This is the first volume of a two-volume guide to designing, conducting and interpreting laboratory and field experiments in a broad range of topics associated with hydraulic engineering. Specific guidance is provided on methods and instruments currently used in experimental hydraulics, with emphasis on new and emerging measurement technologies and methods of analysis. Additionally, this book offers a concise outline of essential background theory, underscoring the intrinsic connection between theory and experiments. This book is much needed, as experimental hydraulicians have had to refer to guidance scattered in scientific papers or specialized monographs on essential aspects of laboratory and fieldwork practice.
The book is the result of the first substantial effort in the community of hydraulic engineering to describe in one place all the components of experimental hydraulics. Included is the work of a team of more than 45 professional experimentalists, who explore innovative approaches to the vast array of experiments of differing complexity encountered by today’s hydraulic engineer, from laboratory to field, from simple but well-conceived to complex and well-instrumented. The style of this book is intentionally succinct, making frequent use of convenient summaries, tables and examples to present information. All researchers, practitioners, and students conducting or evaluating experiments in hydraulics will find this book useful.
Table of Contents
1.1 Book Overview
1.2 The role of hydraulics experiments
1.4 Structure of volume I
2. Hydraulic Flows: Overview
2.2 Turbulent flows in hydraulic engineering
2.3 Turbulence mechanics: Concepts and descriptive frameworks
2.4 Open-channel flows
2.5 Complex flows
3.3 Dynamic similitude from flow equations
3.4 Water flow
3.5 Multi-pase flow and transport processes
3.6 Addressing similitude shortcomings
3.A. Appendix: Dimensional analysis
4. Selection and design of the experimental setup
4.1 The experimental process
4.2 Experimental setup components
4.3 Laboratory facilities
4.4 Instrument selection
4.5 From signals to data references
5. Experiment execution
5.1 Instrument-flow and facility-flow interactions
5.2 Conducting the experiment
5.3 Field experiments
5.4 Complex experiments
5.5 Interaction of experiments with numerical modeling
6. Data analysis
6.2 Basic concepts, terminology, and notation in probability and statistics
6.3 Descriptive statistics and exploratory data analysis
6.4 Hyphotheses, statistical significance, and interval estimates
6.7 Bayesian inference
6.8 Extended examples in regression
6.9 Classification analysis: Logistic regression, linear discrimination analysis, and tree classification
6.10 Machine (or statistical) learning approaches
6.11 Data conditioning: Time series and filtering
6.12 Time series and spectral analysis
6.13 Spatial interpolation, kriging, and spatial derivatives
6.14 Identification of coherent structures
6.15 Final comments
7. Uncertainty analysis for hydraulic measurements
7.2 Concepts and terminology
7.3 UA implementation
7.4 Uncertainty inferences using intercomparison experiments
7.5 Practical issues
8. Hydroinformatics applied to hydraulic experiments
8.3 Digital environmental observatories
Marian V. Muste is Research Engineer with the Iowa Institute of Hydroscience and Engineering, and Adjunct Professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Iowa. Dr. Muste’s areas of research include experimental river mechanics (laboratory and field investigations), instrumentation development and implementation (image-, acoustic-, and laser-based), uncertainty analysis, and hydroinformatics. He is author or co-author of more than 185 peer-reviewed journal and conference papers and 75 technical reports. Dr. Muste is expert for UNESCO’s International Hydrologic Program and World Meteorological Organization Commission for Hydrology projects. He was chair for the Experimental Methods and Instrumentation, and is a former Vice-president of the International Association of Hydro-Environmental Engineering and Research.
Dennis A. Lyn is Professor of Civil Engineering in the Lyles School of Civil Engineering at Purdue University. In addition to a general interest in statistical thinking and analysis of data, Dr. Lyn is specifically interested in turbulence, open-channel flows, sediment transport and scour phenomena, with applications to river engineering. Dr. Lyn served on the editorial boards of several hydraulics-focused journals and was Editor of the Journal of Hydraulic Engineering.
David M. Admiraal is an Associate Professor in the Civil Engineering Department at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln. His research expertise includes laboratory and field investigations of sediment transport, river hydraulics, and hydraulic structures. Most of his work incorporates experimental modeling. Dr. Admiraal has over 50 journal and conference publications in a wide variety of hydraulic engineering topics. He is actively involved in ASCE's Technical Committee on Hydraulic Measurements and Experimentation and has served as the chair of the committee. He has also acted as co-chair for two conferences on Hydraulic Measurements and Experimental Methods.
Robert Ettema is the Harold H. Short Professor at Colorado State University’s Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering. He actively conducts laboratory and field experiments in several areas of hydraulic engineering, including hydraulic structures, alluvial-channel hydraulics and cold-regions hydraulics. Dr. Ettema chaired the committee that prepared the monograph Hydraulic Modeling: Concepts and Practice, Manual 97, published by the American Society of Civil Engineers. His prior positions were as a professor at the University of Wyoming and the University of Iowa, where he has a member of IIHR—Hydroscience and Engineering.
Vladimir Nikora is the Sixth Century Chair in Environmental Fluid Mechanics at the School of Engineering, University of Aberdeen, UK. His main research areas relate to turbulent flows, sediment dynamics, hydraulic resistance, flow-biota interactions, and experimental methods. Dr. Nikora has served as Editor of IAHR Journal of Hydraulic Research and Associate Editor for AGU Water Resources Research and ASCE Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. He has been active contributor to IAHR Instrumentation Section as a member, secretary and Section Chair. Dr. Nikora is Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.
Marcelo H. Garcia is the M.T. Geoffrey Yeh Chair in Civil Engineering and Director of the "Ven Te Chow" Hydrosystems Laboratory at the University of Illinois-Urbana. His research interests are in rivers, sediment transport, environmental fluid mechanics and experimental techniques. His scholarship includes 4 books, 19 book chapters, and more than 150 peer-reviewed papers covering a wide range of fundamental and practical in hydraulics engineering. Dr. Garcia was Editor-in-chief of the ASCE Sedimentation Engineering Manual 110, served as Editor of the Journal of Hydraulic Research, and is recipient of numerous professional awards.