This is the first of two edited volumes from an international group of researchers and specialists, which together comprise the edited proceedings of the First International Conference on Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics, organized by Cranfield College of Aeronautics at Stratford-upon-Avon, England in October 1996. The applications areas include aerospace and other transportation, human-computer interaction, process control and training technology. Topics addressed include: the design of control and display systems; human perception, error, reliability, information processing, and human perception, error, reliability, information processing, and awareness, skill acquisition and retention; techniques for evaluating human-machine systems and the physiological correlates of performance. This volume covers Human Factors in transportation systems. Part One opens with a chapter by Chris Wickens on attentional issues in head-up displays; its concluding chapter by Peter Jorna, pulls together the Human Factors issues in air traffic management from both the pilot’s and the air traffic controller’s perspectives. Part Two considers the ground-based aspects to air traffic control, while Part Three emphasizes the psychology of the individual. The opening chapter of Part Four uses lessons learned from aviation to avoid similar mistakes in road vehicles. The final part contains topics such as naval command and control, and automation in trains and armoured fighting vehicles.
’This is a book on a major topic that should be widely welcomed by researchers in transportation systems…the reader is brought up to date with recent rapid developments…all subjects covered expertly, succinctly and with up-to-date reference…should make this book widely read and if it is, could have considerable beneficial effects.’ Air Traffic Control Association, USA
Contents: Cockpit Interface Design Issues: Attentional issues in head-up displays; A comparison of alternative helmet mounted flight control displays; An evaluation of attitude symbology for helmet-mounted displays; Altimeter design in avionics: analogue versus digital?; An evaluation of alternative launch success zone formats in tactical pilot decision making; Visual support for the control of unmanned platforms; An evaluation of feedback requirements and cursor designs for virtual controls; Evaluation of a virtual interface for a cockpit procedures trainer; GPS = got position sussed: some challenges for engineering and cognitive psychology in the general aviation environment; Design and evaluation of a 4D navigation display with direct manipulation; Error analysis as a means for user interface evaluation: a comparison of graphically interactive and traditional FMS user interfaces; Practicing what we preach; A method of designing ergonomics for activity dynamics: an aeronautical example; A task analytic approach to human centered flight deck design and evaluation; Memory load and task interference: hidden usability issues in speech interfaces; Human machine interactions with future flight deck and air traffic control systems. Air Traffic Control: Proposal for a cognitive model of en-route air traffic control; Situational awareness in air traffic control: human cognition and advanced technology; Dynamic decision aiding: the impact of adaptive automation on mental workload; Cognitive complexity in management by exception: deriving early human factors requirements for an envisioned air traffic management world; A cognitive model of expert behaviour in an air traffic control task: enhanced speech recognition using situational knowledge; Malvern Capacity Estimate (MACE) - a proposed cognitive measure for complex systems. Aviation Psychology: The invariant that drives conflict detection; Effects of mild hypoxia on decision making: a signal-detection approach; A