First published in 1998, this volume considers the Nuremberg Code in light of new ethical grey areas which have become evident due to recent scientific advancements, particularly the questions of DNA and cloning. The contributors reflect in 26 articles on the impact of the Code, events which prompted it including Japan, and more recent ethical issues raised. The book contains the results of two European/American preparatory workshops for the First World Conference on Ethics Codes in Medicine and Biotechnology (October 1997 Freiburg, Germany) supported by the leading national institutions in the field. It aims to stimulate research about codes, the effects of codification and other forms of implementing ethics. It breaks new ground with interdisciplinary and international discourse on the subject, emphasising the need for a complete collection of codes for systematic research and evaluation and filling the gap in literature on the subject to date.
Part 1. Ethics Codes in Medicine: Historical, Legal and Philosophical Aspects. 1. The Invention of Hippocrates: Oath, Letters and Hippocratic Corpus. Karl-Heinz Level. 2. Medical Science and Ethics before 1947. Anne-Marie Moulin. 3. Ethical Conduct and Ethical "Norms" up to 1947. Etienne Lepicard. 4. The Nuremberg Code in Light of Previous Principles and Practices in Human Experimentation. David J. Rothman. 5. The Medical Experiments in Nazi Concentration Camps. Bernard Kanovitch. 6. The Nuremberg Code: The Proceedings in the Medical Case, the Ten Principles of Nuremberg and the Lasting Effect of the Nuremberg Code. Erwin Deutsch. 7. The "Nuremberg Code": Rules of Public International Law. Pascal Arnold and Dominique Sprumont. 8. The Disturbed Equilibrium Between Science, Myths and Medicine: Towards a New Rationalism? Maurice A. M. de Wachter. 9. Scientific Progress in Socio-Cultural Context: Natural Science, Medicine and Myth after Nuremberg. Dietrich von Engelhardt. 10. Crimes against Humanity: The Forgotton History of Japan. Rihito Kimura. 11. The Inclusion of the Ten Principles of Nuremberg in Professional Codes of Ethics: An International Comparison. Gonzalo Herranz. 12. The Nuremberg Code Turns Fifty. William J. Winslade and Todd L. Krause. 13. Ethical "Norms" and the Law: Legitimacy of "Experts" and Democratic Legitimacy. Bertrand Mathieu. 14. The Interrelationship between Ethical Codes and the Law: "Legitimacy" Seen from the British Point of View. Paul Honigman. 15. The Genome Project: Legal and Ethical Thoughts for Coping with Problems to Come. Joel Levi and Markus Plantholz. Part 2. The Paradigm Shift in Medical Ethics: Patients’ Rights, Education, Institutions. 16. The Paradigm Shift in Health Care and the Patient-Physician Relationship from an American Perspective. Ronald A. Carson. 17. Means and Ways for the Protection of Patients in France. Jean Michaud. 18. The Paradigm Shift in Health Care and the Patient-Health Professional Relationship. J. Stuart Horner. 19. Paradigm Changes in Health Care Systems and in Relations Between Patients and (Para)medical Professions in Italy. Antonio Spagnolo. 20. The Recognition of Patients’ Rights, Especially the Mentally Ill, by International Organizations and in the Jurisprudence of the European Convention on Human Rights. Thomaïs Douraki. 21. Answers to Change: The Problem of Paradigm Shift in Medical Ethics from the German Perspective. Stella Reiter-Theil. Part 3. Ethics and Medicine for the 21st Century: The Quest for New Codes. 22. Looking for New Codes in the Field of Predictive Medicine. Luis Archer. 23. Allocation of Limited Resources and Equity. Göran Hermerén. 24. The Quitable Allocation of Limited Resources. Carmen Rauch, Jean-Paul Moatti and Jean-François Mattéï. 25. Transcultural Medical Ethics and Human Rights. Robert Baker. 26. Medical Ethics and Human Rights in South America. Horacio Riquelme.