Engineering Karstology of Dams and Reservoirs  book cover
1st Edition

Engineering Karstology of Dams and Reservoirs

ISBN 9781498748070
Published May 18, 2018 by CRC Press
356 Pages - 18 Color & 259 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Karst terrains have been modified and adapted through a range of human activities as the need for flood control, irrigation, food production, hydropower production and other resources has increased. Successful reclamation projects require construction of dams and reservoirs. Karst terrains present the most complex working conditions for dam foundation and realization of safe reservoir space. Practical engineering solutions are extremely complex and the need for successful solution requires serious investigations and the cooperation of a wide spectrum of scientists and engineers. A wealth of data on dam projects in karst has been collected and presented in this book. Since reservoirs in karst may fail to fill despite extensive investigations and remediation treatment the book includes a description of failures as well.

Table of Contents

General Introduction

Karst and Engineering

Distribution of Karst

Types of Karst

Introduction to Engineering Karstology

Dams and Reservoirs in Karst

Characterization of Karst Aquifers


Specific Structural Features of Karst Porosity

Role of Erosion and Evorsion in Karst Features Development

Depth of Karstification

Hydrogeological Properties of Karst Aquifer

Karst Features Relevant to Dam Hydrogeology


The Regional Approach to Select Proper Sites for Dams and Reservoirs

The Karst Types – Engineering Approach

Geomorphological Properties

Storage Properties of Valleys and Karst Depressions – Poljes

Importance of Lithological and Geological Structures

The Hydrogeological Role of the Base of Karstification

Specific Methods of Investigations in Karst

Karst Nature – Needs for Specific Investigations

Properties of Discontinuities

Piezometers and the Groundwater Regime

Geophysical Methods

Tracer Techniques


Hydrogeological Investigations and Monitoring

Methods to Determine the Permeability of Dam Foundation and Reservoirs

Geological Settings of Dam Sites and Reservoirs

Seepage Conditions in Karstified Rocks

Investigation Boreholes

Permeability Characteristics Derived From Pressure Tests and Groundwater Regime Analysis

Karstification and Hydraulic Conductivity

Adits (Investigation Galleries, Drifts)

Waterproofing in Karst

General Aspects

Karst Features and Processes – Sources of Leakage

Underground Waterproofing

Surface Waterproofing 

Dams and Reservoirs Construction on Evaporites

Evaporites – Risky Environment for Dam Construction

Evaporites – General Characteristics

List of Dam and Reservoir in Evaporites with Construction Problems

Selected Case Studies

Underground Dams and Reservoirs

Underground Dams – New Challenges

General Geological Properties as Prerequisite for Underground Dam Installation

Selected Case Studies

Modeling in Karst

Modelling and its Limitation in Engineering Karstology

Physical Models of Karst Aquifer

Modeling Disturbances of Natural Flow Regimes due to Construction of Reservoirs 

Modeling the Consequences of Dam Construction on Processes of Karstification 

Leakage From Reservoirs – A Common Problem in Karst

The Leakage – Key Problem in Engineering Karstology

Case Studies of Leakage as Consequence of Progressive Erosion and Dissolution

Collapses (Sinkholes) as Consequences of Reservoir Operation

Acceptable Leakage

Engineering and The Environmental Impact of Dams and Reservoirs in Karst


Impact to Regional Regime of Surface and Groundwater

Impact on Subterranean and Terrestrial Fauna and Archeological Material

Submergence of Large Karst Springs by Reservoirs

Reservoir Bank Storage

Karst-triggered Seismicity

Trans-boundary Problems and Groundwater Protection

A Simplified Model of Trans-boundary Aquifers in Karst

Trans-boundary Problems Common in Karst

The Questions that Arise

Groundwater Protection Zoning in Karst – A Conceptual Model

A Catalog of Selected Dams and Reservoirs in Karst

A List of Dams Known to be Constructed in Karstified Rocks

List of Dams with Problems due to Large Caverns and Hypogene Karstification

Dams with Successful Waterproofing During Construction

Case Studies with Successful Corrective Works

Dams with Unsuccessful or Partially Successful Remedial Works

Redesigned Anti-Leakage Structures

Dams and Reservoirs with Acceptable Seepage Losses

Dams that were Displaced, Abandoned or have Limited use

Reservoir Failures After Many Years of Operation

Dams Under Design or Construction

Abandoned Sites, Redesigned or Temporary Frozen Projects

Tailings Dams and Ponds in Karst

Dams for Submerged Spring Tapping

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Petar Milanović is Professor Emeritus, President of the Serbian Chapter of the International Association of Hydrogeologists and a member of the Governing Board of the International Karst Institute founded by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and UNESCO. Since 1973 he has been a member of the IAH Karst Commission and was instrumental in the organization of a few Karst Commission Meetings. He has more than 50 years of experience in investigation, analysis and design related to hydrogeological and geotechnical issues for different civil structures. He has specialized in problems related to karst rock masses. He has been a visiting professor and distinguished lecturer on karst theory and engineering karstology at universities across the world, and countries with construction problems in karst.

Dr. Milanović is author of several books on hydrogeology and engineering in karst. He has written more than 100 professional and scientific papers and has contributed to numerous other publications on this subject. As a consultant and member of boards of experts, he has participated in investigations, design and construction of more than 80 dams, reservoirs, tunnels and tailings in different karst regions worldwide.

He has received many awards for his work, including: Mostar University Award 1987; the Yugoslav National Committee for Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology Award 1987; Hacettepe University Award, Turkey 2000; Karst China 2001 Award, Beijing. In 2011 he was awarded Honorary Membership of the US National Speleological Society and, in 2017, the President’s Award of International Association of Hydrogeologists.