties of combustion reactions
7.6.5 Emissions of gaseous pollutants
7.6.6 Calculation of combustion in Thermoptim
7.6.7 Technological aspects
7.7 Throttling or flash
7.8 Water vapor/gas mixtures processes
7.8.1 Moist process screens
7.8.2 Moist mixers
7.8.3 Heating a moist mixture
7.8.4 Cooling of moist mix
7.8.5 Humidification of a gas
7.8.6 Dehumidification of a mix by desiccation
7.8.7 Determination of supply conditions
7.8.8 Air conditioning processes in a psychrometric chart
7.9 Examples of components represented by external classes
7.9.1 Nozzles
7.9.2 Diffusers
7.9.3 Ejectors
References
Further reading

8 Heat Exchangers
8.1 Principles of operation of a heat exchanger
8.1.1 Heat flux exchanged
8.1.2 Heat exchange coefficient U
8.1.3 Fin effectiveness
8.1.4 Values of convection coefficients h
8.2 Phenomenological models for the calculation of heat exchangers
8.2.1 Number of transfer units method
8.2.2 Relationship between NTU and ε
8.2.3 Matrix formulation
8.2.4 Heat exchanger assemblies
8.2.5 Relationship with the LMTD method
8.2.6 Heat exchanger pinch
8.3 Calculation of heat exchangers in Thermoptim
8.3.1 “Exchange” processes
8.3.2 Creation of a heat exchanger in the diagram editor
8.3.3 Heat exchanger screen
8.3.4 Simple heat exchanger design
8.3.5 Generic liquid
8.3.6 Off-design calculation of heat exchangers
8.3.7 Thermocouplers
8.4 Technological aspects
8.4.1 Tube exchangers
8.4.2 Plate heat exchangers
8.4.3 Other types of heat exchangers
8.5 Summary
References
Further reading

9 Examples of Applications
9.1 Steam power plant cycle
9.1.1 Principle of the machine and problem data
9.1.2 Creation of the diagram
9.1.3 Creation of simulator elements
9.1.4 Setting points
9.1.5 Setting of processes
9.1.6 Plotting the cycle on thermodynamic chart
9.1.7 Design of condenser
9.1.8 Cycle improvements
9.1.9 Modification of the model
9.2 Single stage compression refrigeration cycle
9.2.1 Principle of the machine and problem data
9.2.2 Creation of the diagram
9.2.3 Creation of simulator elements
9.2.4 Setting points
9.2.5 Setting of processes
9.3 Gas turbine cycle
9.3.1 Principle of the machine and problem data
9.3.2 Creation of the diagram
9.3.3 Creation of simulator elements
9.3.4 Setting points
9.3.5 Setting of processes
9.4 Air conditioning installation
9.4.1 Principle of installation and problem data
9.4.2 Supply conditions
9.4.3 Properties of the mix (outdoor air/recycled air)
9.4.4 Air treatment
9.4.5 Plot on the psychrometric chart

10 General Issues on Cycles, Energy and Exergy Balances
10.1 General issues on cycles, notations
10.1.1 Motor cycles
10.1.2 Refrigeration cycles
10.1.3 Carnot cycle
10.1.4 Regeneration cycles
10.1.5 Theoretical and real cycles
10.1.6 Notions of efficiency and effectiveness
10.2 Energy and exergy balance
10.2.1 Energy balances
10.2.2 Exergy balances
10.2.3 Practical implementation in a spreadsheet
10.2.4 Exergy balances of complex cycles
10.3 Productive structures
10.3.1 Establishment of a productive structure
10.3.2 Relationship between the diagram and the productive structure
10.3.3 Implementation in Thermoptim
10.3.4 Automation of the creation of the productive structure
10.3.5 Examples
10.3.6 Conclusion
References

III Main Conventional Cycles

11 Introduction: Changing Technologies
11.1 Limitation of fossil resources and geopolitical constraints
11.2 Local and global environmental impact of energy
11.2.1 Increase in global greenhouse effect
11.2.2 Reduction of the ozone layer
11.2.3 Urban pollution and acid rain
11.3 Technology transfer from other sectors
11.4 Technological innovation key to energy future
References
Further reading

12 Internal Combustion Turbomotors
12.1 Gas turbines
12.1.1 Operating principles
12.1.2 Examples of gas turbines
12.1.3 Major technological constraints
12.1.4 Basic cycles
12.1.5 Cycle improvements
12.1.6 Mechanical configurations
12.1.7 Emissions of pollutants
12.1.8 Outlook for gas turbines
12.2 Aircraft engines
12.2.1 Turbojet and turboprop engines
12.2.2 Reaction engines without rotating machine
References
Further reading

13 Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines
13.1 General operation mode
13.1.1 Four- and two-stroke cycles
13.1.2 Methods of cooling
13.2 Analysis of theoretical cycles of reciprocating engines
13.2.1 Beau de Rochas ideal cycle
13.2.2 Diesel cycle
13.2.3 Mixed cycle
13.2.4 Theoretical associated cycles
13.3 Characteristic curves of piston engines
13.3.1 Effective performance, MEP and power factor
13.3.2 Influence of the rotation speed
13.3.3 Indicated performance, IMEP
13.3.4 Effective performance, MEP
13.3.5 Specific consumption of an engine
13.4 Gasoline engine
13.4.1 Limits of knocking and octane number
13.4.2 Strengthening of turbulence
13.4.3 Formation of fuel mix, fuel injection electronic systems
13.4.4 Real cycles of gasoline engines
13.5 Diesel engines
13.5.1 Compression ignition conditions
13.5.2 Ignition and combustion delays
13.5.3 Air utilization factor
13.5.4 Thermal and mechanical fatigue
13.5.5 Cooling of walls
13.5.6 Fuels burnt in diesel engines
13.5.7 Real cycles of diesel engines
13.6 Design of reciprocating engines
13.7 Supercharging
13.7.1 General
13.7.2 Basic principles
13.7.3 Conditions of autonomy of a turbocharger
13.7.4 Adaptation of the turbocharger
13.7.5 Conclusions on supercharging
13.8 Engine and pollutant emission control
13.8.1 Emissions of pollutants: Mechanisms involved
13.8.2 Combustion optimization
13.8.3 Catalytic purification converters
13.8.4 Case of diesel engines
13.9 Technological prospects
13.9.1 Traction engines
13.9.2 Large gas and diesel engines
References
Further reading

14 Stirling Engines
14.1 Principle of operation
14.2 Piston drive
14.3 Thermodynamic analysis of Stirling engines
14.3.1 Theoretical cycle
14.3.2 Ideal Stirling cycle
14.3.3 Paraisothermal Stirling cycle
14.4 Influence of the pressure
14.5 Choice of the working fluid
14.6 Heat exchangers
14.6.1 Cooler
14.6.2 Regenerator
14.6.3 Boiler
14.7 Characteristics of a Stirling engine
14.8 Simplified Stirling engine Thermoptim model
References
Further reading

15 Steam Facilities (General)
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Steam enthalpy and exergy
15.3 General configuration of steam facilities
15.4 Water deaeration
15.4.1 Chemical deaeration
15.4.2 Thermal deaeration
15.5 Blowdown
15.6 Boiler and steam generators
15.6.1 Boilers
15.6.2 Steam generators
15.6.3 Boiler operation
15.6.4 Optimization of pressure level
15.7 Steam turbines
15.7.1 Different types of steam turbines
15.7.2 Behavior in off-design mode
15.7.3 Degradation of expansion efficiency function of steam quality
15.7.4 Temperature control by desuperheating
15.8 Condensers, cooling towers
15.8.1 Principle of operation of cooling towers
15.8.2 Phenomenological model
15.8.3 Behaviour models
15.8.4 Modeling a direct contact cooling tower in Thermoptim
References
Further reading

16 Classical Steam Power Cycles
16.1 Conventional flame power cycles
16.1.1 Basic Hirn or Rankine cycle with superheating
16.1.2 Energy and exergy balance
16.1.3 Thermodynamic limits of simple Hirn cycle
16.1.4 Cycle with reheat
16.1.5 Cycle with extraction
16.1.6 Supercritical cycles
16.1.7 Binary cycles
16.2 Technology of flame plants
16.2.1 General technological constraints
16.2.2 Main coal power plants
16.2.3 Emissions of pollutants
16.3 Nuclear power plant cycles
16.3.1 Primary circuit
16.3.2 Steam generator
16.3.3 Secondary circuit
16.3.4 Industrial PWR evolution
Reference
Further reading

17 Combined Cycle Power Plants
17.1 Combined cycle without afterburner
17.1.1 Overall performance
17.1.2 Reduced efficiency and power
17.2 Combined cycle with afterburner
17.3 Combined cycle optimization
17.4 Gas turbine and combined cycles variations
17.5 Diesel combined cycle
17.6 Conclusions and outlook
References
Further reading

18 Cogeneration and Trigeneration
18.1 Performance indicators
18.2 Boilers and steam turbines
18.3 Internal combustion engines
18.3.1 Reciprocating engines
18.3.2 Gas turbines
18.4 Criteria for selection
18.5 Examples of industrial plants
18.5.1 Micro-gas turbine cogeneration
18.5.2 Industrial gas turbine cogeneration
18.6 Trigeneration
18.6.1 Production of central heating and cooling for a supermarket
18.6.2 Trigeneration by micro turbine and absorption cycle
References
Further reading

19 Compression Refrigeration Cycles, Heat Pumps
19.1 Principles of operation
19.2 Current issues
19.2.1 Stopping CFC production
19.2.2 Substitution of fluids
19.3 Basic refrigeration cycle
19.3.1 Principle of operation
19.3.2 Energy and exergy balances
19.4 Superheated and sub-cooled cycle
19.4.1 Single-stage cycle without heat exchanger
19.4.2 Single-stage cycle with exchanger
19.5 Two-stage cycles
19.5.1 Two-stage compression cycle with intermediate cooling
19.5.2 Compression and expansion multistage cycles
19.6 Special cycles
19.6.1 Cascade cycles
19.6.2 Cycles using blends
19.6.3 Cycles using ejectors
19.6.4 Reverse Brayton cycles
19.7 Heat pumps
19.7.1 Basic cycle
19.7.2 Exergy balance
19.8 Technological aspects
19.8.1 Desirable properties for fluids
19.8.2 Refrigeration compressors
19.8.3 Expansion valves
19.8.4 Heat exchangers
19.8.5 Auxiliary devices
19.8.6 Variable speed
References
Further reading

20 Liquid Absorption Refrigeration Cycles
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Study of a NH3-H2O absorption cycle
20.3 Modeling LiBr-H2O absorption cycle in Thermoptim
References

21 Air Conditioning
21.1 Basics of an air conditioning system
21.2 Examples of cycles
21.2.1 Summer air conditioning
21.2.2 Winter air conditioning
References
Further reading

22 Optimization by Systems Integration
22.1 Basic principles
22.1.1 Pinch point
22.1.2 Integration of complex heat system
22.2 Design of exchanger networks
22.3 Minimizing the pinch
22.3.1 Implementation of the algorithm
22.3.2 Establishment of actual composite curves
22.3.3 Plot of the Carnot factor difference curve (CFDC)
22.3.4 Matching exchange streams
22.3.5 Thermal machines and heat integration
22.4 Optimization by irreversibility analysis
22.4.1 Component irreversibility and systemic irreversibility
22.4.2 Optimization method
22.5 Implementation in Thermoptim
22.5.1 Principle
22.5.2 Optimization frame
22.6 Example
22.6.1 Determination of HP and LP flow rates
22.6.2 Matching fluids in heat exchangers
References
Further reading

IV Innovative Advanced Cycles, including Low Environmental Impact

23 External Class Development
23.1 General, external substances
23.1.1 Introducing custom components
23.1.2 Simple substance: example of DowTherm A
23.1.3 Coupling to a thermodynamic properties server
23.2 Flat plate solar collectors
23.2.1 Design of the external component
23.3 Calculation of moist mixtures in external classes
23.3.1 Introduction
23.3.2 Methods available in the external classes
23.4 External combustion
23.4.1 Model of biomass combustion
23.4.2 Presentation of the external class
23.5 Cooling coil with condensation
23.5.1 Modeling a cooling coil with condensation in Thermoptim
23.5.2 Study of the external class DehumidifyingCoil
23.6 Cooling towers
23.6.1 Modeling of a direct contact cooling tower in Thermoptim
23.6.2 Study of external class DirectCoolingTower
23.7 External drivers
23.7.1 Stirling engine driver
23.7.2 Creation of the class: visual interface
23.7.3 Recognition of component names
23.7.4 Calculations and display
23.8 External class manager

24 Advanced Gas Turbines Cycles
24.1 Humid air gas turbine
24.2 Supercritical CO2 cycles
24.2.1 Simple regeneration cycle
24.2.2 Pre-compression cycle
24.2.3 Recompression cycle
24.2.4 Partial cooling cycle
24.3 Advanced combined cycles
24.3.1 Air combined cycle
24.3.2 Steam fl ash combined cycle
24.3.3 Steam recompression combined cycle
24.3.4 Kalina cycle
References

25 Evaporation, Mechanical Vapor Compression, Desalination, Drying by Hot Gas
25.1 Evaporation
25.1.1 Single-effect cycle
25.1.2 Multi-effect cycle
25.1.3 Boiling point elevation
25.2 Mechanical vapor compression
25.2.1 Evaporative mechanical vapor compression cycle
25.2.2 Types of compressors used
25.2.3 Design parameters of a VC
25.3 Desalination
25.3.1 Simple effect distillation
25.3.2 Double effect desalination cycle
25.3.3 Mechanical vapor compression desalination cycle
25.3.4 Desalination ejector cycle
25.3.5 Multi-stage fl ash desalination cycle
25.3.6 Reverse osmosis desalination
25.4 Drying by hot gas
References

26 Cryogenic Cycles
26.1 Joule-Thomson isenthalpic expansion process
26.1.1 Basic cycle
26.1.2 Linde cycle
26.1.3 Linde cycles for nitrogen liquefaction
26.2 Reverse Brayton cycle
26.3 Mixed processes: Claude cycle
26.4 Cascade cycles
References

27 Electrochemical Converters
27.1 Fuel cells
27.1.1 SOFC modeling
27.1.2 Improving the cell model
27.1.3 Model with a thermocoupler
27.1.4 Coupling SOFC fuel cell with a gas turbine
27.1.5 Change in the model to replace H2 by CH4
27.2 Reforming
27.2.1 Modeling of a reformer in Thermoptim
27.2.2 Results
27.3 Electrolysers
27.3.1 Modeling of a high temperature electrolyser in Thermoptim
27.3.2 Results
References

28 Global Warming and Capture and Sequestration of CO2
28.1 Problem data
28.2 Carbon capture and storage
28.2.1 Introduction
28.2.2 Capture strategies
28.3 Techniques implemented
28.3.1 Post-combustion techniques
28.3.2 Pre-combustion techniques
28.3.3 Oxycombustion techniques
References

29 Future Nuclear Reactors
29.1 Introduction
29.2 Reactors coupled to Hirn cycles
29.2.1 Sodium cooled fast neutron reactors
29.2.2 Supercritical water reactors
29.3 Reactors coupled to Brayton cycles
29.3.1 Small capacity modular reactor PBMR
29.3.2 GT-MHR reactors
29.3.3 Very high temperature reactors
29.3.4 Gas cooled fast neutron reactors
29.3.5 Lead cooled fast reactors
29.3.6 Molten salt reactors
29.3.7 Thermodynamic cycles of high temperature reactors
29.4 Summary
References

30 Solar Thermodynamic Cycles
30.1 Direct conversion of solar energy
30.1.1 Introduction
30.1.2 Thermal conversion of solar energy
30.1.2 Thermodynamic cycles considered
30.2 Performance of solar collectors
30.2.1 Low temperature solar collectors
30.2.2 Low temperature fl at plate solar collector model
30.2.3 High temperature solar collectors
30.2.4 Modeling high temperature concentration collectors
30.3 Parabolic trough plants
30.3.1 Optimization of the collector temperature
30.3.2 Plant model
30.4 Parabolic dish systems
30.5 Power towers
30.6 Hybrid systems
References

31 Other than Solar NRE cycles
31.1 Solar ponds
31.1.1 Analysis of the problem
31.1.2 Plot of the cycle in the entropy chart
31.1.3 Exergy balance
31.1.4 Auxiliary consumption
31.2 Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)
31.2.1 OTEC closed cycle
31.2.2 OTEC open-cycle
31.2.3 Uehara cycle
31.3 Geothermal cycles
31.3.1 Direct-steam plants
31.3.2 Simple fl ash plant
31.3.3 Double fl ash plant
31.3.4 Binary cycle plants
31.3.5 Kalina cycle
31.3.6 Combined cycles
31.3.7 Mixed cycle
31.4 Use of biomass energy
31.4.1 Introduction
31.4.2 Modeling thermochemical conversion
References

32 Heat and Compressed Air Storage
32.1 Introduction
32.2 Methodological aspects
32.3 Cold storage in phase change nodules
32.4 Project Sether (electricity storage as high temperature heat)
32.5 Compressed air storage devices
32.5.1 CAES (Compressed Air Energy Storage) concept
32.5.2 Peaker concept of Electricite de Marseille company
32.5.3 Hydropneumatic energy storage HPES
References

33 Calculation of Thermodynamic Solar Installations
33.1 Specific solar problems
33.2 Estimation of the solar radiation received by a solar collector
33.3 Cumulative frequency curves of irradiation
33.3.1 Curve construction
33.3.2 Curve smoothing
33.3.3 Estimation of CFCS from empirical formulas
33.3.4 Interpolation on tilt
33.4 Hourly simulation models
33.5 Simplified design methods
33.5.1 Principle of methods
33.5.2 Usability curves
References

V Technological Design and Off-design Operation
 
34 Technological Design and Off-design Operation, Model Reduction
34.1 Introduction
34.2 Component technological design
34.2.1 Heat exchangers
34.2.2 Displacement compressors
34.2.3 Expansion valves
34.2.4 Practical example: design of a cycle
34.3 Off-design calculations
34.3.1 Principle of computing coupled systems in Thermoptim
34.3.2 Off-design equations of the refrigerator
34.3.3 After processing of simulation results
34.3.4 Effect of change in UA
34.4 Development of simplified models of systems studied
34.4.1 Model reduction principle
34.4.2 Model reduction example
34.5 Methodological difficulties
References

35 Technological Design and Off-design Behavior of Heat Exchangers
35.1 Introduction
35.1.1 General
35.1.2 Reminders on the NTU method
35.2 Modeling of heat transfer
35.2.1 Extended surfaces
35.2.2 Calculation of Reynolds and Prandtl numbers
35.2.3 Calculation of the Nusselt number
35.2.4 Calculation of multi-zone exchangers
35.3 Pressure drop calculation
35.3.1 Gas or liquid state pressure drop
35.3.2 Two-phase pressure drop
35.4 Heat exchanger technological screen
35.4.1 Heat exchanger technological screen
35.4.2 Correlations used in Thermoptim
35.5 Model parameter estimation
35.5.1 Direct setting from geometric data
35.5.2 Identification of exchanger parameters
References

36 Modeling and Setting of Displacement Compressors
36.1 Behavior models
36.1.1 Operation at rated speed and full load
36.1.2 Operation at partial load and speed
36.2 Practical modeling problems
36.2.1 Technological screen of displacement compressors
36.2.3 Identification of compressor parameters
36.2.4 Calculation in design mode
36.2.5 Calculation in off-design mode
36.2.6 Fixed Vi screw compressors
References

37 Modeling and Setting of Dynamic Compressors and Turbines
37.1 Supplements on turbomachinery
37.1.1 Analysis of the velocity triangle
37.1.2 Degree of reaction of one stage
37.1.3 Theoretical characteristics of turbomachinery
37.1.4 Real characteristics of turbomachinery
37.1.5 Factors of similarity
37.2 Pumps and fans
37.3 Dynamic compressors
37.3.1 Performance maps of dynamic compressors
37.3.2 Analysis of performance maps of dynamic compressors
37.3.3 Technological screen of dynamic compressors
37.4 Turbines
37.4.1 Performance maps of turbines
37.4.2 Isentropic efficiency law
37.4.3 Stodola’s cone rule
37.4.4 Baumann rule
37.4.5 Loss by residual velocity
37.4.6 Technological screen of turbines
37.4.8 Identification of turbine parameters
37.5 Nozzles
References

38 Case Studies
38.1 Introduction
38.2 Compressor filling a storage of compressed air
38.2.1 Modeling of the heat exchanger
38.2.2 Design of the driver
38.2.3 Analysis of the cooled compressor
38.2.4 Use of the model to simulate the filling of a compressed air storage
38.3 Steam power plant
38.3.1 Introduction, results
38.4 Refrigeration machine
38.4.1 Introduction, results
38.4.2 Principle of resolution
38.5 Single flow turbojet
38.5.1 Introduction, results
38.5.2 Presentation of the external class 3

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Author(s)

Biography

Renaud Gicquel is Professor at the École des Mines de Paris (Mines ParisTech), France. He has a special interest and passion for the combination of thermodynamics and energy-powered system education with modern information technology tools and developed various software packages to facilitate the teaching of applied thermodynamics and the simulation of energy systems.

Professional background: Renaud Gicquel was trained as a mining engineer and obtained his PhD in the same discipline an the Paris VI University in Paris. In the early eighties, he started his professional life as a Special Assistant to the Secretary General at the United Nations Conference in New York on new and renewable sources of energy. After positions at the French General Electric Company and the Ministry of Research and Technology, he was the advisor for Internatioanl Issues at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS). IN 1986, together with Michel Grenon, he founded the Mediterranean Energy Observatory (OME) in Sophia Antipolis in the South of France. In the early nineties, he was the Deputy Director of the Ecole des Mines de Nantes (EMN) and Head of the Energy Systems and Environment Department. He also acted at the coordinator of ARTEMIS, a thermal energy research group, which he created in partnership with the University of Nantes and Polytech Nantes. Since the mid eighties, Dr Gicquel continued his academic career at the Centre for Energy Studies of the Ecole de Mines de Paris. Acting as the head and as a full professor, he teaches applied thermodynamics, global energy issues and energy system modeling. His research activities are focused on the optimization of complex thermodynamic plants and on the use of information and communication technologies for scientific instructions. He developed several software packages and published two textbooks. To facilitate the student’s learning of applied thermodynamics and the simulation of energy systems better, he developed the Thermoptim software system, which has been supported since 2006 by the portal www.thermoptim.org.

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Reviews

"This is a comprehensive book on energy systems with an almost encyclopedic coverage of the details of the equipment and systems involved in power production, refrigeration, and air-conditioning. The integration of technical content with advanced software allows a range of users from students who are beginning their study to those involved in research on promising cycles. From a teaching perspective, the initial focus on the system level combined with the simulation tool Thermoptim serves to quickly bring students up to speed on applications, and provides motivation for further study. This book promises to be one that engineers will keep on their desks for ready reference and study."
—John W. Mitchell, Kaiser Chair Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Emeritus, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA

"By its content and its character, this book is an encouraging and stylish manifesto of a new teaching practice of engineering thermodynamics. In contrast to existing methods, it spares the reader mathematical contingencies, the aggregation of knowledge, and the immutable laws of thermodynamics in the first steps...ideal for the technicians and engineers we train, who often have a much lower accurate mathematical level at their disposal than when they were still students. Technologies are presented simply at first, and subsequently with increasing detail. In combination with the www.thermoptim.org portal and the possibilities this offers Energy Systems is an appealing textbook and developing tool, a very powerful reference that allows easier implementation into practice than any existing books on the subject.Usage has changed my approach to thermodynamics, both in my engineering work and in preparing course content. The development of a much more accessible and user-friendly approach than encountered earlier made using it a pleasure, both personally and in training. Last but not least, it widely opens the doors to creativity, which is a major requirement for our energy future."
—Alain Lambotte, Content Manager, Competence and Training Center, Electricity Utility, Belgium

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