Environmental Microbiology for Engineers: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Environmental Microbiology for Engineers

2nd Edition

By Volodymyr Ivanov

CRC Press

413 pages | 122 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2015-11-18
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Updated Edition Includes a New Chapter and Enhanced Study Material

The second edition of Environmental Microbiology for Engineers explores the role that microorganisms play in the engineered protection and enhancement of an environment. Offering a perfect balance of microbiological knowledge and environmental biotechnology principles, it provides a practical understanding of microorganisms and their functions in the environment and in the environmental engineering systems. The book also presents a quantitative description of applied microbiological processes and their engineering design. This updated edition adds a new chapter on construction biotechnology, and offers new end-of-chapter exam questions with solutions to aid readers with performing the design calculations needed and to enhance understanding of the material.

The book covers essential topics that include:

  • Diversity and functions of microorganisms in environmental engineering systems
  • Environmental bioengineering processes
  • Applied microbial genetics and molecular biology
  • Microbiology of water and wastewater treatment
  • Biotreatment of solid waste and soil bioremediation
  • Microbial monitoring of environmental engineering systems
  • Biocorrosion and biodeterioration of materials
  • Biocementation and bioclogging of soil
  • Biopollution of indoor environment
  • Biofouling of facilities, and more

Environmental Microbiology for Engineers provides a practical understanding of microorganisms in the civil engineering process and their functions in the environmental engineering systems, and is designed for practicing environmental engineers working in the areas of wastewater, solid waste treatment, soil remediation and ground improvement.


"This book covers important topics for civil and environmental engineering processes such as biodeterioration, biocorrosion, bioclogging, biocementation, and microbially based construction materials. The book can help engineers perform the necessary design calculations for microbial engineering activities."

—Dr. Yung-Tse Hung, Cleveland State University, Ohio, USA

"The main strength of this book is sound connectivity between the microbiology and the environmental systems. I haven’t seen any book which talks in detail about the application of microbiology into the environmental systems. Especially the topics related to soil and soil treatment."

—Srinivas Prabakar, The University of Texas at Arlington, USA

"This text book includes a wide range of interesting topics in the area of environmental microbiology for engineers. …that will be a great help for scientists, students and engineers on the study and application of microorganisms in environmental protections. "

—Tiehang Wu, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, USA

"… the most comprehensive microbiology book… covers all the important topics in microbiology and their association in environmental engineering treatment and disposal problems. … microorganisms and microbiological processes are reflected with examples related to many fields of environmental engineering."

—Mujde Erten-Unal, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, USA

"… comprehensive and wide ranging… What I like best is the intuitive format… the author first introduces the subject and then proceeds to discuss cost effectiveness followed by concise and easy to follow applications."

—Jan DeJarnette, Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, USA

"This is a great introductory text for engineering students concerned with microbiological processes. The book starts with a justification of why microorganisms can revolutionize engineering approaches before providing insight into concrete examples of microbiological engineering…"

—Robin Gerlach, Montana State University, Missoula, USA

"… an overall and concise review of the most important and up-to-date topics in environmental microbiology."

—Woo Hyoung Lee, Ph.D., P.E., University of Central Florida

"… the author has really achieved something extraordinary here, I wouldn’t be able to find this much depth of content in all the fields that the book has covered in several texts. …This book is a treasure and a must for any engineering student to fully understand microbial life and its applications to the environment."

—Rehana Rostron, The Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

"I really love the [breadth] of the topics covered in this book. … it [extends] to other disciplines of engineering, which adds [breadth] to the topic of engineering microbiology… And they can help attract students outside the area of environmental engineering."

—Wen Zhang, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, USA

Table of Contents



Self-Organized Systems

Life as Self-Organized Growth of Biomass


Organisms and Microorganisms

Size of Microorganisms



Environmental Microbiology

Why Are Microbes Used in Environmental Engineering?

Organisms of Importance in Environmental Microbiology


Subviral Particles

Importance of Viruses in Environmental and Civil Engineering


Bacteria and Archaea

Importance of Prokaryotes in Environmental and Civil Engineering


Importance of Fungi in Environmental and Civil Engineering


Importance of Algae in Environmental Engineering


Importance of Protozoa for Environmental Engineering

Chapter 1 Quiz

Static Biochemistry

Static and Dynamic Biochemistry

Chemical Features of Life

Balance of Elements

Covalent Bonds

Organic Compounds and Functional Groups

Polarity of Chemical Bonds


pH of Solutions

Intermolecular Forces

Hydrophobic Substances and Hydrophobic Forces


Biological Monomers and Polymers


Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides

Lipids and Membranes

Lipid Membranes

Membrane Melting and Freezing

Amino Acids and Proteins

Structure of a Protein Molecule

Globular and Fibrous Proteins

Denaturation of Proteins




Cyclic Nucleotides


DNA Structure

DNA Melting

DNA as a Carrier of Genetic Information

DNA Sequences and Sequencing




Genetic Code

rRNA and Translation

16S rRNA

Functions of rRNA in the Ribosome


Summary of the Functions of Monomers and Polymers in a Cell

Chapter 2 Quiz

Dynamic Biochemistry

Levels of Metabolism

Biochemical Reactions

Major Features of Enzymes

Mechanism of Enzymatic Catalysis

Specificity of Enzymes

Inactivation of Enzymes

Classification of Enzymes

Environmental Applications of Microbial Enzymes and Coenzymes


Units of Enzymatic Activity

Control of Individual Biochemical Reactions

Effect of Noncompetitive Inhibitors on Enzymatic Activity

Effect of Competitive Inhibitors on Enzymatic Activity

Control of a Group of Biochemical Reactions

Regulation of Enzymatic Activity in the Sequence of Enzymes

Regulation of Enzyme Synthesis and Degradation

Metabolic Blocks

Control of Metabolic Blocks

Cyclic AMP and GMP as Whole-Cell Regulators of Metabolism

Temporal Control of Cell Metabolism

Nitric Oxide as Controller of Metabolism

Quorum Sensing

Control of Metabolism in the Biosphere

Chapter 3 Quiz

Biooxidation and Bioreduction


Oxidation Numbers

Oxidation of Carbon

Oxidation–Reduction during Fermentation


Two Sources of Biological Forms of Energy


Chemotrophic Oxidation–Reduction Reactions

Chemotrophy: Fermentation

Chemotrophy: Anaerobic (Anoxic) Respiration

Chemotrophy: Aerobic Respiration


Oxygenic and Anoxygenic Phototrophic Oxidation–Reduction Reactions

Electron-Transfer Chain

Proton Motive Force

Oxidative Phosphorylation

Biological Forms of Energy

Production of Biological Energy in Photosynthesis

ATP Yield from Oxidative Phosphorylation

ATP Production and Yield from Fermentation

ATP Yield from Lithotrophy

Long-Term Energy Storage in Cells

Relation to Oxygen and Generation of Energy

Chapter 4 Quiz


Biodegradation and biotransformation

Biochemical Reactions of Biodegradation

Aerobic, Anoxic, and Anaerobic Biodegradation

Biodegraded Substances

Biodegradation Rates of Natural Substances

Biodegradation Rates Correlate with Turnover Rates

Degradation of Storage Polysaccharides

Biodegradation of Structural Polysaccharides

Biodegradation of Hemicellulose and Pectin

Biodegradation of Cellulose

Biodegradation of Lignin

White-Rot Fungi

Biodegradation of Chitin

Degradation of Proteins

Degradation of Amino Acids

Degradation of Nucleic Acids

Degradation of Lipids

Biodegradation of Chemicals

Degradation of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Biodegradation of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene

Bioremediation of Soil and Water Polluted by BTEX Chemicals


Degradative Plasmids

Biodegradation of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons

Products of Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Nonbiodegradable and Biodegradable Polymers

Polylactic Acid and Polyhydroxyalkanoates

Chapter 5 Quiz

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Metabolic Blocks of Biosynthesis

Energy for Biosynthesis

Balance of Energy

Excess of Biological Energy

Number of Enzymes


Noncoding RNA Genes



Genomes of Chloroplasts and Mitochondria

The Genome in Comparison with a Book

Flow of Genetic Information

Genetics, Molecular Biology, Bioinformatics, and Epigenetics

Collection of DNA Sequences

Nucleus and Nucleoid



DNA Replication

Speed of DNA Replication



Genetic Code

Genome Changes

Natural Genetic Recombination in Prokaryotes




Horizontal Gene Transfer

DNA Reparation and Mutations

Chemical Mutagens

Physical Mutagens

Biological Mutagens

Genetic Adaptation of Microbial Population to Changed


Chapter 6 Quiz

Bioagents of Environmental and Engineering Bioprocesses

Hierarchy of Life

Cell Aggregates

Microbial Communities and Ecosystems

Shapes of Individual and Connected Prokaryotic Cells

Prokaryotic Cell Shapes as Evolutionary Adaptation to


Inner Structure of Prokaryotic Cells

Intracellular Inclusions in Prokaryotic Cells

Outer Components of Prokaryotic Cells

Cytoplasmic Membrane

Vulnerability of the Cytoplasmic Membrane

Prokaryotic Cell Walls

Origin of Gram-Negative Cells

Origin of Gram-Positive Cells

Flagella, Fimbriae, and Pili

Outer Membrane, Lipopolysaccharides, and S-Layer

Glycocalyx and Capsule

Anabiotic Prokaryotic Cells

Structure of Eukaryotic Cells


Chapter 7 Quiz

Reproduction, Proliferation, and Growth

Reproduction of Viruses

Reproduction of Prokaryotes

Vegetative Reproduction of Microscopic Eukaryotes

Asexual and Sexual Reproduction of Microscopic Eukaryotes

Cell Growth and the Cell Division Cycle

Coordination of Cell Cycle Events

Periods of Exotrophy and Endotrophy in the Cell Cycle

Cell Differentiation

Growth and Proliferation of Cell Populations

Generation Time and Number of Generations

Specific Growth Rate

Stoichiometry of Microbial Growth

Cell Age and Cell Trophic State Distributions in Microbial


Quantification of Microbial Biomass

Microscopic Enumeration

Flow Cytometry Enumeration

Physical Methods of Microbial Biomass Measurement

Chemical Methods of Microbial Biomass Measurement

Physiological Methods of Microbial Biomass Measurement

Biological Methods of Cell Enumeration: Plate Count

Biological Methods of Cell Enumeration: Most Probable

Number Count

Enumeration of Cells and Viral Particles at Low Concentrations

Molecular-Biological Methods of Microbial Biomass


Chapter 8 Quiz

Microbial Ecology


Levels of Ecosystems

Ecosystem Boundaries

Boundaries of Unicellular Organisms

Boundaries of Multicellular Aggregates

Boundaries of Microbial Communities in Environmental Engineering Systems

Diversity of a Microbial Ecosystem

Quantification of Ecosystem Diversity

Diversity in an Anaerobic Digester

Types of Interactions in Microbial Ecosystems

Population Density Determines Interaction Type



Interactions of Microorganisms in Cellular Aggregates

Positive Interactions between Animals and Microorganisms

Symbiotic Mutualism

Positive Interactions between Plants and Microorganisms

Symbiosis of Plants and Microorganisms

Neutral Competition





Microbial Parasites of Plants

Microbial Parasites of Human and Animals

Effects of Nutrients on Biotic Elements

Effects of Nutrients on Yield

Effect of Starvation on Microorganisms

Effect of Oxygen on Biotic Elements

Anoxic Microorganisms

Effect of Temperature on Growth

Effect of pH on Growth

Effect of Osmotic Pressure on Growth

Natural Death of Microorganisms

Fate of Microorganisms Released into the Environment

Chapter 9 Quiz

Classification of Viruses and Microorganisms

Biological Classification

Units of Biological Classification

Names of Species

Classification of Viruses

Groups of Viruses

Importance of Viruses for Environmental Engineering

Isolation and Collection of Microbial Strains

Microbial Collections

Classification of Microorganisms

Phenotypic Characteristics

Genotypic Classification

Phylogenetic Classification

G+C Content in DNA and Genotypic Classification

Comparison of the Steps in Phenotypic and Phylogenetic Identification of Strains

Phylogenetic Groups of Prokaryotes

Classification of Microscopic Fungi

Classification of Microscopic Algae

Classification of Protozoa

Chapter 10 Quiz

Physiological Classification of Prokaryotes

Physiology of Prokaryotes

Three Types of Chemotrophic Energy Generation

Three Types of Phototrophic Energy Generation

Evolution of the Earth’s Atmosphere and Prokaryotes

Contradictions between rRNA-Based Phylogenetic

Classification and Physiological Classification of Prokaryotes

Absence of Predictive Power in rRNA-Based Phylogenetic Classification

Parallelism in Evolution of Genes

Periodic Table of Prokaryotes

Origin of Prokaryotes in Aquatic, Terrestrial, and Extreme Environments

Phototrophic Prokaryotes in the Periodic Table

Reasons for Evolutionary Parallelism in the Periods of the Periodic Table of Prokaryotes

Geological Synchronization of the Periods in the Periodic Table of Prokaryotes

Practical Importance of the Periodic Table of Prokaryotes

Chapter 11 Quiz

Groups of Anaerobic Prokaryotes

The 24 Major Physiological Groups of Prokaryotes

Gram-Negative (Aquatic) Chemotrophic Fermenting Bacteria

Gram-Positive (Terrestrial) Chemotrophic Fermenting Bacteria

Chemotrophic Fermenting Archaea

Gram-Negative (Aquatic) Phototrophic Bacteria That Use

Products of Fermentation as Electron Donors

Gram-Positive (Terrestrial) Phototrophic Bacteria That Use

Products of Fermentation as Electron Donors

Phototrophic Archaea That Use Products of Fermentation as Electron Donors

Chapter 12 Quiz

Groups of Anoxic Prokaryotes

Gram-Negative (Aquatic), Chemotrophic, Anoxic Bacteria

Dissimilatory Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

Iron-Reducing Bacteria

Denitrifying Bacteria

Gram-Positive (Terrestrial), Chemotrophic, Anoxic Bacteria

Chemotrophic, Anoxic Archaea (Methanogens)

Gram-Negative (Aquatic), Phototrophic, Anoxic Bacteria

Gram-Positive (Terrestrial), Phototrophic, Anoxic Bacteria

Phototrophic Archaea That Use Products of Anoxic Respiration as Electron Donors

Chapter 13 Quiz

Groups of Microaerophilic and Facultative Aerobic/Anaerobic


Evolutionary Adaptations of Facultative Aerobic/Anaerobic and

Microaerophilic Prokaryotes

Gram-Negative (Aquatic), Chemotrophic, Facultative Aerobic/

Anaerobic Bacteria

Gram-Negative (Aquatic), Chemotrophic, Microaerophilic Bacteria

Gram-Positive (Terrestrial), Chemotrophic, Facultative Aerobic/

Anaerobic and Microaerophilic Bacteria

Chemotrophic, Facultative Aerobic/Anaerobic and

Microaerophilic Archaea

Gram-Negative (Aquatic), Phototrophic, Facultative Aerobic/

Anaerobic and Microaerophilic Bacteria

Gram-Positive (Terrestrial), Phototrophic, Facultative Aerobic/

Anaerobic and Microaerophilic Bacteria

Phototrophic, Facultative Aerobic/Anaerobic and

Microaerophilic Archaea

Chapter 14 Quiz

Groups of Aerobic Prokaryotes

Functions of Aerobic Prokaryotes

Pseudomonads and Their Relatives

Slime-Producing Bacteria

Phosphate-Accumulating Bacteria

Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria



Bacterial Parasites of Bacteria


Gram-Negative, Chemotrophic, Aerobic Pathogens

Ammonium-Oxidizing Chemolithotrophs (Nitrifying Bacteria)

Sulfur-Oxidizing, Chemolithotrophic Bacteria

Iron- and Manganese-Oxidizing Bacteria

Gram-Positive (Terrestrial), Chemotrophic, Aerobic Bacteria

Chemotrophic, Aerobic Archaea

Gram-Negative (Aquatic), Phototrophic, Aerobic Bacteria

Gram-Positive (Terrestrial), Phototrophic, Aerobic Bacteria

Phototrophic, Aerobic Archaea

Chapter 15 Quiz

Public Health and Water Disinfection

Saprophytic, Pathogenic, and Opportunistic Microbes

Parasites of Humans and Animals

Stages of Infectious Disease

Transmission of Infection

Patterns and Extent of Infectious Disease

Cooperation between Epidemiologists and Civil Engineers

Infections via Vectors

Factors of Microbial Pathogenicity



The Problem of Opportunistic Bacteria in Environmental Biotechnology

Waterborne Pathogens

Detection of Waterborne Pathogenic Viruses

Waterborne Pathogenic Bacteria

Fate of Pathogens Released into the Environment

Waterborne Pathogenic Protozoa

Indicator Microorganisms

Coliforms as Indicators of Fecal Pollution

Other Indicators of Fecal Pollution

Bacteriological Quality of Water

Protozoan and Viral Pathogens

Detection of Pathogens in the Environment

Removal and Killing of Pathogens

Control of Microbial Death in Water

Thermal Treatment of Water

Pasteurization and Sterilization

Sterilization by Electromagnetic Radiation

Sterilization by Filtration


Disinfectants and Antiseptics



Resistance of Different Microbial Groups to Disinfection

Comparison of Chemical Disinfectants

UV Disinfection of Water

Chemical Interference with Disinfection of Water

Physical Interference with Disinfection of Water

Chapter 16 Quiz

Biotechnological Processes


Environmental Biotechnology

Comparison of Biotechnological Treatment with Other Methods

Applicability of Environmental Biotechnology

Combination of Biotechnology with Other Methods

Bioprocesses Used in Environmental Biotechnology

Stages of Biotechnological Processes

Upstream Processes in Environmental Biotechnology

Pretreatment in Biotechnology

Medium Preparation

Medium Components

Preparation of Equipment

Preparation of Inoculum

Core Process in Environmental Biotechnology

Semi-Closed and Open Systems of Cultivation

Batch Culture

Continuous Cultivation


Plug-Flow Systems

Suspended Biomass Bioreactors

Continuous Systems with Internal Recycling or Retention of Biomass

Microbiological Methods Used in Environmental Engineering

Isolation of Pure Cultures

Selection of Microorganisms

Theoretical Selection

Selection of an Enrichment Culture

Selective Pressure

Autoselection Mechanisms

Instability of Autoselected Features

Selection of an Ecosystem

Construction of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms

Steps for Artificial Recombination of DNA

Application of Genetic Engineering in Environmental Engineering

Physical Boundary of an Artificial Ecosystem

Chemical Boundary of an Artificial Ecosystem

Macro- and Microenvironments

Effect of Nutrients on Growth Rate

Downstream Processes

Microbial Aggregates

Structure of Microbial Aggregates

Sedimentation of Cellular Aggregates

Selection of Microbial Aggregates by Settling Time

Chapter 17 Quiz

Aquatic Systems and Water Biotreatment

Microorganisms of the Hydrosphere, Lithosphere, and Atmosphere

Functions of Microorganisms in the Hydrosphere

The Biogeochemical Carbon Cycle

The Biogeochemical Nitrogen Cycle

The Biogeochemical Phosphorus Cycle

The Biogeochemical Sulfur Cycle

The Biogeochemical Iron Cycle

Stratification in Aquatic Ecosystems

Sources of Water Pollution

Eutrophication of Water in Reservoirs

Signs of Eutrophication

Treatment of Storm Water in Artificial (Constructed) Wetlands

Stages of Treatment of Raw Drinking Water

Pollutants of Water That Can Be Removed by Biotreatment

Biological Instability of Water

Chemical Removal of Sources of Biological Instability

Biological Removal of Sources of Biological Instability

Disadvantages of Bioremoval of Sources of Biological Instability

BOM in Water

Chemical Oxygen Demand, Biological Oxygen Demand, and Total Organic Carbon

Measurement of BOM

Bioremoval of Sources of Biological Instability

Fixed-Bed Biofilters

Fluidized-Bed Biofilm Reactors

Biofiltration of Water through Soil

Organic Micropollutants of Water

Bioremoval of Endocrine Disruptors from Water

Bioremoval of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Their Derivatives from Water

Bioremoval of Halogenated Compounds from Water

Sucralose in Water

Taste and Odor Compounds of Microbial Origin

Arsenic in Water

Nitrate and Nitrite in Water

Heterotrophic Denitrification of Drinking Water

Autotrophic Denitrification

Conditions for Denitrification

Bioreduction of Perchlorate in Drinking Water

Iron and Manganese in Water

Chapter 18 Quiz

Anaerobic and Anoxic Treatment of Wastewater

Oxygen and Energy Generation

Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Matter

Microbiology of Anaerobic Digestion of Biopolymers

Biogas Collection and Use

Optimal Conditions for Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Waste

Interaction between Methanogenesis and Sulfate Reduction

Comparison of Anaerobic and Aerobic Digestion of Organic Waste

Bioreactors Used in Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment

Stirred Tank Reactors for Anaerobic Digestion of Organics

UASB Reactors

Septic Tanks

Anaerobic Processes in Landfills

Anaerobic Degradation of Xenobiotics by Fermenting Bacteria

Anoxic Bioprocesses

Nitrate Reduction in Water and Wastewater Treatment

Nitrate Reduction in Microbially Enhanced Oil Recovery

Nitrate Reduction in Soil Bioremediation

Nitrate Reduction in Geotechnical Improvement of Soil

Iron Reduction in Water, Wastewater, and Groundwater Treatment

Sulfate Reduction in Water and Wastewater Treatment

Dehalogenating Bacteria

Combined Anaerobic/Aerobic Biotreatment of Wastes

Biotechnological Treatment of Heavy Metal-Containing Waste and Radionuclide-Containing Waste

Chapter 19 Quiz

Aerobic Treatment of Wastewater

Domestic Wastewater

Industrial Wastewater


Objectives of Aerobic Wastewater Biotreatment

Aerobic Treatment of Wastewater

Conventional Biotreatment in Aerobic Tanks

Organic Load of Aerobic Treatment

Activated Sludge Settleability

Activated Sludge Recycling

Microorganisms of Activated Sludge

Flocs of Activated Sludge

Filamentous Bacteria in Activated Sludge Flocs

Control of Filamentous Bulking of Activated Sludge


Suspended Microbial Aggregates (Granules) Used in Aerobic Treatment of Wastewater

Removal of Nutrients from Wastewater

Aerobic Reactors

Aerobic Treatment of Wastewater with Low Concentrations of Hazardous Substances

Aerobic Digestion of Activated Sludge

Combinations of Aerobic Treatment of Wastewater with Other Treatments

Application of Microaerophilic Microorganisms in

Biotechnological Treatments

Aerobic Biofilm Reactors

Development of Biofilm in Aerobic Biofilm Reactors

Chapter 20 Quiz

Value-Added By-Products of Environmental Engineering

Organic Wastes as Raw Material for Biotechnological Transformation

Biotechnological Products from Organic Wastes

Production of Enzymes from Wastes

Production of Organic Acids

Production of Flavors

Production of Polysaccharides

Edible Mushroom Production

Production of Biodegradable Plastics

Production of Animal Feed

Use of Organic Waste for Production of Fungi for Soil Bioremediation

Solid-State Fermentation of Agricultural and

Food-Processing Wastes

Production of Fuel Ethanol

Production of Hydrogen, Methane, and Biodiesel

Production of Organic Fertilizer

Biorecovery of Metals from Mining and Industrial Wastes

Recovery of Phosphate and Ammonia

Chapter 21 Quiz

Biotreatment of Industrial Hazardous Wastes

Electron Donors and Acceptors in Biotreatments

Energetic Efficiency of Biooxidation–Bioreduction

Aerobic Treatment of Xenobiotics

Secondary Hazardous Waste

Treatment of Wastewater with Low Concentrations of Hazardous Substances

Biodegradation Using Co-oxidation/Cometabolism

Combination of Aerobic Treatment with Other Treatments

Biotreatment of Hazardous Waste by Anaerobic Fermenting Bacteria

Landfilling of Hazardous Solid Waste

Combined Anaerobic/Aerobic Biotreatment of Hazardous Industrial Waste

Optimization of Hazardous Waste Biodegradation

Optimal Temperatures for Biodegradation of Hazardous Waste

Optimal pH for Biodegradation of Hazardous Waste

Enhancement of Biodegradation by Nutrients

Enhancement of Biodegradation by Growth Factors

Increase of Bioavailability of Contaminants

Enhancement of Biodegradation by Enzymes

Enhancement of Biodegradation by Aeration and Oxygen Supply

Enhancement of Biodegradation by Oxygen Radicals

Enhancement of Biodegradation by Electron Acceptors Other Than Oxygen

Bioenhancement of the Treatment of Hazardous Waste

Application of Acclimated Microorganisms

Selection and Use of Pure Cultures

Construction of Microbial Communities

Construction of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms

Environmental Engineering Applications of Recombinant Strains of Microorganisms

Application of Microbial Aggregates and Immobilized Microorganisms

Chemical Gradients in Microbial Aggregates

Chapter 22 Quiz

Solid Wastes and Soil Biotreatment

Solid Wastes

Treatment of Solid Wastes


Biological Reactions of Decay in Landfills

Sewage Sludge Processing


Microbiology of Composting

Bulking Agents

Types of Composting Systems

Optimal Parameters for Composting

Composting a Mixture of Wastes


Scale of Composting

Public Health Aspects of Composting

Odor Control in Composting

Composting of Hazardous Organic Wastes


Organic Matter in Soil

Microbial Activity and Soil

Soil and the Biodegradation of Xenobiotics

Toxic Pollutants of Soil

Sources of Soil Pollution

Leakage from Underground Storage Tank Facilities

Landfill Leachate


Soil and Groundwater Bioremediation

Landfarming, Land Treatment, and Plant Bioremediation

Onsite and In Situ Soil and Groundwater Bioremediation

Excavation and Composting of Contaminated Soil

Slurry-Phase Bioremediation in Bioreactors

Gas Cleaning

Pretreatment of Contaminated Soil

Steps in Microbial Culture Development for Slurry-Phase Bioremediation

Advantages of Soil Bioremediation

Disadvantages of Soil Bioremediation

Bioremediation and Biodecontamination of Construction Sites through Biocementation

Artificial Protective Geochemical Barrier

Chapter 23 Quiz

Construction Biotechnology


Bioagents Used in Construction Biotechnology

Construction Biotechnology Methods

Microbial Biogeotechnics

Reasons for Microbial Applications in Geotechnical Engineering

Major Applications of Microorganisms for Ground Improvement



Chemical Grouting


Microbial Processes for Bioclogging with Organic Material

Microbial Processes for Bioclogging with Inorganic Material

Clogging with Microbial Polysaccharides

Bacteria That Produce Clogging Polysaccharides

Clogging with Microbially Induced Precipitates


Microbial Processes of Bioclogging and Biocementation with Inorganic Compounds

Microbially Induced Calcium Carbonate Precipitation

Geotechnical Applications of Biocementation

Problems of Microbial Cementation and Clogging

Physiological Grouping of Chemotrophic Prokaryotes

Screening of Microorganisms for Bioclogging and Biocementation

Application of Anaerobic Fermenting Bacteria in Biogeotechnics

Application of Anoxic Bacteria in Biogeotechnics

Application of Facultative Anaerobic Bacteria in Biogeotechnics

Application of Microaerophilic Bacteria in Biogeotechnics

Application of Aerobic Bacteria in Biogeotechnics

General Considerations on Bacterial Applicability in Geotechnics

Biosafety in Biogeotechnics

Soil Biotreatment Procedures

Biocement and Biogrout Production Biotechnologies

Inoculum for Biotreatment of Soil

Use of Indigenous Microorganisms in Soil for Biocementation

Medium for Microbial Cultivation

Soil Biotreatment

Microbial Admixtures

Construction Bioplastics

Chapter 24 Quiz

Microbiology of Air and Air Treatment


Sources of Bioaerosols

Viral Aerosols

Bacterial Aerosols

Fungal Aerosols


Pollen Grain Aerosols

Concentration of Aerosols

Bioaerosol Sampling

Bioaerosols and Indoor Air Quality

Fate of Bioaerosols in the Environment

Bioaerosols from Wastewater Treatment, Spray Irrigation, and Biotechnological Plants

Odors Generated by Wastewater Treatment Plants

Treatment of Odorous and Exhaust Gases

Aerobic Biotechnological Treatment of Hazardous Waste Gas

Biotreatment of Toxic Gas

Chapter 25 Quiz

Biodeterioration, Biocorrosion, and Biofouling

Microbial Biodeterioration

Deterioration of Cultural Heritage

Microbially Influenced Corrosion

Microbial Formation of Acids

Biofouling of Membranes

Membrane Treatments of Water and Wastewater

Mechanisms of Membrane Fouling

Types of Foulants

Fouling Control

Chapter 26 Quiz

Outline and Summary of the Course "Environmental Microbiology for Engineers"

Course Outline

Summary of the Course "Environmental Microbiology for Engineers"


Static Biochemistry

Dynamic Biochemistry

Biooxidation and Bioreduction


Molecular Biology and Genetics

Bioagents of Environmental and Engineering Bioprocesses

Reproduction, Proliferation, and Growth

Microbial Ecology

Classifications of Viruses, Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

Physiological Classification of Prokaryotes

Groups of Prokaryotes

Public Health and Water Disinfection

Biotechnological Processes

Aquatic Ecosystems and Water Treatment

Anaerobic and Anoxic Wastewater Treatment

Aerobic Wastewater Treatment

Value-Added By-Products of Environmental Engineering

Solid Waste Biotreatment

Soil Bioremediation

Construction Biotechnology

Microbiology of Air and Air Treatment

Biodeterioration, Biocorrosion, and Biofouling


Tutorial 1: Microorganisms: Cell Size and Shape

Tutorial 2: Cell Chemistry and Structure

Tutorial 3: Metabolism and Biodegradation

Tutorial 4: Growth and Ecology

Tutorial 5: Anaerobic Processes

Tutorial 6: Aerobic Processes

Tutorial 7: Solid Waste Biotreatment

Tutorial 8: Construction Biotechnology

Exam Question Bank

About the Author

Volodymyr Ivanov earned his doctor of biological sciences degree in microbiology and biotechnology from the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. His professional experience includes 40 years of teaching and research in microbiology and biotechnology at various universities of Europe, Asia, and the USA. Dr. Ivanov has published 200 papers, eight patents, eight scientific monographies, and 20 book chapters. His major scientific achievements are the theory of physiological dualism of a growing cell existing in both exotrophic and endotrophic states, the revelation of a multicellular bacterial granule as a proto-organism, the periodic table of physiological classification of prokaryotes, and the establishment of construction biotechnology as a new scientific discipline.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Biology / Microbiology
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply