This book is based on an international symposium on the Ergonomics of Working Postures, at Zadar. It explores fairly specific areas of occupational ergonomics with the purpose of drawing together major current trends.
Section 1: Postural risk factors and disease 1. Muscle load and illness associated with constrained body postures 2. Musculo-skclctal disorders (and discomfort) and associated work factors 3. Cumulative trauma disorders of the hand and wrist in industry 4. A pilot study of postural characteristics of jobs associated with an elevated risk of rotor cuff tendinitis 5. Risk factors for work-related disorders of the neck and shoulder—with special emphasis on working postures and movements Section 2: Methods for measuring body posture 6. Upper-extremity posture: definition, measurement and control 7. Dynamic measurements of trunk movements during work tasks 8. Development and evaluation of a new instrument for the measurement of work postures; in particular the inclination of the head and the spinal column 9. Measurement of regional lumbar sagittal mobility and posture by means of a flexible curve 10. Method to measure working posture loads at working sites (OWAS) Section 3: Models of posture 11. Optimizing occupational muscular stress of the neck and shoulder 12. Muscular coordination in working postures 13. A model to predict recovery from maximal and submaximal isometric exercise 14. Intramuscular changes during long-term contraction 15. Biomechanical model calculations of spinal stress for different working postures in various workload situations 16. Influence of posture 011 muscle contraction behaviour in arm and leg ergometry 17. The influence of under- and overstimulation on sitting posture Section 4: Measures of the effects of posture 18. Influence parameters and assessment methods for evaluating body postures 19. Torque of the dorsal erectors and the compressive load on the L5/S1 disc at inclined postures and when lifting 20. Change of stature as an indicator of loads on the spine 21. ARBAN — A force ergonomic analysis method 22. A postural load evaluation technique: based on energy expenditure, heart rate and subjective appreciation 23. A technique for postural load assessment 24. Comparison of some indices of postural load assessment 25. Posture recording by direct observation, questionnaire assessment and instrumentation: a comparison based on a recent held study 26. Cooperation between ergonomists and workers in the study of posture in order to modify work conditions Section 5: Seats and sitting 27. Loads on the spine during sitting 28. Experimental and biomechanical analysis of seating 29. Biomechanical, electromyographical and radiological study of seated postures 30. Investigation of the lumbar flexion of office workers 31. Chair and table adjustments for seated work 32. Experimental analysis of a visuo-postural system in an office workstation Section 6: Two case studies 33. Postural change due to adaptations of a sewing workstation 34. Cost-benefit analysis of work environment investment at STK's telephone plant at Kongsvinger