1st Edition

Evolution and Speciation in Plants

By T. J. Pandian Copyright 2022
    360 Pages 2 Color & 80 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    360 Pages 2 Color & 80 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Plants are autotrophs and sessile, while animals are heterotrophs and motile. Sessility has imposed on plants 94% hermaphroditism, 23% selfing, 3% polyploidization and 39% clonality, in comparison to < 5% herma-phroditism, < 1% selfing and 2% clonality in motile animals. Whereas plants consist of 374,000 species but 1,664 variety/species, animals comprise 1,543,196 species and 210 variety/species. Hence, plants have undergone variety diversity, while animals have species diversity. In animals and plants, the species ratio is reduced from 4.1 animals : 1.0 plant to 1.4 for pollinating animals : 1.0 pollinated plants. In pollination, animals are benefited dietarily but plants are cross pollinated, generating new gene combinations – the raw material for evolution and speciation. For the reduced species diversity in plants, reasons are traced to 90% hermaphroditism, ~ 23% selfing and 39% clonality. Clonality decreases from 100% in 6-7 tissue typed sponges and 3 tissue typed algae drastically to 0.7% in 60 tissue typed worms but gradually to ~ 23% in 60 tissued typed angiosperms. About 12-15, 5-8 and 77-80% of all animal and plant species are distributed in marine, freshwater and terrestrial habitats, respectively. Animals have conserved the ‘right’ sequence of gametogenesis but plants have gone through a ‘wrong’ sequence prior to settling with right one albeit with double fertilization in angiosperms. Both animals and plants are 80% male heterogametics. Only 0.5% of them can afford semelparity. While 20 and 57% angiosperms are perennial trees and herbs, annual herbs make up 23% only. In all of them, 85, > 19 and < 1% are pollinated by fast flying animals, wind and water, respectively. Increasing pollen load enhances fruit- and seed-set. In contrast to animals, the life cycle of plants is direct but complicated. Unlike animals, plants have greatly contributed to weathering of rocks and the atmospheric gas composition during the geological past. From dormant spores and seeds of plants, life can be restored after thousands of years.

    1. General Introduction

    Part A: Environmental Factors

    2. Photosynthesis and Chemosynthesis

    3. Phototrophic Heterotrophy

    4. Spatial Distribution

    Part B: Life History Traits

    B1: Sexuality

    5. Monoecy: Reproductive Systems

    6. Dioecy and Sex Ratio

    7. Polyploids – Hybrids – Grafts

    8. Parthenogenesis – Apomixis

    9. Clonals and Stem Cells

    Part C: Gametogenesis and Fertilization

    10. Oogenesis and Spermatogenesis

    11. Heterogamety – Sex Genes

    12. Annuals – Herbs – Semelp

    13. Pollination and Coevolution

    14. Self- and Cross-Fertilization

    15. Spores – Seeds – Dispersal

    Part D: Germination and Development

    16. Germination and Recruitment

    17. Brooders and Vivipares

    18. Sex Determination

    19. Hormones and Differentiation

    Part E: Past, Present and Future

    20. Past: Weathering and Oxygenation

    21. Present: Conservation and Dormancy

    22. Future: Climate Change

    23. References


    T.J. Pandian, recipient of the S.S. Bhatnagar Prize, the highest Indian award for scientists, one of the ten National Professorships, has served as editor/member of editorial boards of many international journals. His books on Animal Energetics identify him as a prolific but precise writer. His five volumes on Sexuality, Sex Determination and Differentiation in Fishes, published by CRC Press, are ranked with five stars. He has authored a multi-volume series on Reproduction and Development of Aquatic Invertebrates, of which the volumes on Crustacea, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Prochordata, Annelida, Platyhelminthes and Minor Phyla have been published. The CRC Press has recently published his new book series on Evolution and Speciation in Animals. The second volume on Evolution and Speciation in Plants is presented here.