Europe on Trial explores the history of collaboration, retribution, and resistance during World War II. These three themes are examined through the experiences of people and countries under German occupation, as well as Soviet, Italian, and other military rule. Those under foreign rule faced innumerable moral and ethical dilemmas, including the question of whether to cooperate with their occupiers, try to survive the war without any political involvement, or risk their lives by becoming resisters. Many chose all three, depending on wartime conditions. Following the brutal war, the author discusses the purges of real or alleged war criminals and collaborators, through various acts of violence, deportations, and judicial proceedings at the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal as well as in thousands of local courts. Europe on Trial helps us to understand the many moral consequences both during and immediately following World War II.
Introduction 1 From Brutality to International Conventions to Renewed Brutality: Foreign Occupations in European History 2 Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Poland: The First German Conquests A Perfect Union Without Firing a Shot To the Last Bullet 3 Defeat and Submission: Europe's Honeymoon with Hitler, 1939-1941 Toward a "Great Germanic" Brotherhood? The Belgians and the French under German Rule Cozy Islanders The Pitfalls of Collaboration in the Balkans 4 The Invasion of the Soviet Union and East European Collaboration Caught Between Two Giants The Worst Place to Be: Ukraine during the War Toward a Turning Point in the Conflict 5 Germany's Many Allies: A Blessing or a Curse? The Allies of Germany and the "Final Solution" Mutual Jealousies and Suspicions Ethnic Cleansing Hitler's "Strong-Man" Allies 6 The Beginnings of German Decline: The Growth and Many Dilemmas of the Resistance Movements Life and Death in the Resistance The Resistance Press and Radio The Special Operations Executive (SOE) Resistance in the Countries Expecting British and American Liberation Helping Jews 7 Resistance and Civil War in Eastern, Southern, and Southeastern Europe The East European Tragedy Poland: An Extraordinary Case Polish and Jewish Resistance: A Difficult Relationship Resistance in the German-Occupied Parts of the Soviet Union Resistance and Chaos in the Balkans The Gorgopotamos Saga Slovakia and Transylvania 8 Freedom Fighters or Terrorists: Case Studies of Resistance and Reprisal The Via Rasella and the Ardeatine Cave The Oradour Tragedy Revenge and Ethnic Cleansing at Novi Sad 9 The End of the War, the Apparent Triumph of the Resistance Movements, and the First Retributions The End in Germany The Legacy of the German Resistance