Environmental AnalysisThe NEPA Experience
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Environmental Analysis reviews information gathered during NEPA assessments, summarizes the state of the art in methods and approaches, and defines future opportunities and new approaches required to link high-quality science to the decision-making process. Individual chapters address the process itself, present examples of recent experience with ecological impact assessment, evaluate social impact assessment and the important role the public must play, discuss the difficult challenge of assessing cumulative effects of multiple impacts, consider the regional and global implications of NEPA, and examine the important role of follow-up studies in the process. The authors of the 59 individual papers comprising this book represent the major sectors that have been key participants in the decision-making process from the beginning. These sectors include academia, national laboratories, federal agencies, state agencies, private industry, and foreign nations. Environmental Analysis will be interesting reading for environmental scientists, engineers, policy makers, and lawyers in government and academia; private consultants; and non-government environmental organizations.
Table of Contents
Introduction (S.G. Hildebrand and J.B. Cannon). The NEPA Process: Introduction (R.M. Reed and J.B. Cannon). Achieving the NEPA Intent: New Directions in Politics, Science, and Law (L.K. Caldwell). The NEPA Process: Its Beginnings and Its Future (P.F. Gustafson). Judicial Review of Scientific Evidence in Environmental Impact Statements (M.B. Gerrard). The Statement of Underlying Need Determines the Range of Alternatives in an Environmental Document (O.L. Schmidt). A Call for a Return to Rational Comprehensive Planning and Design (R.E. Nelson). NEPA/CERCLA/RCRA Integration: A Panel Discussion (F.E. Sharples and E.D. Smith). Future Challenges of NEPA: A Panel Discussion (E.D. Smith). Ecological Impact Assessment: Introduction (M.J. Sale). An Ecosystem Approach to Ecological Characterization in the NEPA Process (D.A. Bruns, C.S. Staley, R.C. Rope, and K.S. Moor). Ecological Assessments at DOE Hazardous Waste Sites: Current Procedures and Problems (I. Hlohowskyj, J.R. Krummel, J.S. Irving, and W.S. Vinikour). Fish Habitat Evaluation Models in Environmental Assessments (C.B. Stalnaker). Impact, Hazard, and Risk Assessment of Toxic Effects on Nonhuman Organisms (G.W. Suter II). Evaluating Effects of Environmental Stress on Fish Communities Using Multiresponse Indicators (S.M. Adams, G.F. Cada, M.S. Greeley, Jr., and L.R. Shugart). Geographic Information Systems: Effective Tools for Siting and Environmental Impact Assessment (M.S. Siegel and D.D. Moreno). Applications of a Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing in Assessing Surficial Environmental Impacts of Siting and Site Characterization for a Proposed High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (M.F. Winsor and D. Rousseau). Big Cypress National Preserve Important Resource Areas and the NEPA Process: Integration of Geographic Information System Resource Data into National Park Service General Management Planning, Impact Assessment, and Public Involvement (N. Kuykendall, M.S. Bilecki, and K. Klubnikin). Social Impact Assessment and Public Involvement: Introduction (S.A. Carnes). Two Decades Later: Progress and Paradox in Socioeconomic Impact Assessment (W.R. Freudenburg). Science and the Inherently Subjective: The Evolution of Aesthetic Assessment Since NEPA (C.H. Petrich). Social Impact Assessment and Cultural Conservation: Implications for Local Public Involvement in Planning (B.J. Howell). How Severe is Severe: Public Involvement and Systematic Understanding of Wilderness as a Resource (G.M. Schoepfle, E.J. Szarleta, and S. Schexnayder). Using the Analytical Hierarchy Process in NEPA-Based Public Involvement: A Profile of Success (M.M. Landes and D.R. Pescitelli). The Future of NEPA: The Review Process in a Global Era (H.P. Friesema). Cumulative Impact Assessment: Introduction (R.B. McLean and T.N. Russo). Toward Defining and Assessing Cumulative Impacts: Practical and Theoretical Considerations (C.K. Contant and L.L. Wiggins). Assessing Cumulative Impact on Fish and Wildlife in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho (J.S. Irving and M.B. Bain). Use of Programmatic EISs in Support of Cumulative Impact Assessment (A. Myslicki). Cumulative Impacts Assessment and Management Planning: Lessons Learned to Date (S.C. Williamson). Proposed Methodology to Assess Cumulative Impacts of Hydroelectric Development in the Columbia River Basin (K.E. LaGory, E.A. Stull, and W.S. Vinikour). Walking Through Walls: Using NEPA's Cumulative Impacts Concept to Reconcile Single-Issue Environmental Statutes (D.R. Pescitelli and D.L. Merida). Regional and Global Analysis: Introduction (D.S. Shriner). Global Climate Change and NEPA Analyses (R.M. Cushman, D.B. Hunsaker, M.S. Salk, and R.M. Reed). Can NEPA Protect Biodiversity? (S. Henderson, R.F. Noss, and P. Ross). Improvements to the Scientific Content of Arctic Environmental Impact Statements (P.L. Johnson). Ecosystem Assessment Methods for Cumulative Effects at the Regional Scale (C.T. Hunsaker). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment: A National Priority (G.E. Saul, K.W. Thornton, and R.A. Linthurst). NEPA Follow-Up: Introduction and Summary (D.B. Hunsaker). Identification, Tracking, and Closure of NEPA Commitments: The Tennessee Valley Authority Process (R.T. Broili). The I-476 Environmental Monitor: An Effective Approach for Monitoring Implementation of NEPA Documents (P.J. Dodds). Tools for Improving Predictive Capabilities of Environmental Impact Assessments: Structured Hypotheses, Audits, and Monitoring (D.P. Bernard, D.B. Hunsaker, and D.R. Marmorek). Implementation of Mitigation at U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Water Projects in the Southern United States (B.M. Young). Postproject Analyses of Fish and Wildlife Mitigation (J.E. Roelle and K.M. Manci). Follow-Up of Impact Assessments: International Activities (A. Norton Miller). Federal and State Experience: Introduction (R.M. Reed and C.R. Boston). Alaska Outer Continental Shelf EIS Evolution Since 1976 (J.C. Gottlieb). Accommodating Price and Technology Competition within the EIS Process (K.U. Mowll). Activities in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program: A New Dimension in NEPA (E.W. Evans, R.A. Hargis, and T.C. Ruppel). Impacts to Ecological Resources as a Decision Factor in Power System Development and Operation (J.M. Taves). Survey of Analyses in Environmental Impact Statements (B.F. Leon). Risk Assessment and Environmental Impact Assessment (S.M. Ugoretz). Eighteen-Year Trends in Natural Resources Protection Under Wisconsin's Environmental Policy Act (R.H. Read). The International Influence of NEPA: Introduction (S. Rayner). EIA Abroad: The Comparative and Transnational Experience (N.A. Robinson). NEPA's Impact on Environmental Impact Assessment in European Community Member Countries (R. Coenen). Implementation of NEPA and Environmental Impact Assessment in Developing Nations (J.F. McCormick). Potentials to Transfer the U.S. NEPA Experience to Developing Countries (T.J. Wilbanks, D.B. Hunsaker, Jr., C.H. Petrich, and S.B. Wright). The Application of Environmental Assessments in Indonesia: Lessons from NEPA (A.N. Katili). Index.