Engineering of Glacial Deposits: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Engineering of Glacial Deposits

1st Edition

By Barry G. Clarke

CRC Press

504 pages

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Hardback: 9780415398657
pub: 2017-06-23
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At some time 30% of the world’s land mass was covered by glaciers leaving substantial deposits of glacial soils under major conurbations in Europe, North and South America, New Zealand, Europe and Russia. For instance, 60% of the UK has been affected, leaving significant glacial deposits under major conurbations where two thirds of the population live.

Glacial soils are composite soils with significant variations in composition and properties and are recognised as challenging soils to deal with. Understanding the environment in which they were formed and how this affects their behaviour are critical because they do not always conform to classic theories of soil mechanics.

This book is aimed at designers and contractors working in the construction and extractive industries to help them mitigate construction hazards on, with or in glacial deposits. These soils increase risks to critical infrastructure which, in the UK includes the majority of the road and rail network, coastal defences such as the fastest eroding coastline in Europe and most of the water supply reservoirs.

It brings together many years of experience of research into the behaviour of glacial deposits drawing upon published and unpublished case studies from industry. It draws on recent developments in understanding of the geological processes and the impact they have upon the engineering properties, construction processes and performance of geotechnical structures. Unlike other books on glaciation it brings together all the relevant disciplines in earth sciences and engineering to make it directly relevant to the construction industry.


"I know that this one is a book I shall acquire and use… it is a book that merits reading from cover to cover.

It was a delight to see a book on engineering that recognizes the important role of geological processes in forming soils, therefore explaining their properties and behavior."

-- Eddie Bromhead, retired professor and consulting engineer

"This authoritative and well referenced book contains a wealth of information about glaciation, glacial geology and the engineering aspects of construction on and in glacial deposits."

-- John Hudson, Imperial College, London and past president International Society of Rock Mechanics

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Glaciation

1.3 Engineering glacial soils

1.4 Glacial Soil

1.5 The evolution of glacial geology

1.6 ‘The past is the key to the present‘

1.7 ‘Glacial soils are the most variable of all soils’

1.8 ‘We know more about the stars above us than the soils beneath our feet’ (Leonardo da Vinci, c 1600)

1.9 Observations

Chapter 2 Glacial Geology

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Glacial Soils

2.2.1 Facies

2.2.2 Primary Deposits Subglacial Traction Till Glaciotectonite Deformation Till Lodgement Till Comminution Till Melt Out Till

2.2.3 Secondary Deposits Glaciofluvial Deposits Glacial Sedimentation Glaciolacustrine Deposits Glaciomarine Deposits

2.3 Glacial Landforms

2.3.1 Subglacial Landforms Formed by Ice Drumlins Flutes Rogens (ribbed moraines) Erratics

2.3.2 Subglacial Landforms Formed by Water

2.3.3 Ice Margin Moraines Push Moraines Dump Moraines Ablation Moraines

2.3.4 Glaciofluvial Ice Marginal Landforms

2.4 Glacial Land systems

2.5 Glacial Dynamics

2.5.1 Glacier Movement due to Substrate Deformation

2.5.2 Sliding

2.5.3 Friction and Sliding

2.5.4 Erosion

2.5.5 Deposition

2.6 Subglacial Deformation

2.6.1 Hydraulic Conditions

2.6.2 Deformation

2.6.3 Local Deformation

2.7 Observations

Chapter 3 Ground Investigation

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Design of a Ground Investigation

3.3 Desk Study

3.4 Site Reconnaissance

3.5 Preliminary Investigation

3.6 The Main Investigation

3.6.1 Field Work Field Investigation Sampling Groundwater Profile

3.6.2 Field Tests Penetration Tests Standard Penetration Test (SPT) Dynamic Probe (DPT Electric Cone (CPT) Pressuremeter Tests Other Tests Vane Test Marchetti Dilatometer Plate Test Geophysical Tests Remote Sensing

3.6.3 Laboratory Tests Classification Tests Geotechnical Characteristics Strength Tests Stiffness Conductivity

3.7 The Report

3.8 Observations

Chapter 4 Characterisation of Glacial Soils

4.1 Introduction

4.2 The challenges of assessing properties of glacial soils

4.3 Description

4.4 Classification

4.4.1 Water Content

4.4.2 Particle Size Distribution

4.4.3 Consistency Limits

4.4.4 Density

4.4.5 Density Index

4.4.6 Strength Index

4.5 Geotechnical Characteristics

4.5.1 In situ stresses

4.5.2 Strength Field Tests Direct Shear Test Triaxial Test CBR Test Undrained Shear Strength Effective Strength Unsaturated Strength

4.5.3 Compressibility and Deformation One dimensional consolidation tests Triaxial consolidation tests Stiffness Partially Saturated Soils

4.5.4 Conductivity Triaxial Permeability Test Hydraulic Conductivity

4.6 Selection of Geotechnical Characteristics

4.6.1 Frameworks

4.6.2 Databases

4.7 Observations

Chapter 5 Earthworks – Slopes, Cuttings, Embankments and Tunnels

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Overall Stability

5.2.1 Stability of Slopes

5.2.2 Mobilised Strength

5.2.3 Pore Pressures

5.2.4 Fabric and Structure

5.2.5 Methods of Analysis

5.3 Natural Slopes

5.3.1 Inland Slopes

5.3.2 Coastal Cliffs

5.3.3 Recommendations

5.4 Earthworks

5.4.1 Soil Properties

5.4.2 Selecting Fill Materials

5.4.3 Excavations

5.4.4 Compaction Tests

5.4.5 Compaction Processes

5.4.6 Embankments

5.4.7 Earth Dams

5.4.8 Cuttings

5.5 Slope Stabilisation

5.5.1 Soil Nailing

5.5.2 Drainage Systems

5.6 Ground Improvement

5.7 Tunnels

5.8 Observations

Chapter 6 Geotechnical Structures – Spread Foundations, Piled Foundations and Retaining Structures

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Design Philosophy

6.3 Methods of Analysis

6.3.1 Factors of Safety

6.3.2 Design Factors

6.3.3 Partial Factors of Safety

6.4 Geotechnical Design Report

6.5 Spread Foundation

6.5.1 Bearing Resistance

6.5.2 Settlement

6.5.3 Caissons and Piers

6.5.4 Recommendations

6.6 Piled Foundation

6.6.1 Pile Design

6.6.2 Axially Loaded Piles Compressive Capacity Coarse Grained Soils Fine Grained Soils Other Design Methods

6.6.3 Vertical Displacements

6.6.4 Pile Groups

6.6.5 Tensile Capacity

6.6.6 Transverse Loaded Piles

6.6.7 Pile Tests in Glacial Soils

6.6.8 Case Studies of Piles in Glacial Soils

6.6.9 Recommendations

6.7 Retaining Structures

6.7.1 Earth Pressures

6.7.2 Limit States

6.7.3 Recommendations

6.8 Anchors

6.8.1 Recommendations

6.9 Observations

Chapter 7 Recommendations

7.1 Introduction

7.2 The Strategy

7.2.1 Topographical Survey

7.2.2 Geomorphological Study

7.2.3 Geological Investigation

7.2.4 Hydrogelogical Model

7.2.5 Geotechnical Model

7.3 Selection of Design Properties

7.4 Observations


Appendix 1 Symbols

Appendix 2 Glossary

About the Author

Barry G. Clarke is Professor of Civil Engineering Geotechnics at the University of Leeds, UK and past president of the Institution of Civil Engineers.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
ARCHITECTURE / Methods & Materials