1st Edition

Environmental Risk Assessment A Toxicological Approach

By Ted Simon Copyright 2014
    406 Pages 29 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    The purpose of risk assessment is to support science-based decisions about how to solve complex societal problems. The problems we face in the twenty-first century have many social, political, and technical complexities. Environmental risk assessment in particular is of increasing importance as a means of seeking to address the potential effects of chemicals in the environment in both the developed and developing world.

    Environmental Risk Assessment: A Toxicological Approach examines various aspects of problem formulation, exposure, toxicity, and risk characterization that apply to both human health and ecological risk assessment. The book is aimed at the next generation of risk assessors and students who need to know more about developing, conducting, and interpreting risk assessments. It delivers a comprehensive view of the field, complete with sufficient background to enable readers to probe for themselves the science underlying the key issues in environmental risk. Written in an engaging and lively style by a highly experienced risk assessment practitioner, the text:

    • Introduces the science of risk assessment—past, present, and future
    • Covers problem formation and the development of exposure factors
    • Explains how human epidemiology and animal testing data are used to determine toxicity criteria
    • Provides environmental sampling data for conducting practice risk assessments
    • Examines the use of in vitro and ‘omics methods for toxicity testing
    • Describes the political and social aspects of science-based decisions in the twenty-first century
    • Includes fully worked examples, case studies, discussion questions, and links to legislative hearings

    Readers of this volume will not only learn how to execute site-specific human health and ecological risk assessments but also gain a greater understanding of how science is used in deciding environmental regulations.


    Risk Assessment Paradigm from the 1983 Redbook-"Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process"

    Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) Part A 1989

    The Interface of Risk Assessment and Risk Management

    History of Risk Assessment in the US from 1990 to 2010

    Risk Communication and Stakeholder Participation

    Risk Assessment Policy and the Role of Science

    How Risk is Perceived and Expressed

    Actuarial Risk

    Predicted Risk

    Perceived Risk

    Risk Estimates for Regulation

    Uncertainty in Risk Estimates

    Uncertainty in Risk Management and the Precautionary Principle

    Human Health Exposure Assessment

    What are Receptors?

    How are Receptors Exposed to Environmental Stressors?

    Human Exposure Assessment

    Assessing Exposure Factors and Data

    Issues to Be Considered When Performing an Exposure Assessment

    The Concentration Term

    Fate and Transport Models

    Accounting For Uncertainty In Exposure Factors

    Toxicity Assessment for Human Health Risk Assessment

    Mode of Action and General Aspects of Toxicity

    Homeostasis and Thresholds

    Historical Perspective on Toxicity Testing

    Timescale and Nature of Adverse Effects

    Dose-Response Assessment

    Low Dose Extrapolation-Two Types of Toxicity Factors

    Computational Methods in Toxicity Assessment


    Accounting For Uncertainty in Toxicity Factors

    Toxicity Factors for Regulation

    Risk Characterization

    Hazard Quotient for Threshold Effects

    Risk Estimation for Non-Threshold Effects

    Cumulative and Aggregate Risk

    The Possibility of Compounding Conservatism in Both Exposure and Toxicity

    The Precautionary Principle

    Utility of Risk Characterization for Decision Making

    Ecological Risk Assessment

    Statutory Aspects of ERA at EPA and the Role of Natural Resource Trustees

    ERA Under REACH

    Ecological Risk Assessment as Practiced By EPA

    Methodology for ERA under REACH

    Science Policy of ERA

    The Future of Risk Assessment

    In Vitro Testing and ‘Omics-Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century

    Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessment

    Recommendations for Improving IRIS in the 2011 NAS Review of the Formaldehyde Risk Assessment

    Possible Future Scenarios for Risk Assessment: Scientific, Social and Political Factors in Societal Decision Making

    Appendix A: Useful Methods and Algorithms for Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA)


    Ted Simon, DABT earned advanced degrees in biology, including a Ph.D from Georgia State University, Atlanta, USA. After college, he held post-doctoral and teaching positions before serving as senior toxicologist in the Waste Management Division at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 4, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. His critically successful novel, A Lost Gun, was published under the nom de plume Wix Simon. He is currently working on another crime novel featuring an environmental poisoning situation inspired by his twelve years at the EPA. He also provides toxicology consulting and scientific support as principal/owner of Ted Simon LLC, Winston, Georgia, USA.

    "It delivers a comprehensive view of the field, complete with sufficient background to enable readers to probe for themselves the science underlying the key issues in environmental risk."
    International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry

    "This is an excellent book providing a text and reference that will enable students of risk assessment to approach the future with confidence about the state of their knowledge. Readers of this book will … gain a greater understanding of how science is used in deciding environmental regulation."
    —Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B