1st Edition

Engineering Tools for Environmental Risk Management 4. Risk Reduction Technologies and Case Studies

Edited By Katalin Gruiz, Tamás Meggyes, Éva Fenyvesi Copyright 2019
    582 Pages
    by CRC Press

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    The four volumes of the book series "Engineering Tools for Environmental Risk Management" deal with environmental management, assessment & monitoring tools, environmental toxicology and risk reduction technologies. This last volume focuses on engineering solutions usually needed for industrial contaminated sites, where nature’s self-remediation is inefficient or too slow. The success of remediation depends on the selection of an increasing number of conventional and innovative methods. This volume classifies the remedial technologies and describes the reactor approach to understand and manage in situ technologies similarly to reactor-based technologies. Technology types include physicochemical, biological or ecological solutions, where near-natural, sustainable remediation has priority.

    A special chapter is devoted to natural attenuation, where natural changes can help achieve clean-up objectives. Natural attenuation and biological and ecological remediation establish a serial range of technologies from monitoring only to fully controlled interventions, using ‘ just’ the natural ecosystem or sophisticated artificial living systems. Passive artificial ecosystems and biodegradation-based remediation – in addition to natural attenuation – demonstrate the use of these ‘green’ technologies and how engineering intervention should be kept at a minimum to limit damage to the environment and create a harmonious ecosystem.

    Remediation of sites contaminated with organic substances is analyzed in detail including biological and physicochemical methods.

    Comprehensive management of pollution by inorganic contaminants from the mining industry, leaching and bioleaching and acid mine drainage is studied in general and specifically in the case of an abandoned mine in Hungary where the innovative technology of combined chemical and phytostabilization has been applied.

    The series of technologies is completed by electrochemical remediation and nanotechnologies.

    Monitoring, verification and sustainability analysis of remediation provide a comprehensive overview of the management aspect of environmental risk reduction by remediation.

    This book series focuses on the state of knowledge about the environment and its conscious and structured application in environmental engineering, management and decision making.

    1 Contaminated site remediation : role and classification of technologies
    K. GRUIZ

    1 Introduction

    2 Sustainable environmental remediation
    2.1 Measuring sustainability
    2.2 Remediation technologies – classification, innovation, biotechnologies

    3 Classifying remediation technologies
    3.1 Technology classification defi ned by the contaminants
    3.2 Technologies based on contaminant mobilization or immobilization
    3.3 Soil treatment technologies based on physical, chemical, and biological processes

    4 Treatment of individual soil phases
    4.1 Soil gas and vapor
    4.2 Soil water and groundwater
    4.3 Treatment of the solid-phase soil

    2 In situ soil remediation: the reactor approach
    K. GRUIZ

    1 Introduction

    2 Types of remediation reactor
    2.1 Reactors and operations of ex situ remediation technologies
    2.2 In situ quasi-reactors
    2.3 Physical processes used for in situ soil remediation
    2.4 Chemical processes for in situ soil remediation
    2.5 Technologies based on biological transformation and its intensification

    3 Comparison of in situ and ex situ reactors used in soil remediation
    3.1 The boundaries, openness, and interaction of the reactor with its surroundings
    3.2 Inside the reactor
    3.3 Processes and parameters within the reactor
    3.4 Microorganisms in the reactor
    3.5 Comparison of ex situ and in situ reactors for soil remediation

    4 Technology design

    5 Monitoring
    5.1 Technology monitoring
    5.2 Environmental monitoring and post-remediation care

    6 Verification

    7 Summary

    3 Natural attenuation in contaminated soil remediation
    K. GRUIZ

    1 Introduction

    2 Natural attenuation (NA) and related ecotechnologies for soil remediation

    3 The fate and behavior of contaminants in the soil
    3.1 Processes in the soil
    3.2 Mobilization and immobilization

    4 Methodological background of natural process monitoring
    4.1 The risk model
    4.2 Integrated methodology for the assessment and monitoring of natural attenuation
    4.3 Evaluation and interpretation of natural attenuation monitoring data
    4.4 Using the “risk profile” for planning, monitoring, and verification

    5 Natural attenuation in environmental remediation
    5.1 The natural attenuation management scheme
    5.2 Natural biodegradation and its enhancement
    5.3 Engineered natural attenuation
    5.4 Summary of engineered natural attenuation

    6 History and state of the art
    6.1 Growing utilization of natural attenuation for soil and groundwater remediation
    6.2 Some examples worldwide of MNA and ENA
    6.3 Examples from the authors’ practice

    7 Evaluation of NA-based soil remediation – advantages and sustainability
    7.1 Advantages and disadvantages of natural attenuation-based remediation
    7.2 NA and MNA sustainability

    4 Ecoengineering tools: passive artificial ecosystems

    1 Introduction
    1.1 Ecological engineering
    1.2 Advantages and disadvantages
    1.3 Application fields

    2 History and development of ecoengineering-driven technologies
    2.1 Traditional approaches
    2.2 Modern engineered artifi cial ecosystems

    3 Tools of ecological engineering
    3.1 Basic concepts
    3.2 Design principles

    4 Passive systems, constructed wetlands, aquatic plant systems
    4.1 Constructed wetlands
    4.2 Aquatic plant systems
    4.3 Constructed floating islands

    5 Reactor based solutions – living systems and ecomachines
    5.1 Conventional living machines
    5.2 Advanced artifi cial ecologies
    5.3 Living machines, ecomachines, ecomachine systems – case studies

    6 Process monitoring and control possibilities
    6.1 Process monitoring and instrumentation
    6.2 Process control considerations

    7 Summary

    5 Biodegradation-based remediation – overview and case studies

    1 Introduction
    2 Biodegradation-based remediation: main principles and key reactions
    2.1 Microorganisms capable of degrading organic pollutants
    2.2 Electron acceptors and redox transformations
    2.3 Redox manipulations in soil remediation

    3 Biodegradability, bioavailability
    3.1 Biodegradability
    3.2 Bioavailability and its enhancement

    4 Mobilizing and solubilizing agents to increase contaminant bioavailability
    4.1 The use of surfactants in soil remediation
    4.2 Synthetic surfactants
    4.3 Biosurfactants
    4.4 Nanoparticles in environmental remediation

    5 Cyclodextrins in biodegradation-based remediation
    5.1 Microbial degradation under aerobic conditions
    5.2 Cyclodextrin-enhanced biodegradation under Fe(III)-reducing conditions
    5.3 Cometabolites and cyclodextrins

    6 Aspects and key reactions of aerobic and anaerobic biotransformation mechanisms
    6.1 Aerobic biotransformation pathways
    6.2 Anaerobic biotransformation pathways
    6.3 Cometabolic degradation of organic contaminants
    6.4 Harmful degradation products/hazardous metabolites

    7 Bioremediation – a case study
    7.1 Cyclodextrin-enhanced bioremediation technology (CDT)
    7.2 Field demonstration – full-scale remediation

    6 Traditional and innovative methods for physical and chemical remediation of soil contaminated with organic contaminants

    1 Introduction

    2 Technologies based on mobilization
    2.1 Separation technologies
    2.2 Destructive physicochemical technologies – chemical degradation

    3 Technologies based on immobilization
    3.1 Immobilization of the contaminants by sorption
    3.2 Chemical stabilization of contaminants
    3.3 Soil stabilization
    3.4 Mass stabilization
    3.5 Containment

    4 Physicochemical technologies for remediation of pesticides in soil
    4.1 Separation technologies
    4.2 Destruction technologies
    4.3 Containment and immobilization technologies

    5 ISCO combined with inter-well agitation for chlorinated hydrocarbons – a case study
    5.1 Site description, history
    5.2 Step-by-step risk management

    6 Full-scale demonstration of the remediation technology

    7 Leaching, bioleaching and acid mine drainage case study

    1 Leaching and leachate treatment
    1.1 Introduction – leaching in general and bioleaching in particular
    1.2 History and principles of AMD treatment – a general overview
    1.3 Technical solution and applicability of active and passive treatment systems for AMD
    1.4 Sustainability of the leachate treatment technologies

    2 Bioleaching and leachate remediation
    2.1 Bioleaching
    2.2 Acidic leachates and their treatment
    2.3 Monitoring bioleaching, microbiological status, and leaching activity
    2.4 Impacts of inhibiting agents on bioleaching microorganisms
    2.5 Conclusions

    3 General overview of the Gyöngyösoroszi mining site, concept for the remediation of the former zinc-lead mines
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 AMD in the Gyöngyösoroszi mine
    3.3 AMD mitigation by backfilling
    3.4 AMD treatment
    3.5 ARD from waste rock piles
    3.6 Ore processing and fl otation tailings
    3.7 Surface water reservoirs and creeks
    3.8 Summary of the Gyöngyösoroszi case study

    8 Remediation technologies for metal-contaminated soil and sediment – an overview and a case study of combined chemical and phytostabilization
    V. FEIGL

    1 Remediation technologies for metal-contaminated soil and sediment – An overview
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Physical-chemical technologies
    1.3 Bioremediation of metal-contaminated soil

    2 Combined chemical and phytostabilization of metal-contaminated mine waste and soil – a demonstration case
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Demonstration site and technological conditions
    2.3 Scaled-up studies
    2.4 Results of the combined chemical and phytostabilization
    2.5 Conclusions

    9 Electrochemical remediation for contaminated soils, sediments and groundwater

    1 Introduction

    2 Electrochemical technologies for remediation of polluted soils

    3 Electrochemical transport
    3.1 Electromigration
    3.2 Electroosmosis
    3.3 Electrophoresis
    3.4 Diffusion

    4 Electrochemical reaction and transformation processes

    5 Removal of metals and inorganic contaminants
    5.1 Toxic metals
    5.2 Inorganic anionic pollutants

    6 Removal of organic pollutants

    7 Removal of organic/inorganic contaminant mixtures

    8 Electrokinetic/electrochemical barriers for pollutant containment

    9 Coupled technologies
    9.1 Electrochemical oxidation/reduction and electrokinetics
    9.2 PRB – electrokinetics
    9.3 Bioremediation – electrokinetics
    9.4 Phytoremediation – electrokinetics
    9.5 Thermal desorption and electrokinetics

    10 Economic aspects

    11 Field applications

    12 Future perspectives

    10 Elemental iron and other nanotechnologies for soil remediation

    1 Nanoscale particles

    2 Environmental application of nanoparticles

    3 Nanoscale iron particles (NIP): synthesis, properties, and reactivity
    3.1 Synthesis of NIP
    3.2 Properties of NIP
    3.3 Reactivity of NIP

    4 Modified nanoscale iron particles (NIP)
    4.1 Modification to increase reactivity
    4.2 Modification to increase stability 474

    5 Applications of NIP for soil and groundwater remediation
    5.1 Reactivity of NIP and modifi ed NIP in soils
    5.2 Transport of NIP and modifi ed NIP in soils
    5.3 Enhanced transport of NIP and modifi ed NIP in soils 477

    6 Bimetallic nanoparticles

    7 Other nanotechnologies with environmental applications
    7.1 Titanium dioxide
    7.2 Self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous supports
    7.3 Dendrimers
    7.4 Swellable organic modified silica

    8 Field applications
    8.1 Field demonstrations and case studies
    8.2 Cost 489

    9 Environmental benefi ts and risks of NIP (and other nanoparticles)

    11 Planning, monitoring, verification and sustainability of soil remediation

    1 Introduction

    2 Sustainability, sustainable remediation
    2.1 State of the art
    2.2 Technology verifi cation and management sustainability
    2.3 Management process steps in terms of sustainability assessment
    2.4 History of sustainability assessment and verifi cation tools

    3 Integration of sustainability assessment into existing remediation evaluation methods
    3.1 LCA for the evaluation of remediation options
    3.2 Green remediation
    3.3 Green and sustainable remediation
    3.4 System-based indicators
    3.5 Multi-criteria analysis for sustainability assessment by scoring and weighting
    3.6 Sustainability in combination with cost–benefi t assessment
    3.7 SuRF UK – a framework for evaluating sustainable remediation options

    4 Verification of in situ bioremediation
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Evaluation of the cyclodextrin technology (CDT) by the MOKKA verification tool


    Katalin Gruiz is Associate Professor at Budapest University of Technology, Budapest, Hungary.
    She graduated in chemical engineering at Budapest University of Technology and Economics in 1975, received her doctorate in bioengineering and her Ph.D. in environmental engineering. Her main fields of activities are: teaching, consulting, research and development of engineering tools for risk-based environmental management, development and use of innovative technologies such as special environmental toxicity assays, integrated monitoring methods, biological and ecological remediation technologies for soil and water, both for regulatory and engineering purposes. Prof. Gruiz has published 70 scientific papers, 25 book chapters, 43 conference papers, and edited 9 books and a special journal edition. She has coordinated a number of Hungarian research projects and participated in European ones. Gruiz is a member of the REACH Risk Assessment Committee of the European Chemicals Agency. She is a full time associate professor at Budapest University of Technology and Economics and heads the research group of Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology.

    Tamás Meggyes is Research Coordinator in Berlin, Germany.
    He is specialising in research and book projects in environmental engineering. His work focuses on fluid mechanics, hydraulic transport of solids, jet devices, landfill engineering, groundwater remediation, tailings facilities and risk-based environmental management. He has contributed to and organised several international conferences and national and European integrated research projects in Hungary, Germany, United Kingdom and USA. Tamás Meggyes was Europe editor of the Land Contamination and Reclamation journal in the UK and a reviewer of several environmental journals. He was invited by the EU as an expert evaluator to assess research applications and by Samarco Mining Company, Brazil, as a tailings management expert. In 2007, he was named Visiting Professor of Built Environment Sustainability at the University of Wolverhampton, UK. He has published 130 papers including 14 books and holds a doctor’s title in fluid mechanics and a Ph.D. degree in landfill engineering from Miskolc University, Hungary.

    Éva Fenyvesi is senior scientist and founding member of CycloLab Cyclodextrin Research and Development Ltd, Budapest, Hungary.
    She graduated as a chemist and received her Ph.D. in chemical technology at Eötvös University of Natural Sciences, Budapest. She is experienced in the preparation and application of cyclodextrin polymers, in environmental application of cyclodextrins and in gas chromatography. She participated in several national and international research projects, in the development of various environmental technologies applying cyclodextrins. She is author or co-author of over 70 scientific papers, 10 chapters in monographs, over 50 conference presentations and 14 patents. She is an editor of the Cyclodextrin News, the monthly periodical on cyclodextrins.