Engineering Tools for Environmental Risk Management: 3. Site Assessment and Monitoring Tools, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Engineering Tools for Environmental Risk Management

3. Site Assessment and Monitoring Tools, 1st Edition

Edited by Katalin Gruiz, Tamas Meggyes, Eva Fenyvesi

CRC Press

436 pages

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pub: 2016-10-21
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This is the third volume of the five-volume book series “Engineering Tools for Environmental Risk Management”. The book series deals with the following topics:

• Environmental deterioration and pollution, management of environmental problems

• Environmental toxicology – a tool for managing chemical substances and contaminated environment

• Assessment and monitoring tools, risk assessment

• Risk reduction measures and technologies

• Case studies for demonstration of the application of engineering tools

The authors aim to describe interactions and options in risk management by providing a broad scientific overview of the environment, its human uses and the associated local, regional and global environmental problems; interpreting the holistic approach used in solving environmental protection issues; striking a balance between nature’s needs and engineering capabilities; understanding interactions between regulation, management and engineering; obtaining information about novel technologies and innovative engineering tools.

This third volume provides an overview on the basic principles, concepts, practices and tools of environmental monitoring and contaminated site assessment. The volume focuses on those engineering tools that enable integrated site assessment and decision making and ensure an efficient control of the environment. Some topics supporting sustainable land use and efficient environmental management are listed below:

• Efficient management and regulation of contaminated land and the environment;

• Early warning and environmental monitoring;

• Assessment of contaminated land: the best practices;

• Environmental sampling;

• Risk characterization and contaminated matrix assessment;

• Integrated application of physical, chemical, biological, ecological and (eco) toxicological characterization methods;

• Direct toxicity assessment (DTA) and decision making;

• Online analyzers, electrodes and biosensors for assessment and monitoring of waters.;

• In situ and real-time measurement tools for soil and contaminated sites;

• Rapid on-site methods and contaminant and toxicity assessment kits;

• Engineering tools from omics technologies, microsensors to heavy machinery;

• Dynamic characterization of subsurface soil and groundwater using membrane interface probes, optical and X-ray fl uorescence and ELCAD wastewater characterization;

• Geochemical modeling: methods and applications;

• Environmental assessment using cyclodextrins.

This book series focuses on the state of knowledge about the environment and its conscious and structured application in environmental engineering, management and decision making.

Table of Contents

1 Integrated and efficient characterization of contaminated sites

K. Gruiz

1 Introduction

1.1 Hazard management of chemicals

1.2 Generic risk management

1.3 Site-specific risk management

1.3.1 The chemical model – based on the contaminant concentration

1.3.2 The ‘direct toxicity’ model – based on measured adverse effects

2 Efficient management and regulation of contaminated land

2.1 Current legislations and management practices

2.2 Trends in contaminated land management

2.3 Contaminated land – contaminated soil, water and air

2.4 Sustainable land and soil management

2.4.1 Land management in general

2.4.2 Sustainability means well-balanced environmental, social and economic components

3 Best practices in contaminated site investigation

3.1 Aims and focus of contaminated site investigation

3.1.1 Aims of site investigation

3.1.2 Focus of contaminated site investigation

3.2 Phases of site investigation and characterization

3.2.1 Preliminary site investigation phase

3.2.2 Exploratory phase of site investigation

3.2.3 Detailed site investigation

3.3 In situ site assessment combined with dynamic decision making

3.3.1 Technical components of in situ site assessment and dynamic decision making

3.3.2 Benefits of in situ site assessment and dynamic decision making

3.4 Standardized investigation of contaminated sites

4 Sampling

4.1 Aims and strategies of environmental sampling

4.2 Sampling patterns and statistics

4.3 Sample types and related terms

4.4 Sustainable and efficient sampling

4.5 Sampling, in situ analysis, testing and immediate decision making

5 Measurement and test methods for contaminated site investigation

5.1 Soil characterization using STT

5.1.1 Physicochemical methods

5.1.2 Biological and ecological methods for soil characterization

5.1.3 Direct environmental toxicity assessment

5.2 Chemical analysis and direct toxicity assessment of soil

5.3 The use of STT in contaminated site investigation

5.4 The use of STT data in site remediation

5.4.1 Technology monitoring

5.4.2 Qualifying remedied soil

5.4.3 Verification of the technology

6 Evaluation and interpretation of site investigation data

6.1 Evaluation tools

6.2 Comparison of chemical analysis and DTA results

6.3 Integrated assessment of environmental phases

7 Quantifying the risk of contaminated sites

7.1 Risk characterization using the chemical model

7.1.1 Soil quality criteria (SQC)

7.2 Risk characterization applying the direct toxicity model

7.2.1 Examples for DTA application in risk assessment

7.2.2 DTA for effluents/wastewaters

7.2.3 DTA for sediments

7.2.4 DTA for solid waste

7.2.5 DTA for soil and groundwater

7.2.6 Screening values based on DTA

7.2.7 Selection of the best risk reduction option

7.3 Summary of contaminated site risk management

2 Monitoring and early warning in environmental management

K. Gruiz

1 Monitoring and early warning in environmental management

1.1 Definitions and the basics of monitoring, biomonitoring and early warning

1.2 Orientation of monitoring from sources to the receptors

1.2.1 Stressor-oriented risk model and monitoring

1.2.2 Receptor-oriented monitoring

1.2.3 Efficient monitoring 108

2 Early warning, forecast and environmental risk assessment of chemicals

2.1 Environmental risk of chemicals as early warning

2.2 Environmental risk management of chemicals as an early warning system

2.3 Risk of production and use of chemicals

2.4 Data for exact forecasts 116

3 Scope and methods for environmental monitoring and early warning

3.1 Scope of monitoring 116

4 Monitoring based on geophysical, geochemical and chemical data

4.1 Geophysical and hydrogeological methods

4.1.1 Applications

4.1.2 Data sensing, storage and processing

4.1.3 Remote sensing from the air and space

4.1.4 Airborne and spaceborne sensors

4.2 Geochemical and chemical analytical methods

4.2.1 Gas phase monitoring

4.2.2 Water phase monitoring

4.2.3 Solid environmental phases

4.3 Chemical sensors

4.3.1 Air quality detection

4.3.2 Water quality detection

4.3.3 Soil and groundwater monitoring

4.4 Biochemical sensors

4.5 Immunosensors

4.6 Optical biosensors

5 Monitoring and early warning based on biological activity and toxicity

5.1 Biological and ecological assessment methods

5.2 Indicators in biomonitoring

5.2.1 Whole organism inhibition

5.2.2 Accumulator organisms

5.2.3 Whole-cell biosensors and bioreporters

5.2.4 Species diversity and other community-level indicators

5.2.5 Molecular methods: General overview

5.3 Summary of biomonitoring and bioindication

6 Position of the monitoring system

6.1 Remote sensing, GIS-based methods and hyperspectral evaluation

6.2 Near-point source indicators and methods

6.3 Monitoring methods and indicators applicable to transport pathways

6.4 Indicators and methods applicable in the receptors’ environment

3 In-situ and real-time measurements in water monitoring

K. Gruiz & É. Fenyves

1 Introduction

1.1 Regional and global monitoring

1.2 Technology monitoring and process control

1.3 Measurement concepts and definitions

1.3.1 Some definitions

1.3.2 Data transmission and processing

2 In situ and real-time measurement techniques for assessment and monitoring

2.1 Geochemical and chemical monitoring

2.2 Rapid test kits for in situ water analysis

2.2.1 Rapid chemical analytical methods and test kits

2.2.2 Enzymatic test kits

2.2.3 Immunoanalytical test kits

2.3 Biosensors

3 In situ ecotoxicology

3.1 Mobile laboratories, rapid toxicity testing, and toxicity test kits

3.1.1 General and toxicant-specific testing

3.1.2 Test kits for general and targeted toxicity

3.2 Biomonitoring tools and devices

4 Application of in situ and real-time methods for surface waters and oceans

4.1 Real-time water quality monitoring

4.1.1 Surface water and oceanographic sensors

4.1.2 Global monitoring

5 Application of in situ real-time measurements for wastewater treatment and quality control

5.1 Innovative analytical tools for wastewater management

5.2 Measuring microbial quality and activity in wastewater treatment plants

5.2.1 Whole-cell biosensors for measuring biodegradable organic material content

5.2.2 Online respirometry

5.2.3 Fluorescence in situ hybridization

5.2.4 Quantitative polymerase chain reaction for the quantification of microorganisms

5.2.5 Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide probes

5.2.6 Immunosensors and immunoassays

5.2.7 Biological microelectromechanical systems for characterizing microbial activity

5.2.8 Handheld advanced nucleic acid analyzer for detecting pathogens

5.3 Toxicity measuring biosensors

5.3.1 Respirometry based toxicity measuring methods

5.3.2 Microtox and online Microtox

5.3.3 Toxicity testing methods and equipment – commercially available devices

5.4 Online analyzers and electrodes for the water phase in wastewater treatment

5.4.1 Real-time measurements based on colorimetry

5.4.2 Real-time measurements based on ion-selective electrodes (ISE)

5.4.3 Voltammetry for trace metal monitoring

5.4.4 Real-time measurement of chemical oxygen demand (COD)

5.5 Real-time and online methods for controlling the solid phase in wastewater treatment

6 Automated instruments for continuous monitoring of toxic elements in surface, ground- and wastewater

6.1 Principle of ELCAD

6.2 In situ applications

6.3 Advantages and disadvantages

7 Conclusion

4 In-situ and real-time measurements for effective soil and contaminated site management

K. Gruiz, É. Fenyvesi M. Molnár, V. Feigl, E. Vaszita & M. Tolner

1 Introduction

2 In situ and real-time measurement techniques for soil and contaminated land

2.1 Soil investigation in endangered and contaminated land

2.1.1 Contaminated site investigation

2.1.2 Soil remediation process control

2.2 In situ and real-time geotechnical, chemical and biological soil characterization

2.2.1 Geophysical soil properties and geotechnical soil investigations

2.2.2 Chemical soil properties and in situ analysis methods

2.2.3 In situ biological soil characterization and toxicity measuring methods

3 In situ soil gas and vapor analyses: sensors and samplers

3.1 Chemiresistor

3.2 MIP, Membrane Interface Probe

3.3 Detectors for volatile soil contaminants

3.4 Handheld devices for in situ soil gas and vapor analysis

3.4.1 Colorimetric gas/vapor kit for soil

3.4.2 PID-based portable, handheld detectors for soil VOCs

3.4.3 FID-based equipment for soil VOCs

3.4.4 IR detection-based field equipment for soil gas and VOC analysis

3.4.5 Combined PID and IR detection of soil VOCs

4 Real-time monitoring of soil moisture and pore water quality and quantity

4.1 Types of soil moisture measurements

4.1.1 Porous media instruments

4.1.2 Volumetric soil moisture sensors

4.1.3 Combined methods

4.1.4 Heat dissipation sensors

4.1.5 Wetting front detection

4.1.6 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to measure soil waters in situ

4.1.7 Rapid test kits

4.2 Lysimeters and wireless lysimeters for online soil water monitoring and sampling

4.2.1 Lysimeters for soil investigation

4.2.2 Application of lysimeters in the practice

4.2.3 Capillary water absorbers

4.2.4 Commercial passive capillary lysimeters

4.3 Water and contaminant mass and flux measurements

4.3.1 Water and contaminant flux in groundwater

4.3.2 Water and contaminant flux in the vadose soil zone

4.4 In situ characterization of polluted groundwater and the control of remediation

4.4.1 Fiber-optic Chemical Sensors

4.4.2 Laser-induced fluorescence

5 In situ chemical analysis of metals in surface and subsurface soil

5.1 X-ray fluorescence detection for surface and subsurface soil analysis

5.2 Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

5.3 DGT method for measuring metal concentration and plant uptake in contaminated and remediated soil

5.4 Biosensors for metals

5.4.1 Biosensors based on metal–protein interactions

5.4.2 Whole-cell tests and sensors for measuring bioavailable toxic metals

6 On-site applicable rapid methods and commercial kits for soil analyses

6.1 Commercially available soil testing methods and products

6.1.1 Basic soil characteristics

6.1.2 Contaminant-specific rapid tests

6.1.3 Tests for detecting and measuring toxicity

6.2 Rapid, on-site applicable PCR systems

7 Measuring the response of living organisms – soil biology and toxicology

7.1 In situ rapid tests based on microbial response

7.1.1 Toxicity measuring methods

7.1.2 Soil respiration-based method

7.1.3 Physiological profile of soil microbiota

7.2 Terrestrial vegetation – indicators and monitoring tools

7.2.1 Remote sensing

7.2.2 Proximal sensing

7.3 Indicator species

7.3.1 Terrestrial vegetation

7.3.2 Soil invertebrates – soil-dwelling worms and insects

8 Sampling

8.1 Sampling soil means sampling a process

8.2 Soil gas sampling

8.3 Soil solution sampling

8.3.1 Soil solution sampling from unsaturated soil

8.3.2 Soil solution sampling from saturated soil

8.3.3 Soil sampling

9 Field portable equipment for assessing metals

9.1 Principle of X-ray fluorescence

9.2 Field portable XRF device (PXRF)

9.3 In situ application of PXRF

9.4 Uncertainty of in situ PXRF measurements

9.5 Advantages and disadvantages of in situ PXRF measurements

5 Dynamic site characterization for brownfield risk management

R.L. Nemeskeri, M. Neuhaus & J. Pusztai

1 Introduction: brownfield development

2 Dynamic site characterization

3 The membrane interface probe (MIP) system

4 The rapid optical screening tool (ROST™) system

5 The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) system

6 The bat in-situ groundwater sampler

7 Closing remarks

6 Environmental geochemistry modeling: Methods and applications

G. Jordan & K. Z. Szabó

1 Introduction

2 Time series analysis and modeling of geochemical processes: an example for soil radon dynamics

2.1 Data processing and data analysis

2.2 Time series analysis and signal processing

2.3 Interpretation of data series features: an example for soil gas radon concentration

2.3.1 Long-term change: variability in different seasons

2.3.2 Long-term change: trend and cycle

2.3.3 Short-term change: diurnal periodicity

2.3.4 Short-term change: outliers and transients

3 Spatial analysis and modeling of geochemical processes. Statistical analysis and interpolation at the local scale: attic dust urban geochemical contamination

3.1 Data processing and data analysis

3.2 Interpretation of features in the geometric space and the variable space: airborne contamination in attic dust

3.2.1 Statistical analysis

3.2.2 Distribution analysis and spatial mapping

3.2.3 Correlation analysis between trace and major elements

4 Spatial analysis and modeling of geochemical processes. Advanced procedures at the regional scale: radon risk assessment

4.1 Statistical analysis

4.2 Mapping and spatial analysis

4.3 Interpretation of features in the regional radon concentration maps: advanced spatial analysis

5 Geochemical transport modeling: toxic element contamination transport in a mining catchment

5.1 Multivariate methods, reaction and sediment transport modeling

5.2 Multivariate data modeling for geochemical inference

5.3 Thermodynamic reaction modeling

5.4 Soil erosion and contaminated sediment transport modeling

6 Geochemical contamination risk assessment: ranking of mine waste sites

6.1 The EU pre-selection mine waste contamination risk assessment method

6.2 Application of the EU Pre-Selection Protocol

6.3 EU MWD Pre-Selection Protocol with local thresholds

6.4 Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the EU MWD Pre-Selection Protocol

7 Potential of cyclodextrins in risk assessment and monitoring of organic contaminants

É. Fenyvesi, CS. Hajdu, K. Gruiz

1 Introduction

2 Cyclodextrin-sensitized chemical sensors for assessment and monitoring

2.1 Enhancement of chemical detection sensitivity

2.2 Sensors based on competitive complex formation

2.3 Chiral sensors

3 Cyclodextrin-based samplers for chemical analysis and bioassays

4 CD extraction for estimating the readily available (bioavailable) fraction of organic contaminants

5 Cyclodextrins in bioassays

5.1 Effect of cyclodextrin solution

5.2 Cyclodextrins as an additive in direct toxicity assessment of soil

About the Editors

Katalin Gruiz is Associate Professor at Budapest University of Technlogy, Budapest, Hungary.

She graduated in chemical engineering at Budapest University of Technology and Economics in 1975, received her doctorate in bioengineering and her Ph.D. in environmental engineering. Her main fields of activities are: teaching, consulting, research and development of engineering tools for risk-based environmental management, development and use of innovative technologies such as special environmental toxicity assays, integrated monitoring methods, biological and ecological remediation technologies for soils and waters, both for regulatory and engineering purposes. Prof. Gruiz has published 35 papers, 25 book chapters, more than hundred conference papers, edited 6 books and a special journal edition. She has coordinated a number of Hungarian research projects and participated in European ones. Gruiz is a member of the REACH Risk Assessment Committee of the European Chemicals Agency. She is a full time associate professor at Budapest University of Technology and Economics and heads the research group of Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Tamás Meggyes is Research Coordinator in Berlin, Germany.

He is specialising in research and book projects in environmental engineering. His work focuses on fluid mechanics, hydraulic transport of solids, jet devices, landfill engineering, groundwater remediation, tailings facilities and risk-based environmental management. He contributed to and organised several international conferences and national and European integrated research projects in Hungary, Germany, United Kingdom and USA. Tamás Meggyes was Europe editor of the Land Contamination and Reclamation journal in the UK and a reviewer of several environmental journals. He was invited by the EU as an expert evaluator to assess research applications and by Samarco Mining Company, Brazil, as a tailings management expert. In 2007, he was named Visiting Professor of Built Environment Sustainability at the University of Wolverhampton, UK. He has published 130 papers including eleven books and holds a doctor’s title in fluid mechanics and a Ph.D. degree in landfill engineering from Miskolc University, Hungary.

Éva Fenyvesi is senior scientist and founding member of CycloLab Cyclodextrin Research and Development Ltd, Budapest, Hungary.

She graduated as a chemist and received her PhD in chemical technology at Eotvos University of Natural Sciences, Budapest. She is experienced in the preparation and application of cyclodextrin polymers, in environmental application of cyclodextrins and in gas chromatography. She participated in several national and international research projects, in the development of various environmental technologies applying cyclodextrins. She is author or co-author of over 50 scientific papers, 3 chapters in monographs, over 50 conference presentations and 14 patents. She is an editor of the Cyclodextrin News, the monthly periodical on cyclodextrins.

About the Series

Engineering Tools for Environmental Risk Management

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Chemical & Biochemical
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General