Researchers have revealed that real expertise, while applied to well-defined tasks with highly circumscribed contexts, often stretches beyond its routine boundaries. For example, a medical doctor may be called upon to diagnose a rare disease or perform emergency surgery outside his or her area of specialization because other experts are not available. Moreover, in some cases, the context for expertise is in a constant state of flux, such that no one case is identical. Expertise Out of Context is a culmination of some of the most insightful studies conducted by researchers in the fields of cognitive systems engineering and naturalistic decision making in the effort to better understand expertise and its development.
Born out of the Sixth International Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making, a conference that gathers researchers who study cognition, perception, and reasoning outside of the traditional laboratory, this book is organized in five parts, the first of which provides an overview of the topic and presents varied perspectives. Consequent sections cover how to make sense of things, tools for thinking out of context, how to cope with uncertainty in a changing workplace, and teams operating out of context.
As researchers in naturalistic decision making have investigated such areas as the knowledge and decision-making skills of expert firefighters, critical care nurses, military commanders, and aircraft pilots, this volume is of importance to an expansive audience, including individuals in business, government, industry, and society at large.
Contents: Part I: Overviews and Perspectives. R.R. Hoffman, Introduction: A Context for "Out of Context". E. Hunt, S. Joslyn, The Dynamics of the Relation Between Applied and Basic Research. C. Bonaceto, K. Burns, A Survey of the Methods and Uses of Cognitive Engineering. Part II: Making Sense of Things. L. Alison, E. Barrett, J. Crego, Pragmatic Research in Criminal Investigative Decision Making: Projects From the National Centre for the Study of Critical Incident Decision Making. R. Lipshitz, A. Sender, M. Omodei, J. McLennan, A. Wearing, What's Burning? The R.A.W.F.S. Heuristic on the Fire Ground. G. Klein, J.K. Phillips, E.L. Rall, D.A. Peluso, A Data/Frame Theory of Sensemaking. Part III: Tools for Thinking Out of Context. L. Militello, L. Quill, Strategies for Understanding a New Domain: Expert Apprentice vs. Incident-Based Methods. K. van den Bosch, M.M. deBeer, Play a Winning Game: The Implementation of Critical Thinking Training. H.N. Maier, K.H. Taber, Measurement of Initiative in High-Speed Tactical Decision Making. M.S. Cohen, L. Adelman, T.A. Bresnick, E. Salas, S. Riedel, Dialogue as Medium (and Message) for Training Critical Thinking: An Initial Test. Part IV: Coping With Uncertainty in a Changing Workplace. K. Burns, Improving Intuition With Bayesian Boxes: On Cognitive Difficulties in Combining Probabilities. S.G. Hutchins, P. Pirolli, S. Card, A New Perspective on Use of the Critical Decision Method With Intelligence Analysts. J.A. Ballas, Human Centered Computing for Tactical Weather Forecasting: An Example of the Moving Target Rule. S.S. Kirschenbaum, J.G. Trafton, E. Pratt, Comparative Cognitive Task Analysis. J.G. Trafton, R.R. Hoffman, Computer-Aided Visualization in Meteorology. D.W. Klinger, B.B. Hahn, E. Rall, Cognitive Task Analysis of the Warning Forecaster's Task: An Invitation for Human-Centered Technologies. Part V: Teams Out of Context. F.J. Brown, Applying NDM to World Security Needs: Perspectives of a US Military Practitioner. J. Graham, C. Gonzalez, M. Schneider, A Dynamic Network Analysis of an Organization With Expertise Out of Context. C.S. Burke, K. Hess, E. Salas, H. Priest, M. Paley, Preparing for Operation in Complex Environments: The Leadership of Multicultural Teams. W. Warwick, R.J.B. Hutton, Computational and Theoretical Perspectives on Recognition-Primed Decision Making. D.L. Harville, L.R. Elliott, C. Barnes, Analysis of Team Communication and Performance During Sustained Command and Control Operations. H.A. Klein, D. Steele-Johnson, Preparing for Multinational Collaboration: From the Laboratory to the Field. C.S. Burke, E. Salas, S. Estep, L. Pierce, Facilitation Team Adaptation `In The Wild:' A Theoretical Framework, Instructional Strategies, and Research Agenda.