Engineering Tools for Environmental Risk Management: 2. Environmental Toxicology, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Engineering Tools for Environmental Risk Management

2. Environmental Toxicology, 1st Edition

Edited by Katalin Gruiz, Tamas Meggyes, Eva Fenyvesi

CRC Press

566 pages

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Chemical substances, physical agents and built structures exhibit various types of hazard due to their inherent toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, reprotoxic and sensitizing character or damaging to the immune and hormone system. The first steps in managing an environment contaminated by chemical substances are characterization of hazards and quantification of their risks. Chemical models — using only analytical data — are still the most widely used applications for assessing potential adverse effects and the fate and behavior of chemicals in the environment. Chemical models rely on the assumption that the adverse effect is proportional to the concentration, which in most cases is incorrect. In this volume, other models such as biological and ecological or regression models are discussed in detail and compared.

Environmental risk management has two subsections: risk assessment and risk reduction. Environmental risk, to a large extent, arises from the adverse effects of chemicals and contaminated land; that is why measuring and testing these effects plays a key role in risk management.

“Environmental Toxicology” deals with direct measurement of adverse effects of pure chemicals or environmental samples. This book has therefore been created specifically for engineers and gives a general overview of environmental toxicology. It provides an overview of hundreds of standardized and nonstandardized, generic and site-specific, conventional and innovative, animal and alternative test methods, and demonstrates how to apply these results to the regulation and management of environmental risk. In addition to human, aquatic and terrestrial methods for measuring toxicity, new trends in environmental analytics and the integration and complementary use of chemical analyses and the testing of effects are described.

Bioavailability and accessibility as key parameters are detailed and the interactive and dynamic characterization of contaminants in soil is introduced. Emphasis is placed on the evaluation and interpretation of environmental fate and adverse effect data as well as the simulation of environmental processes and effects in microcosms and mesocosms.

Table of Contents


List of abbreviations

About the editors

1 Environmental toxicology –A general overview


1 Introduction, basic definitions

1.1 Toxicology and its role

1.2 Regulatory toxicology for chemical substances and contaminated land

1.3 Future of environmental toxicology

1.3.1 Molecular technologies

1.3.2 Cell-based technologies

1.3.3 Computational toxicology

1.4 What environment means in the context of toxicology

1.5 Environmental toxicology versus human toxicology

1.6 Animal studies

1.7 In vitro contra in vivo: alternative test methods

1.8 Evidence-based toxicology

2 Adverse effects to be measured by environmental toxicology

2.1 Hazardous effects of chemical substances

2.2 Toxic effects of chemical substances

2.3 Carcinogenic effects

2.4 Mutagenic effects

2.5 Reprotoxicity

2.6 Persistent and very persistent substances

2.7 Bioaccumulative and very bioaccumulative substances

2.8 Emerging pollutants

3 Interaction of a chemical substance with living organisms

3.1 Dose–response relationship

3.2 Test end points: the results of the environmental toxicity test

3.3 Classification of environmental toxicological tests

3.3.1 Test type according to the aim of the test

3.3.2 Test organisms

3.3.3 Test design

3.3.4 Most commonly measured end points

3.3.5 Environmental compartments and phases to test

3.3.6 Aims of environmental toxicity tests

3.4 Environmental toxicology in relation to hazard and risk assessment

3.4.1 Testing hazard or risk?

3.4.2 Standardized or customized test methods?

3.4.3 Testing or modeling? – QSAR and environmental toxicology

3.5 Statistical evaluation of ecotoxicological tests

3.5.1 Evaluation of acute toxicity tests

3.5.2 Data analysis for chronic toxicity tests

3.5.3 Data analysis of multispecies toxicity tests

3.6 Standardization and international acceptance of newly developed toxicity tests

2 Fate and behavior of chemical substances in the environment


1 Introduction

2 Interaction of the contaminants with environmental phases

2.1 Transport and partitioning

2.1.1 Partitioning between air and water

2.1.2 Partitioning between solid and water

2.1.3 Transport models

2.2 Chemical interactions between chemical substances and the environment

2.2.1 Photolysis

2.2.2 Hydrolysis

2.2.3 Chemical oxidation and reduction

3 Interactions of chemical substances – with the biota

3.1 Biodegradation and biotransformation

3.1.1 Classification of environmental fate of chemicals for regulatory purposes

3.1.2 Biodegradation – definitions

3.1.3 Biodegradation – the process

3.1.4 QSAR for biodegradation

3.1.5 Aims of testing biodegradation

3.1.6 Measurement end points for characterizing biodegradation

3.1.7 Standardized biodegradability test methods for chemical substances

3.1.8 Measuring biodegradation in soil

3.1.9 Soil respiration, biodegradative activity of the soil – problem-specific applications

3.2 Bioaccumulation

3.2.1 Definitions

3.2.2 Bioaccumulative potential of chemicals

3.2.3 QSAR for bioaccumulation

3.2.4 Testing bioaccumulation

3.2.5 Standardized tests for measuring bioaccumulation

3.2.6 Field determination of bioaccumulation

3.3 Bioleaching

4 Availability of contaminants for environmental actors

5 Utilizing fate properties of chemicals to reduce their risk in the environment

5.1 Environmental transport and fate processes change contaminant risk

3 Human toxicology


1 Introduction

1.1 Adverse effects of chemicals on humans

1.2 Testing the adverse effects of chemicals on humans

2 Test organisms for human toxicology purposes

2.1 Microorganisms used in human toxicity testing

2.2 Isolated cells, tissue cultures in human toxicology

2.3 Lower animals in human toxicology

2.4 Birds

2.5 Mammals

2.6 3R in animal testing

3 Toxicity end points and methods

3.1 Acute toxicity

3.1.1 Animal tests for acute systemic toxicity

3.1.2 Non-animal, in vitro tests for acute systemic toxicity

3.2 Repeated-dose and organ toxicity testing

3.2.1 Animal test methods for repeated-dose and organ toxicity

3.2.2 Alternative methods for repeated-dose and organ toxicity testing

3.3 Genotoxicity

3.3.1 In vivo animal tests for assessing potential heritable genotoxicity

3.3.2 OECD test guidelines for in vitro genotoxicity and mutagenicity testing

3.3.3 New in vivo genotoxicity tests

3.3.4 QSAR for genotoxicity and genotoxic carcinogenicity

3.4 Chronic toxicity

3.4.1 Chronic toxicity testing methods on animals

3.5 Carcinogenicity

3.5.1 Animal methods for carcinogenicity testing

3.5.2 Non-animal testing of carcinogenicity

3.6 Reproductive and developmental toxicity

3.6.1 Animal tests for reproductive and developmental toxicity

3.6.2 In vitro methods for reproductive and developmental toxicity

3.7 Dermal penetration

3.7.1 Animal testing of dermal penetration

3.7.2 In vitro testing of dermal penetration

3.8 Skin irritation and corrosion

3.8.1 Animal testing of skin irritation and corrosion

3.8.2 Alternative, non-animal test methods for skin irritation and corrosion

3.9 Skin sensitization

3.9.1 Skin sensitization: animal tests for regulatory requirements

3.9.2 Non-animal alternative methods

3.10 Eye irritation and corrosion

3.10.1 Animal testing of eye irritation and corrosion on rabbits

3.10.2 Non-animal alternative methods for evaluating eye irritation and corrosion

3.11 Toxicokinetics, pharmacokinetics and metabolism

3.11.1 Testing of toxicokinetics, pharmacokinetics and metabolism on animals

3.11.2 In vitro dermal testing

3.12 Neurotoxicity

3.12.1 Animal testing of neurotoxicity

3.12.2 In vitro models for neurotoxicology studies and testing

3.13 Endocrine toxicity and disruption

3.13.1 Animal tests for screening endocrine disruption

3.13.2 Validated non-animal alternatives for endocrine disruptor activity

3.13.3 The US EPA endocrine disruptor screening program

3.14 Phototoxicity

4 Aquatic toxicology


1 Introduction to aquatic toxicology

2 Human and ecosystem exposure to aquatic hazards

3 Some commonly used aquatic test organisms for testing adverse effects

3.1 Microorganisms: bacteria, algae and protozoa

3.2 Fresh-water macroplants

3.3 Fresh-water invertebrates

3.4 Aquatic vertebrates

3.5 Sediment-dwelling organisms

4 Measuring adverse effects of chemical substances on the aquatic ecosystem

5 Some commonly used aquatic test methods

5.1 OECD guidelines for testing chemicals in aquatic environment: water, sediment, wastewater

5.2 Water-testing methods standardized by the International Organization for Standardization

5.2.1 Standardized bacterial tests for toxicity testing of water and waste-water

5.2.2 Standardized algal and plant tests for waters

5.2.3 Invertebrates using standard methods for testing water

5.2.4 Standardized fish tests for water and waste-water

5.2.5 Ecological assessment of surface waters

6 Non-animal testing of aquatic toxicity

7 Testing sediment

8 Sewage and sewage sludge tests

9 Testing waste using an ‘Ecotox’ test battery

10 Non-standardized bioassays and other innovative test methods

11 Multispecies and microcosm test methods for aquatic toxicity

12 Description of Tetrahymena pyriformis bioassay

12.1 Experimental

12.2 Evaluation and interpretation of the results

5 Terrestrial toxicology


1 Introduction

2 Terrestrial test organisms

2.1 Soil-living bacteria and fungi as test organisms

2.2 Terrestrial plants for soil toxicity testing

2.3 Soil fauna members as test organisms

3 Measuring terrestrial toxicity: end points and methods

3.1 Soil biodiversity

3.2 Evolutionary convergence phenomenon

3.3 Terrestrial bioassays for testing chemical substances and contaminated soil

4 Standardized and non-standardized test methods

4.1 OECD standards for testing chemical substances in soil and dung with terrestrial organisms

4.2 ISO and other standards for testing soil and sediment

4.3 Testing waste: a terrestrial test battery for solid waste

5 Non-standard terrestrial toxicity test methods

5.1 Some aspects of problem-oriented and site-specific soil testing

5.1.1 Soil community response

5.1.2 Concepts for characterizing soil functioning and health

5.1.3 Aims of testing whole soil response

5.1.4 Consequences of the effect of soil matrix on the test methodology

5.1.5 Field assessment or laboratory testing?

5.2 Ecological assessment: field testing of habitat quality, diversity of species and abundance of indicator organisms

5.2.1 Abundance and diversity of soil microbiota

5.2.2 The use of carbon substrate utilization patterns for ecotoxicity testing

5.2.3 Dung-dwelling organisms, a not yet standardized field study

5.2.4 Effects of pollutants on earthworms in field situations: avoidance

5.3 Non-standardized contact bioassays: description of some tests

5.3.1 Single species bacterial contact tests

5.3.2 Single species animal contact tests

5.3.3 Plant tests

5.3.4 Soil as a test organism

6 Multispecies terrestrial tests

6.1 Classification of multispecies soil tests

6.1.1 Terrestrial microcosm system for measuring respiration

6.1.2 Terrestrial microcosm for substrate-induced respiration technique (SIR)

6.1.3 Terrestrial model ecosystems (TME)

6.1.4 The cotton strip assay

6.1.5 Soil litter bag

6.1.6 Pitfall traps

6.1.7 Bait lamina

6.1.8 Soil in jar

6.1.9 Soil lysimeters

6.2 Characteristics of multispecies toxicity tests

6.3 Evaluation and monitoring of microcosms

7 Microcalorimetry – a sensitive method for soil toxicity testing

7.1 Background of microcalorimetric heat production by living organisms

7.2 Experimental setup

7.3 Heat response of Folsomia candida to the effect of diesel oil

7.4 Heat response of Panagrellus redivivus on contaminated soil

7.5 Heat response of Sinapis alba to the effect of toxicants in soil

7.6 Heat production response of Azomonas agilis to toxicants

7.7 Evaluation and interpretation of the microcalorimetric heat production results

7.8 Summary of microcalorimetric toxicity testing: experiences and outlook

7.9 Acknowledgement to microcalorimetry research

6 Advanced methods for chemical characterization of soil pollutants


1 Introduction

2 Analytical methods for the determination of inorganic compounds

2.1 ICP-based analytical methods

2.1.1 Sample preparation

2.1.2 Inductively coupled plasma as photon and ion source

2.1.3 Analytical figures of merit

2.2 X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

2.2.1 Sample preparation

2.2.2 Basic equipment and set-up for XRF analysis

2.2.3 X-ray sources

2.2.4 Detectors

2.2.5 Quantification

2.2.6 Analytical figures of merit

2.2.7 Comparison of XRF and ICP-based analytical techniques

3 Analytical methods for analysis of organic pollutants

3.1 Sample pretreatment

3.2 Extraction of analytes from soil samples

3.2.1 Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE)

3.2.2 Microwave assisted extraction (MAE)

3.2.3 Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE)

3.2.4 Ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE)

3.3 Cleanup process

3.4 Preconcentration/enrichment of analytes

3.5 Separation and detection techniques

3.6 Applications

3.6.1 Pesticide analysis

3.6.2 Veterinary pharmaceuticals

3.6.3 Petroleum hydrocarbons

3.7 Recent developments and future trends

7 Bioaccessibility and bioavailability in risk assessment


1 Introduction

2 Managing bioaccessibility and bioavailability of contaminants in the environment

2.1 Mobility, bioaccessibility, bioavailability and risk assessment

2.2 Risk reduction in view of mobility and bioavailability

3 Bioavailability and bioaccessibility – definitions

3.1 Definitions and mechanisms

3.2 Contaminants’ location and form in soil and the related accessibility and availability

4 Assessing bioavailability of contaminants

4.1 Bioaccessibility and bioavailability assessment methods

5 Mathematical models for contaminant bioavailability in soil

6 Chemical models for contaminant mobility and availability in soil

6.1 Partition between n-octanol and water to predict accessibility of organic contaminants

6.2 Solid phase and membrane-based extractions – chemical bioavailability models

6.3 Liquid-phase extractions to predict accessibility of toxic metals

7 Complex models

7.1 Interactive laboratory tests

7.2 Dynamic testing

7.3 Integrated evaluation

8 Examples of interactive testing of bioavailability in soil

8.1 Toxic metal bioavailability in mine tailings – the chemical time bomb

8.2 Decreased bioavailability, lower toxicity – a soil remediation tool

8.3 Correlation of chemical analytical and bioassay results

8.4 Bioavailability and biodegradation of organic soil contaminants

9 Worst-case and realistic worst-case simulation

9.1 Realistic worst-case models for dynamic testing of bioavailability

9.2 Effect of soil sorption capacity on bioavailability

10 Bioaccessibility and bioavailability of contaminants for humans

10.1 Mathematical models for calculation of bioaccessibility- and bioavailability-dependent human risk

10.2 Chemical models for estimating accessibility of contaminants for humans

10.2.1 Human bioaccessibility of toxic metals

10.2.2 Bioaccessibility of organic compounds in humans

10.2.3 Chemical models combined with biological models – measuring toxic effects after digestion

11 Conclusions

8 Microcosm models and technological experiments


1 Introduction

2 Aquatic microcosms for screening chemical substances and technologies

3 Soil micro- and mesocosms for modeling environmental processes in bio- and ecotechnologies

3.1 Testing the effects of environmental and anthropogenic interventions in a small volume

3.2 Testing biodegradation and bioavailability

3.3 Testing long-term pollution processes in the environment

3.4 Testing microbial activity and plant growth in contaminated soil

3.5 Technological pre-experiments

4 Biodegradation and biodegradation-based remediation studies in soil microcosms

4.1 Testing natural and enhanced biodegradation

4.2 Integrated monitoring and evaluation of the biodegradation experiments

4.3 Scaled-up technological micro- and mesocosms

4.4 Summary of biodegradation testing for technological purposes

5 Testing technologies based on contaminant stabilization

5.1 Experiment design

5.2 Microcosm set-up and implementation

5.3 Monitoring of the microcosms

5.4 Evaluation, interpretation and use of the stabilization microcosm results

5.5 Summary and conclusions of stabilization microcosm application

6 Testing and utilizing the complex leaching process

6.1 Flow-through soil microcosm for studying bioleaching

6.2 Microcosm set-up

6.3 Monitoring the leaching microcosms

6.4 Evaluation and interpretation of the results

6.5 Summary and conclusions about leaching microcosm application

7 Transport processes studied in soil columns

7.1 Test set-up

7.2 Monitoring the soil column microcosm

7.3 Evaluation

7.4 Summary

8 Modeling secondary sodification

8.1 Modeling sodification in microcosms

8.2 Sodification microcosm set-up

8.3 Technological microcosms for reducing risk of sodification

8.4 Evaluation and interpretation of results

8.5 Summary of sodification modeling

9 Data evaluation and interpretation in environmental toxicology


1 Introduction

2 Inhibition rate

3 Concentration/dose–response relationship

4 Evaluation of the response based on the growth curves of cultured organisms

5 Evaluation of the effect of contaminants on heat production: A special case

6 Evaluation of biodegradation of chemicals in water and soil

6.1 Monitoring the depletion of the chemical substance

6.2 Evaluation of biodegradation based on CO2 production

6.3 Substrate induction

7 Attenuation rate method for environmental samples

8 Toxic equivalency of contaminated environmental samples for exploration and screening

8.1 Toxic equivalency for organic and inorganic contaminants

8.2 Graphical determination of equivalent toxic concentrations from measured data

8.3 Numerical determination of the toxicity equivalent concentration

8.4 Equivalent toxicity of contaminated water: examples and validation

8.4.1 4CP equivalent of selected organic contaminants in water: examples

8.4.2 Copper equivalent of cadmium-contaminated water

8.5 Toxicity equivalent of soil: examples and validation

8.5.1 4CP equivalent of selected organic contaminants in soil: examples

8.5.2 Copper equivalent of soils contaminated with cadmium and a mixture of metals

9 Statistical evaluation of toxicity data

9.1 Statistics in general

9.2 Statistical evaluation and analysis in environmental toxicology

9.3 Hypothesis testing

9.3.1 Hypothesis testing for the determination of NOEC

9.3.2 Reporting hypothesis testing

9.4 Regression and regression analysis

9.4.1 The use of regression and regression analysis in toxicology

9.4.2 Evaluation of quantal data

9.4.3 Choice of the models

9.4.4 Evaluation of continuous data

9.4.5 Choice of the models

9.4.6 Reporting regression statistics

9.5 A comparative study on statistical evaluation of dose–response data

9.6 Biology-based methods

9.6.1 Parameters

9.7 IT tools for statistical evaluation

10 Environmental hazard and risk assessment using toxicity data

10.1 Extrapolation

10.2 Hazard assessment

10.2.1 Hazard identification

10.2.2 Hazard quantification

10.3 Validation of toxicity tests

10.4 Exposure assessment

10.5 Risk assessment

10.6 Summary comments on risk assessment and risk management based on toxicity data

11 Conclusions

Subject index

About the Editors

Katalin Gruiz is Associate Professor at Budapest University of Technlogy, Budapest, Hungary.

She graduated in chemical engineering at Budapest University of Technology and Economics in 1975, received her doctorate in bioengineering and her Ph.D. in environmental engineering. Her main fields of activities are: teaching, consulting, research and development of engineering tools for risk-based environmental management, development and use of innovative technologies such as special environmental toxicity assays, integrated monitoring methods, biological and ecological remediation technologies for soils and waters, both for regulatory and engineering purposes. Prof. Gruiz has published 35 papers, 25 book chapters, more than hundred conference papers, edited 6 books and a special journal edition. She has coordinated a number of Hungarian research projects and participated in European ones. Gruiz is a member of the REACH Risk Assessment Committee of the European Chemicals Agency. She is a full time associate professor at Budapest University of Technology and Economics and heads the research group of Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Tamás Meggyes is Research Coordinator in Berlin, Germany.

He is specialising in research and book projects in environmental engineering. His work focuses on fluid mechanics, hydraulic transport of solids, jet devices, landfill engineering, groundwater remediation, tailings facilities and risk-based environmental management. He contributed to and organised several international conferences and national and European integrated research projects in Hungary, Germany, United Kingdom and USA. Tamás Meggyes was Europe editor of the Land Contamination and Reclamation journal in the UK and a reviewer of several environmental journals. He was invited by the EU as an expert evaluator to assess research applications and by Samarco Mining Company, Brazil, as a tailings management expert. In 2007, he was named Visiting Professor of Built Environment Sustainability at the University of Wolverhampton, UK. He has published 130 papers including eleven books and holds a doctor’s title in fluid mechanics and a Ph.D. degree in landfill engineering from Miskolc University, Hungary.

Éva Fenyvesi is senior scientist and founding member of CycloLab Cyclodextrin Research and Development Ltd, Budapest, Hungary.

She graduated as a chemist and received her PhD in chemical technology at Eotvos University of Natural Sciences, Budapest. She is experienced in the preparation and application of cyclodextrin polymers, in environmental application of cyclodextrins and in gas chromatography. She participated in several national and international research projects, in the development of various environmental technologies applying cyclodextrins. She is author or co-author of over 50 scientific papers, 3 chapters in monographs, over 50 conference presentations and 14 patents. She is an editor of the Cyclodextrin News, the monthly periodical on cyclodextrins.

About the Series

Engineering Tools for Environmental Risk Management

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Chemical & Biochemical
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General