Environmental Science and Technology: A Sustainable Approach to Green Science and Technology, Second Edition, 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Environmental Science and Technology

A Sustainable Approach to Green Science and Technology, Second Edition, 2nd Edition

By Stanley E. Manahan

CRC Press

647 pages | 201 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2006-10-20
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Description

Formally established by the EPA nearly 15 years ago, the concept of green chemistry is beginning to come of age. Although several books cover green chemistry and chemical engineering, none of them transfer green principles to science and technology in general and their impact on the future. Defining industrial ecology, Environmental Science and Technology: A Sustainable Approach to Green Science and Technology provides a general overview of green science and technology and their essential role in ensuring environmental sustainability.

Written by a leading expert, the book provides the essential background for understanding green science and technology and how they relate to sustainability. In addition to the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere traditionally covered in environmental science books, this book is unique in recognizing the anthrosphere as a distinct sphere of the environment. The author explains how the anthrosphere can be designed and operated in a manner that does not degrade environmental quality and, in most favorable circumstances, may even enhance it.

With the current emphasis shifting from end-of-pipe solutions to pollution prevention and control of resource consumption, green principles are increasingly moving into the mainstream. This book provides the foundation not only for understanding green science and technology, but also for taking its application to the next level.

Table of Contents

SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH GREEN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Sustainability

Natural Capital and the Quality of Life

Sustainability and the Common Good

The Master Equation

The Goals and Priorities of Green Science and Technology

Green Science

Green Technology

Life-Cycle Analysis

The Eco-Economy and Eco-Efficiency

Design for Environment

Green Products and Services

Twelve Principles of Green Science and Technology

THE FIVE ENVIRONMENTAL SPHERES

Introduction

The Hydrosphere

The Atmosphere

The Geosphere

The Biosphere

The Anthrosphere

Cycles of Matter

GREEN CHEMISTRY, BIOLOGY, AND BIOCHEMISTRY

Introduction

Introduction to Chemistry Atoms and Elements

Elements and the Periodic Table

Chemical Compounds and Chemical Bonds

Dealing with Matter Quantitatively: The Mole

Chemical Reactions and Equations

Physical Properties and States of Matter

Thermal Properties of Matter

Acids, Bases, and Salts

Organic Chemistry

Hydrocarbons

Green Chemistry

Cells: Basic Units of Life

Metabolism and Control in Organisms

Biochemicals and Biochemistry

WATER: A UNIQUE SUBSTANCE ESSENTIAL FOR LIFE

A Fantastic Molecule

Water as an Essential Resource

Occurrence of Water

Water Utilization

Standing Bodies of Water

Flowing Water

Groundwater

Impoundment and Transfer of Water

Water: A Very Useful Green Substance

Water Technology and Industrial Use

AQUATIC BIOLOGY, MICROBIOLOGY, AND CHEMISTRY

Organisms in Water

Life in the Ocean

Life at the Interface of Seawater with Fresh Water and with Land

Freshwater Life

Microorganisms in Water

Microorganisms and Elemental Transitions

Acid-Base Phenomena in Aquatic Chemistry

Phase Interactions and Solubility

Oxidation-Reduction

Metal Ions and Calcium in Water

Complexation and Speciation of Metals

KEEPING WATER GREEN

Water Pollution: Green Water May Not Be So Green

Nature and Types of Water Pollutants

Heavy Metals

Inorganic Water Pollutants

Organic Water Pollutants

Pesticides in Water

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

Radioactive Substances in Water

Municipal Water Treatment

Treatment of Water for Industrial Use

Wastewater Treatment

Water as a Green Resource

Alternative Green Uses of Water

Water Technology and Industrial Use

Hot Water

Supercritical Water

THE ATMOSPHERE: A PROTECTIVE BLANKET AROUND US

Living at the Bottom of a Sea of Gas

Composition of the Atmosphere

The Properties of Gases

The Atmosphere as a Medium for the Transfer of Mass and Energy

Meteorology

Weather

Climate

Microclimate

Atmospheric Particles

The Atmosphere as a Reservoir of Natural Capital

ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY OF THE ATMOSPHERE

Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry

Photochemical Processes

Chain Reactions in the Atmosphere

Oxidation Processes in the Atmosphere

Acid-Base Reactions in the Atmosphere

Air Pollution

Environmental Fate and Transport in the Atmosphere

Reactions of Atmospheric Oxygen

Carbon Oxides

Reactions of Atmospheric Nitrogen and its Oxides

Sulfur Compounds in the Atmosphere

Fluorine, Chlorine, and their Gaseous Inorganic Compounds Water in Atmospheric Chemistry

Atmospheric Particles and Atmospheric Chemistry

Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere

Photochemical Smog

SUSTAINING AN ATMOSPHERE FOR LIFE ON EARTH

Blue Skies for a Green Earth

Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming

Green Science and Technology to Alleviate Global Warming

Drought and Desertification

Green Science and Technology to Combat Desertification

Acid Precipitation

Green Remedies for Acid Precipitation

Stratospheric Ozone Destruction

Green Solutions to Stratospheric Ozone Destruction

Photochemical Smog

Catastrophic Atmospheric Events

Literature Cited

THE GEOSPHERE

The Geosphere

The Nature of Solids in the Geosphere

The Restless Earth

Sediments

Interaction with the Atmosphere and Hydrosphere

Life Support by the Geosphere

Geochemistry

Water on and in the Geosphere

Economic Ecology

Geospheric Resources

Geospheric Sources of Useful Minerals

Evaluation of Mineral Resources

Extraction and Mining

Metals

Nonmetal Mineral Resources

How Long Will Essential Minerals Last?

Green Sources of Minerals

SOIL, AGRICULTURE, AND FOOD PRODUCTION

Agriculture

Soil: Essential for Life, Key to Sustainability

Soil Formation and Horizons

Soil Macrostructure and Microstructure

Inorganic and Organic Matter in Soil

Nutrients and Fertilizers in Soil

Soil and the Biosphere

Wastes and Pollutants in Soil

Soil Loss and Deterioration

Soil Conservation and Restoration

Shifting Cultivation: Slash and Burn

Process Intensification in Agriculture

Sustainable Agricultural Management

Agroforestry

Protein from Plants and Animals

Agricultural Applications of Genetically Modified Organisms

GEOSPHERIC HAZARDS AND SUSTAINING A GREEN GEOSPHERE

Managing the Geosphere

Earthquakes

Volcanoes

Surface Processes

The Vulnerable Coasts

Engineering Geology

The Cryosphere and Vanishing Permafrost

Construction in the Geosphere

Digging in the Dirt

Modifying the Geosphere to Manage Water

Derelict Lands and Brownfields: Recycling Land

THE BIOSPHERE: ECOSYSTEMS AND BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES

Life and the Biosphere

Organisms and Green Science and Technology

Ecology and Life Systems

What is a Biological Community?

Physical Characteristics and Conditions

Effects of Climate

Species

Populations

Survival of Life Systems, Productivity, Diversity, and Resilience

Relationships Among Species

Changing Communities

Human Effects

Human Actions to Preserve and Improve Life on Earth

Laws and Regulations

Organisms Interacting with Foreign Chemicals

Biodegradation

TOXIC FFECTS ON ORGANISMS AND TOXICOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY

Toxic Substances and Green Science and Technology

Dose-Response Relationships

Relative Toxicities

Reversibility and Sensitivity

Xenobiotic and Endogenous Substances

Kinetic Phase and Dynamic Phase

Teratogenesis, Mutagenesis, Carcinogenesis, Immune System Effects, and Reproductive Effects

Health Hazards

BIOPRODUCTIVITY FOR A GREENER FUTURE

From Biomaterials to Petroleum and Back Again

Types of Biomaterials

Plant Productivity

Genetic Material and its Manipulation

Genetic Engineering

Biomaterials and Their Processing

Feedstocks

Glucose Feedstock

Cellulose Feedstock

Lignin Feedstock

Chemical Production by Biosynthesis

Direct Biosynthesis of Polymers

THE ANTHROSPHERE AS PART OF THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT

The Earth as Made by Humans

Constructs in the Anthrosphere

Anthrospheric Flows

Anthrospheric Conduits

Infrastructure

Transportation

The Communications Revolution

Technology and Engineering

Acquisition of Raw Materials

Agriculture -The Most Basic Industry

Industries

Materials Science

Automation

Robotics

Computers and Technology

Thinking Small: Micromachines and Nanotechnology

High Tech

INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE UTILIZATION

Introduction

The Old, Unsustainable Way

Earth Systems Engineering and Management

The Emergence of Industrial Ecology

The Five Major Components of an Industrial Ecosystem

Industrial Metabolism

Materials Flow and Recycling in an Industrial Ecosystem

The Kalundborg Industrial Ecosystem

Environmental Impacts and Wastes

Three Key Attributes: Energy, Materials, Diversity

Life Cycles: Expanding and Closing the Materials Loop

Life-Cycle Assessment

Consumable, Recyclable, and Service (Durable) Products

Design for Environment

Inherent Safety

Twelve Principles of Green Engineering

ADEQUATE, SUSTAINABLE ENERGY: KEY TO SUSTAINABILITY

Introduction

Nature of Energy

Sources of Energy Used in the Anthrosphere

Energy Devices and Conversions

Green Technology and Energy Conversion Efficiency

The Energy Problem

World Energy Resources

Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Sources

Petroleum and Natural Gas

Carbon Sequestration for Fossil Fuel Utilization

Nuclear Energy

Geothermal Energy

The Sun: An Ideal, Renewable Energy Source

Hydrogen as a Means to Store and Utilize Energy

Energy From Moving Air and Moving Water

Biomass Energy

Combined Power Cycles

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
NAT011000
NATURE / Environmental Conservation & Protection
SCI013000
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science