Examinations A Commentary
First Published in 1985, Examinations presents a balanced overview and commentary on all the main aspects of public examinations. The key themes are examinations and their context (historical, political, social, and educational); functions of examination (how they work); equity and fairness of the process; and future of public examinations. Recurring issues in the book are the tension between the need for common national standards and the need for diverse individuality and the conflict between competitive functions of examinations as instruments of selection and their descriptive function as reports on standards of performance. The author argues that the main aspects of examinations are not given a prominent place in the training of teachers though public examinations have widespread impact on society. This book will be an essential read for scholars and researchers of education, higher education and also for administrators and policy makers.
Introduction 1. Origins 2. Purposes 3. Who Is in Control? 4. What Do They Test? 5. Design and Production 6. The Examining Process 7. Techniques of Examining 8. Are They Fair? I Social Bias 9. Are They Fair? II Comparability 10. Standards 11. New Ventures: I recording personal Achievement 12. New Ventures: II Profiles, Graded Tests, Credit Accumulation 13. What of the Future? Bibliography Index