Environmental Chemical Analysis: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Environmental Chemical Analysis

1st Edition

By S. Mitra, B.B. Kebbekus

CRC Press

344 pages

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Description

The study of the environment requires the reliable and accurate measurement of extremely small quantities of chemicals and the ability to determine if they are pollutants or naturally occurring species. Historically, a "dilute and disperse" method of waste disposal has been accepted; yet as we learn the long-term consequences of such an approach, it is clear that more rigorous waste management techniques are necessary to understand the sources and fates of contaminants and to regulate their discharge.

This volume presents the details of the basic analytical science involved in making these measurements. It concentrates on the basic principles of sampling and sample preparation, followed by the chemical principles of the major instrumental methods used in chemical analysis, and detailed discussions of the major environmental matrices. This book also provides coverage of topics usually only partially discussed in textbooks, such as quality assurance plans and statistical data handling.

Students majoring in environmental sciences need a foundation in measurement techniques used in the field. Environmental Chemical Analysis gives students a thorough grounding in this field and enough information to judge the quality and interpret the information produced in the analytical laboratory.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL MEASUREMENTS

Role of Measurement in Environmental Studies

Pollutants: Sources and Measurements

Design of Environmental Studies

Basic Statistical Data Handling

Significance Tests

Standards and Calibration

Performance of Analytical Methods: Figures of Merit

ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING

The Sampling Plan

Types of Samples

Sampling and Analysis

Statistical Aspects of Sampling

Water Sampling

Biological Tissue Sampling

Soil Sampling

Sampling Stratified Levels in Containers

Preservation of Samples

SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS

Spectroscopic Methods for Environmental Analysis

Absorption Spectroscopy

Emission Spectroscopy

Spectroscopic Apparatus

Ultraviolet and Visible Absorption Spectroscopy

Infrared Spectroscopy

Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy

X-ray Fluorescence

Hyphenated Spectroscopic Methods

CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS

Principles of Chromatography

Quantitation in Chromatography

Gas Chromatography

GC Detectors

High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

HPLC Instrumentation

HPLC Detectors

Ion Chromatography

Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

Applications of Chromatography in Environmental Analysis

MASS SPECTROMETRY

Interpretation of Spectra

Basic Instrumentation

Ion Sources

Mass Analyzers

Ion Detectors

Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS)

Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS)

Inductively Coupled Plasma/Mass Spectrometry (ICP/MS)

Data Collection

Library Searching Techniques

SAMPLE PREPARATION TECHNIQUES

Extraction of Organic Analytes from Liquid Samples

Extraction of Organic Analytes from Solid Samples

Post-extraction Procedures

Extraction of Metals from Sample Matrices

Speciation of Metals in Environmental Samples

METHODS FOR AIR ANALYSIS

Keeping the Air Clean

Determination of Gaseous Species

Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds

Other Methods for Analysis of Volatiles and Gases

Determination of Pollutants in Particulate Material

Field Methods for Air Analysis

Methods for Stack Monitoring

METHODS FOR WATER ANALYSIS

Sample Collection and Preservation

Potentiometry for Ions and Gases in Aqueous Solution

Metals in Water Samples

Inorganic Anions in Water

Organic Compounds in Water

Volatile Organic Compounds in Water

Semi-volatile Organics in Water

Field Methods for Water

METHODS FOR ANALYSIS OF SOLID SAMPLES

Sampling

Measurement of Soil pH

Analysis of Metals in Soil and Solids

Analysis of Soil for Total Nitrogen

Colorimetric Tests for Soil and Sludge Analysis

Measurement of Total Organic Carbon in Soil

Volatile Organics in Soils or Solids

Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Soil and Sludge

Semi-volatile Organics in Soil and Sludge

Leaching Tests for Wastes

Immunoassay Tests

Field Methods for Solids

QUALITY ASSURANCE AND QUALITY CONTROL

Determination of Accuracy and Precision

Statistical Control

Performance Evaluation Samples

Contamination Control

Quality Assurance for the Example Determinations

Appendix 1: Percentiles of the t-Distribution

Appendix 2: Critical Values of the f-Test at 5% Level of Significance

Index

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013000
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCI013010
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Analytic