Evidence-Based Productivity Improvement
A Practical Guide to the Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System (ProMES)
This new book explains the Productivity Measurement and Enhancement system (ProMES) and how it meets the criteria for an optimal measurement and feedback system. It summarizes all the research that has been done on productivity, mentioning other measurement systems, and gives detailed information on how to implement this one in organizations. This book will be of interest to behavioral science researchers and professionals who wish to learn more about the practical methods of measuring and improving organizational productivity.
Table of Contents
Preface. Part 1. The Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System (ProMES): An Introduction and Background. 1. The Value of Productivity Measurement. 2. Organizational Productivity: A Definition and Description. 3. Criteria for an Optimal Productivity Measurement and Feedback System. 4. The ProMES Approach: An Overview. 5. Theoretical Background Behind ProMES. 6. Comparison of ProMES to the Desireable Characteristics of a Measurement System. 7. Research Evidence Supporting ProMES. 8. Why ProMES Works. Part 2. How to Do ProMES in Your Organization. 9. Laying the Foundation: The Conditions Necessary for ProMES. 10. Key Decision Points when Starting System Development. 11. Developing Objectives and Indicators. 12. Developing Contingencies. 13. The Feedback System. 14. Getting the Complete Picture: Aggregation Across Units. 15. Tips on Implementing ProMES. 16. Automating Data Collection and Feedback Reporting. Part 3. Questions and Answers about ProMES. 17. Questions and Answers about ProMES: General Issues. 18. Questions and Answers about ProMES: Measurement. 19. Questions and Answers About ProMES: Feedback Reports and Meetings. Part 4. Other Productivity Improvement Techniques and Other ProMES Applications. 20. ProMES and Other Productivity Techniques. 21. Other Applications of ProMES. Conclusion. Appendixes A. Scholarly Work on ProMES. B. Description of the Indicator Classification System Categories. C. Examples of ProMES Objectives and Indicators. D. ProMES Contingency Worksheet. E. Template for Developing Contingencies.
Robert D. Pritchard received his bachelor's degree in Psychology from UCLA in 1966 and his Ph.D. in 1969 from the University of Minnesota, specializing in Industrial-Organizational Psychology. He was Assistant and later Associate Professor of Psychology at Purdue University from 1969-1977. He was Professor of Psychology at the University of Houston from 1977-1988 where he also served as the Director of the Industrial and Organizational Psychology Program. He was Professor of Psychology and Management at Texas A&M University from 1988-2003 and was the Director of the Industrial and Organizational Psychology there from 1988-1997. From Fall of 2003 to the present, he has been Professor of Psychology and Management at the University of Central Florida. He has received several research awards such as the SIOP dissertation award and the SIOP Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award. He is a Fellow in SIOP, the American Psychological Association, and in the American Psychological Society, has been Chairman of the Society of Organizational Behavior and President of the Houston Association of Industrial and Organizational Psychologists. He has been on the editorial boards of professional journals, and was the Editor of the SIOP Organizational Frontiers book series. He was a member of the Commission on Incentives and Productivity for the state of Texas for five years and has been appointed to the Board of Directors of the International Foundation for Research in Performance Management Systems. His primary interests are measuring and improving organizational effectiveness and understanding and assessing motivation. He has worked on enhancing productivity and effectiveness with organizations in the United States and abroad. He was a member of a National Research Council panel reporting on organizational productivity. He has published in the areas of motivation and productivity, including numerous articles and nine books. He has given workshops, symposia, and other presentations on his productivity work in the US, Canada, England, the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Finland, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Spain, the Czech Republic, Sweden, New Zealand, and Russia.
Sallie J. Weaver completed this work as a doctoral candidate in the Industrial and Organizational Psychology program at The University of Central Florida (UCF). She earned a B.S. in Psychology with a certificate in Performance Management from The Florida State University and an M.S. in Industrial/Organizational Psychology from UCF. Sallie is a senior graduate research associate at the Institute for Simulation and Training where her stream of research focuses on team performance processes, team effectiveness, and performance measurement, with an emphasis in healthcare and patient safety. Sallie is also the recipient of the 2009 Thayer & Joyce Graduate Fellowship awarded by the Society for Industrial/Organizational Psychology and the 2009 Doctoral Scholarship awarded by the National Training and Simulation Association via the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference. Sallie is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. She also holds an appointment with the Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality.
Elissa L. Ashwood is president and Chief Strategist of Strategy 42, a private practice specializing in personal and management strategy. Named for the ultimate answer to the ultimate question of life, the universe and everything in Douglas Adam’s Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, 42 is short for the unique mix of things that really matter to her clients. Her combination of award-winning performance research, structured problem-solving and operational design expertise - with a heart - helps individuals and organizations identify and achieve their priorities. Elissa’s breadth of leadership experience includes roles as a Finance and HR executive at Citibank, American Express and AIG, as a McKinsey & Co. consultant and as a published author. She is often described as a role model of work-family balance. Her success in developing leaders and improving some of the best organizations in the world makes her a valued career and management advisor.
"ProMES is simply one of applied psychology’s premier achievements. As a method of organizational development it has no equal in terms of utilizing sound theory, previous research, careful measurement, and systematic implementation procedures to achieve performance improvements for a wide variety of organizations and organizational units. In the course of using ProMES, an organization must very explicitly articulate its goals, develop measures for assessing goal achievement, and relate the utility of goal achievement to standards of organizational effectiveness. The efficacy of ProMES is based on 30 years of programmatic research and practice; and this volume tells the entire story. It represents our finest example of evidence-based management and organizational development." - John P. Campbell, Professor of Psychology, University of Minnesota
"Searching for ways to improve productivity has engaged leaders, managers, teachers, and everyone else concerned with human performance for hundreds of years. Not surprisingly, large numbers of methods for productivity improvement have been proposed and adopted. Some have captured our attention for a while, but few have done so for long, and even fewer have been carefully scrutinized by the standards of our science. The productivity measurement and enhancement system (ProMES) is the rare exception. Robert Pritchard, his students, and colleagues in industry and government, have developed, implemented, refined, and then meticulously documented the effectiveness of ProMES. This 25-year effort meets the highest standards of those who demand evidence for claims of impact on productivity improvement. The success of ProMES can be attributed to grounding the system in well-established psychological principles providing practices and procedures that incorporate these principles into the behavioral routines of people at work. The evidence is clear; ProMES works." - Daniel R. Ilgen, John A. Hannah Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Michigan State University
"ProMES is a science-based process for developing more effective organizations. This book shows how ProMES can help managers build purpose-driven, evidence-based organizations. I highly recommend this book for practitioners, consultants, and students interested in this excellent process." - Denise M. Rousseau, Heinz College and Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University
"This book describes a 30-year research program on ways of measuring and improving an organization's productivity through a straightforward intervention, namely, the Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System (ProMES). This book does something rarely achieved; It combines theory, research, and practical application. Specifically, this book describes the theory behind the intervention, the extensive amount of research supporting its effectiveness, and most importantly, gives highly detailed information on how to implement this intervention in different organizational settings. In short, this is an outstanding example of evidence-based management. Practitioners will love it." - Gary Latham, Secretary of State Professor of Organizational Effectiveness, Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto