Essential Oils: Contact Allergy and Chemical Composition provides a full review of contact allergy to essential oils along with detailed analyses of the chemical composition of essential oils known to cause contact allergy. In addition to literature data, this book presents the results of nearly 6,400 previously unpublished sample analyses, by far the largest set of essential oils analyses ever reported in a single source of scientific literature.
Covering 91 essential oils and two absolutes, the book presents an alphabetical list of all 4,350 ingredients that have been identified in them, a list of chemicals known to cause contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis, and tabular indications of the ingredients that can be found in each essential oil.
The book discusses contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis for each of the oils and absolutes, sometimes able to provide only one or two reports but drawing upon considerable amounts of literature in other cases, such as with tea tree oil, ylang-ylang oil, lavender oil, rose oil, turpentine oil, jasmine absolute, and sandalwood oil.
While limited information on the main components and their concentrations would be enough for most dermatologists, this book gives extensive coverage not only to improve levels of medical knowledge and quality of patient care, but also for the benefit of professionals beyond clinical study and practice, such as chemists in the perfume and cosmetics industries, perfumers, academic scientists working with essential oils and fragrances, aromatherapists, legislators, and those involved in the production, sale, and acquisition of essential oils.
- Provides a full literature review of contact allergy to and chemical composition of 91 essential oils and two absolutes
- Presents the largest set of analytical reports on essential oils in scientific literature to date
- Provides tables of all chemicals which can be found in each essential oil with concentrations
- Presents an alphabetical list of 4,350 ingredients identified in the oils and absolutes with their synonyms and specifying in which oils each chemical can be present
- Provides a tabular list of all known allergens to the oils discussed
- Includes reference tables on the quantitative composition of essential oils that are of regulatory use to the fragrance industry
- Covers an extensive amount of information to benefit non-medical professionals involved with the research, production, distribution, and use of essential oils and products containing essential oils
Table of Contents
Why a Book on Contact Allergy to and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils?
Contact Allergy to Essential Oils: A Survey of Oils and Plants
Chemical Composition of Essential Oils: Data Provided
Essential Oils: General Aspects
What Are Essential Oils?
Products Obtained from Plants Which Are Not Essential Oils
What Are Essential Oils Used For?
Production of Essential Oils
Chemistry of Essential Oils
Factors Influencing the Composition of Essential Oils
Analysis of Essential Oils
Quality, Purity and Adulteration of Essential Oils
Contact Allergy to Essential Oils: General Aspects
Essential Oils Which Have Caused Contact Allergy
Frequency of Contact Allergy to Essential Oils
Clinical Relevance of Positive Patch Test Reactions to Essential Oils
Reports of Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Essential Oils
Clinical Picture of Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Essential Oils
Products Responsible for Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Essential Oils
Occupational Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Essential Oils
Co-Reactivity to Other Test Substances in Patients Reacting to Essential Oils
Analytical Investigation of the Components of Essential Oils Which Have Caused Allergic Contact Dermatitis
The Allergens in Essential Oils
Patch Testing with Essential Oils and Their Ingredients
Chemicals Identified in Essential Oils Which Have Caused Contact Allergy
Chemical Composition of and Contact Allergy to Essential Oils
Introduction to the Oil Chapters
Angelica Fruit Oil
Angelica Root Oil
Basil Oil, Sweet
Black Cumin Oil
Black Pepper Oil
Carrot Seed Oil
Cassia Bark Oil
Cassia Leaf Oil
Cedarwood Oil, Atlas
Cedarwood Oil, China
Cedarwood Oil, Texas
Cedarwood Oil, Virginia
Chamomile Oil, German
Chamomile Oil, Roman
Cinnamon Bark Oil, Sri Lanka
Cinnamon Leaf Oil, Sri Lanka
Citronella Oil, Java
Citronella Oil, Sri Lanka
Clary Sage Oil
Clove Bud Oil
Clove Leaf Oil
Clove Stem Oil
Coriander Fruit Oil
Costus Root Oil
Dwarf Pine Oil
Eucalyptus Citriodora Oil
Eucalyptus Globulus Oil
Galbanum Resin Oil
Jasminum Grandiflorum Absolute
Jasminum Sambac Absolute
Juniper Berry Oil
Laurel Leaf Oil
Lavandin Abrial Oil
Lavandin Grosso Oil
Lavandin Oil (Other Cultivars and Cultivar Not Specified)
Lemongrass Oil, East Indian
Lemongrass Oil, West Indian
Litsea Cubeba Oil
Marjoram Oil (Sweet)
Melissa Oil (Lemon Balm)
Olibanum Oil (Frankincense Oil)
Orange Oil, Bitter
Orange Oil, Sweet
Petitgrain Bigarade Oil
Pine Needle Oil (Scots Pine Oil)
Sage Oil, Dalmatian
Sage Oil, Spanish
Silver Fir Oil
Spike Lavender Oil
Star Anise Oil
Tea Tree Oil
Thyme Oil, Spanish
Himalayan Cedarwood Oil
Chemicals in Essential Oils: Alphabetical List and Oils in Which They Have Been Identified
List of Synonyms
Anton C. de Groot, 1980-2002 dermatologist in private practice in two hospitals in ‘s-Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands. PhD 1988: Adverse Reactions to Cosmetics. Author of over 500 publications including 70 book chapters and 14 books, of which 4 are international (mainly for dermatologists) and 10 in Dutch for general practitioners, medical students, skin therapists, podiatrists/pedicures and (parents of) patients with atopic dermatitis. Regularly teaches dermatology to medical students at the University of Groningen. Member of the Editorial Board of the journal Dermatitis (specialized in contact allergy). Co-founder and former 10-year Editor-in-Chief of the Dutch Journal for Dermatology and Venereology.
Anton C. De Groot is an honourary member of the American Contact Dermatitis Society, he was specifically recognised for his contributions to the field through his series Monographs in Contact Allergy
Further information can be found on the author's website www.patchtesting.info
Erich Schmidt completed his studies in business economics at the Landshut University of Applied Sciences, Bavaria, Germany. Since he first began working with essential oils in a middle-sized German company that designed and produced perfume compositions, his interest in analyzing the compositions of essential oils increased. He eventually established an analytical laboratory and as the use of aromatherapy grew in Germany, he provided information about risks, safety evaluation, and genuineness of essential oils. In 1995 he was chosen as the German responsible representative of the International Organization for Standardization’s Technical Committee 54, Essential Oils. Since 2005, he has authored or coauthored more than 90 publications in numerous journals, and contributed two chapters to the Handbook of Essential Oils.
" 'Essential Oils – contact allergy and chemical composition'... can be very helpful not only to dermatologists, but also for other professionals, such as chemists working in the perfumery and cosmetic industry, academic scientists working with essential oils and fragrances, aromatherapists, legislators, and those involved in the production, sale, and acquisition of essential oils.
Unique features of the book are included in the final chapters:
A table of all chemicals which can be found in each essential oil with concentrations.
An alphabetical list of 4,350 ingredients identified in the oils and absolutes, with their synonyms and CAS numbers, specifying in which oils each chemical can be present.
A book that represents a 'must to have' for all of us involved in the fascinating world of essential oils."
– Luigi Mondello, for the Journal of Essential Oil Research, November 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10412905.2016.1245825.
‘Every dermatologist who patch tests his or her dermatitis patients with more than only the European baseline series, should have, according to the reviewer, a copy of this book. It will be the standard for this subject for a very long time. The book should also be useful to academic scientists working in the field of essential oils and fragrances, cosmetic chemists, analytical chemists, perfumers, aromatherapists, and legislators.’
– T.L. Diepgen, Heidelberg, for Dermatologie in Beruf und Umwelt, 2017;65(1):41.
‘This interesting book, written by two well-known scientists, results a fundamental tool to be kept in the library as consultant mean useful not only for all students of the chemical and medical community, but also for dermatologists and cosmetic chemists, who wish to know the chemical composition of the more known essential oils and understand their capacity to cause possible contact allergy. … I think that also this book will represent a milestone for Dermatologists and Cosmetic Chemists. This is my hope.’
– P. Morganti, J. Appl. Cosmetol., 34. 158-160 (July / December 2016).