Environmental Investigation and Remediation: 1,4-Dioxane and other Solvent Stabilizers, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Environmental Investigation and Remediation

1,4-Dioxane and other Solvent Stabilizers, 1st Edition

By Thomas K.G. Mohr

CRC Press

550 pages | 61 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2010-03-25
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A ubiquitous, largely overlooked groundwater contaminant, 1,4-dioxane escaped notice by almost everyone until the late 1990s. While some dismissed 1,4-dioxane because it was not regulated, others were concerned and required testing and remediation at sites they oversaw. Drawing years of 1,4-dioxane research into a convenient resource, Environmental Investigation and Remediation: 1,4-Dioxane and other Solvent Stabilizers profiles the nature of 1,4-dioxane and several dozen other solvent stabilizer compounds.

The author takes an approach he calls "contaminant archeology", i.e., reviewing the history of the contaminating chemical’s use in the industrial workplace at the site of release and how those uses impart chemical characteristics to the waste that affects its fate and transport properties. The book examines the uses, environmental fate, laboratory analysis, toxicology, risk assessment, and treatment of 1,4-dioxane in extensive detail. It provides case studies that document the contaminant migration, regulation, treatment, and legal aspects of 1,4-dioxane releases. It also describes the controversy over interpretation of 1,4-dioxane’s toxicology and associated risk, as well as the corresponding disparity in states’ regulation of 1,4-dioxane. A final chapter examines the policy implications of emerging contaminants like 1,4-dioxane, with discussion of opportunities to improve the regulatory and remedial response to this persistent contaminant in the face of toxicological uncertainty.

Mobility, persistence, and treatment challenges combine to make 1,4-dioxane a particularly vexing contaminant. It is more mobile than any other contaminant you are likely to find at solvent release sites. Filled with case studies, equations, tables, figures, and citations, the book supplies a wide range of information on 1,4-dioxane. It then provides passive and active remediation strategies and treatment technologies for 1,4-dioxane in groundwater and provides you with the technical resources to help you decide which are appropriate for your site.

For more information about Thomase Mohr and his book, go to http://www.The14DioxaneBook.com


"Tom Mohr's book on 1,4-Dioxane and Other Solvent Stabilizers is the most thorough and practical treatise on the subject - an amazingly complete book. It's an especially must-read for anyone dealing with the chlorinated solvent 1,1,1-TCA because even today many professionals in the field do not test for 1,4-Dioxane when it is highly likely to be present if 1,1,1-TCA is a contaminant of concern."

Dr. Robert W. Cleary, Instructor, The Princeton Groundwater Courses, Tampa, Florida

"Tom Mohr has done the environmental profession a great service by publishing in 2010 the most comprehensive summary of a significant contaminant in the groundwater environment, 1,4-dioxane. Chlorinated solvents represent the most significant legacy contaminants at groundwater sites in the U.S. and probably worldwide and the potential impact of solvent stabilizers has only relatively recently been appreciated given the mobility of 1,4-dioxane in groundwater and the challenges removing the chemical from water. Mohr’s extremely well documented book on the history, fate, transport, treatment, remediation and regulatory status of this contaminant is of great value to all involved in the on-going challenges to restore groundwater to its highest beneficial use."

—Dr. Michael Kavanaugh, P.E., Geosyntec Consultants, Oakland, California, Member, National Academy of Engineering, Chair, National Research Council Committee on Future Options for the Nation's Subsurface Remediation Effort

"You won’t find the 1,4-dioxane book on my reference shelves – I keep it on my desk."

—Dr. Stanley Feenstra, Applied Groundwater Research Ltd., Missisauga, Ontario, Canada, Co-author of Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids

"I received your book last week and have read it cover to cover twice since then – it’s a great product and one that significantly advances the knowledge on chlorinated solvents/stabilizers. It has incredible information and is well-written and well-referenced. It is rare that a book like this comes along. The chapters on stabilizers and the extraction of information from the U.S. patent literature throughout the chapters provide valuable insights."

—Dr. Robert D. Morrison, DPRA, Hawi, Hawai’I, Author of Environmental Forensics – Principles and Applications, and Environmental Forensics – the Contaminant Specific Guide

"This authoritative book embodies a great deal of information on 1,4 dioxane in a useful manner. The authors in their personal style of writing call it "MTBE on steroids"; they take a potentially encyclopedic and boring topic and make it a fun to read yet admirably educating book. This very soluble and mobile chemical is a big concern in so many places around the world. I believe this book is of great importance to anyone involved in the elimination of exposure to 1,4 dioxane. The book is arranged methodologically and encompasses information from the history of of 1,4 dioxane uses to the most recent remedial techniques. This text is mainly for professionals and managers working with 1,4 dioxane remediation but will also serve well the general public, especially those who are in an actual exposure scenario to 1,4 dioxane."

—Dr. Raphi Mandelbaum, CEO, LDD Advanced Technologies, Israel

Table of Contents

Historical Use of Chlorinated Solvents and Their Stabilizing Compounds

History of Chlorinated Solvents

Role of Solvent Stabilizers



1,4-Dioxane: Chemistry, Uses, and Occurrence

Chemistry of 1,4-Dioxane

History of 1,4-Dioxane Production

Direct Uses of 1,4-Dioxane

1,4-Dioxane as a By-Product of Manufacturing

1,4-Dioxane in Food

Detections of 1,4-Dioxane in Ambient Surface Water, Groundwater, and Air

Estimated Releases of 1,4-Dioxane to the Environment

Environmental Fate and Transport of Solvent-Stabilizer Compounds

Fate and Transport Processes

Surface-Water Fate and Transport Processes

Subsurface Fate and Transport Processes

Laboratory, Field, and Modeling Studies of 1,4-Dioxane Mobility

Diffusive Transport of 1,4-Dioxane and Storage in Fine-Grained Soils


Sampling and Laboratory Analysis for Solvent Stabilizers

The Flawed Paradigm of Analyte Lists

Sample Collection, Preservation, and Handling for Analysis of 1,4-Dioxane

Sample Preparation

Laboratory Methods for the Analysis of 1,4-Dioxane by GC–MS

Environmental Protection Agency Methods for Analysis of 1,4-Dioxane

Laboratory Safety for 1,4-Dioxane Handling and Instrument Cleaning



The Toxicology of 1,4-Dioxane


Toxicity Studies in Humans

Toxicology Studies in Laboratory Animals

Summary of Noncancer Health Effects

Characterization of Cancer Potential



Regulation and Risk Assessment of 1,4-Dioxane

Drinking Water Regulations for 1,4-Dioxane

Water Quality Regulations: Protection of Ecological Receptors

Air Quality Regulations: Occupational Health and Safety and Ambient Air Quality

Regulating 1,4-Dioxane in Food, Pharmaceuticals, Cosmetics, and Sundries

Risk Assessments of 1,4-Dioxane



Remediation Technologies

Vapor-Phase Transfer


Natural Attenuation

Ultraviolet Photolysis



Chemical Oxidation


Case Studies of 1,4-Dioxane Releases, Treatment, and Drinking Water Contamination

Superfund Site at Seymour, Indiana

Solvent Services Site, San Jose, California

Pall/Gelman Sciences Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan

Former American Beryllium Company, Tallevast, Florida

Stanford Linear Accelerator Center Groundwater Cleanup Sites

1,4-Dioxane and Orange County Water District (OWCD)’s Groundwater Replenishment System

Air Force Plant 44, Tucson, Arizona



Forensic Applications for 1,4-Dioxane and Solvent Stabilizers

Leveraging 1,4-Dioxane Data for Plume Analysis and Source Apportionment

Ratio Analysis

Solvent Stabilizers as Age Markers

Solvent Stabilizers as Markers of Solvent Applications


Regulatory Policy Implications of 1,4-Dioxane

Applying the Precautionary Principle to Regulation of 1,4-Dioxane and Emerging Contaminants in Drinking Water

Updating the toxicological basis for 1,4-dioxane regulation

Regulatory Policy on 1,4-Dioxane Remediation at Cleanup Sites

Blindsided Again?

The promise of Green Chemistry

Should 1,4-dioxane be banned?

Regulatory Policy Recommendations for Addressing 1,4-Dioxane Releases



Appendix 1: Synopses of Selected Patents from the Art of Solvent Stabilization

Appendix 2: Fate and Transport Properties of Solvent-Stabilizer Compounds

Appendix 3: Compilation of Instrumental Parameters in Literature Studies of 1,4-Dioxane Analyses of Various Media


Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Industrial & Technical
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply