Explaining Variation in Juvenile Punishment : The Role of Communities and Systems book cover
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Explaining Variation in Juvenile Punishment
The Role of Communities and Systems



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ISBN 9780367471866
July 27, 2021 Forthcoming by Routledge
184 Pages

 
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Book Description

This research monograph provides a comparative analysis of juvenile court outcomes, exploring the influence of contextual factors on juvenile punishment across systems and communities. In doing so, it investigates whether, how, and to what extent context influences variation in juvenile punishment across these systems and communities. The contextual hypotheses under investigation evaluate three prominent macro-structural theoretical approaches: the conflict-oriented perspective of community threats, the consensus-oriented perspective of social disorganization, and an organizational perspective of the political economy of the juvenile court.

Using multilevel modeling techniques, the study investigates these macro-social influences on juvenile justice outcomes across nearly 500 counties in seven states—Alabama, Connecticut, Missouri, Oregon, South Carolina, Texas, and Utah. Findings suggest that the macro-social indicators under investigation did not explain variation in juvenile court punishment across communities and systems, and the study proposes several implications for future research and policy.

This monograph is essential reading for scholars of juvenile justice system impact and reform as well as practitioners engaged in youth and juvenile justice work. It is unique in taking a comparative perspective that acknowledges that there is no one juvenile justice system in the United States, but many such systems.

Table of Contents

Introduction: The Context of Juvenile Punishment

The Present Study

Book Overview

References

Chapter 1: The Mission and History of Juvenile Justice

Origins of Juvenile Justice

The First Juvenile Court

Child Saving: The Interventionist Vision of Juvenile Justice

The Failure of the Interventionist Vision

The Due Process Revolution

The Criminalization of Juvenile Justice

A More Punitive Juvenile Court

The Developmental Turn: Juvenile Justice in the Twenty-First Century

Conclusion

References

Chapter 2: The Contemporary Structure of the Juvenile Justice System(s)

Juvenile Referrals

Preadjudication Detention

Intake Processing and Petition of Delinquency

Waiver to Criminal Court

Adjudication of Delinquency

Judicial Disposition

State Variation in Juvenile Justice Processing

References

Chapter 3: Why Might Context Matter? Theoretical Perspectives on Juvenile Justice

Theoretical Frameworks for Juvenile Justice

Sociopolitical perspectives

Organizational perspectives

Rational goals, functional systems, and institutional approaches

Loose and tight coupling

Contextual Theories of Juvenile Justice

Community threats

Social disorganization

Political economy

Conclusion

References

Chapter 4: Exploring the Influence of Community Characteristics: A Literature Review

Minority Threat

Economic Threat

Urbanism

Other Contextual Characteristics

Chapter 5: Data, Methods, and Analytical Approach

Research Hypotheses

Data and Sample

Measures

Dependent variables

Case-level independent variables

Contextual variables

Community threats

Social disorganization

Political economy

State-level descriptive statistics

Multicollinearity diagnostics

Analytical Strategy

References

Chapter 6: Multistate Results, 2010

Variation in Juvenile Justice Outcomes

Contextual Effects

Detention

Petition of delinquency

Waiver to criminal court

Adjudication of delinquency

Judicial disposition

Summary of Findings

Chapter 7: Multistate Results, 2000

Variation in Juvenile Justice Outcomes

Contextual Effects

Detention

Petition of delinquency

Waiver to criminal court

Adjudication of delinquency

Judicial disposition

Summary of Findings

Chapter 8: State-Specific Results

Variation in Juvenile Justice Outcomes

Contextual Effects

Detention

Community threats

Social disorganization

Political economy

Petition of delinquency

Community threats

Social disorganization

Political economy

Waiver to criminal court

Community threats

Social disorganization

Political economy

Adjudication of delinquency

Community threats

Social disorganization

Political economy

Judicial disposition

Community threats

Social disorganization

Political economy

Summary of Findings

Chapter 9: Does Context Matter? Discussing the Findings

Summary of Findings

Multistate findings, 2010

Multistate findings, 2000

State-level findings, 2010

State Variation in Juvenile Justice Outcomes

State profiles

Study Limitations

Interpretation of Findings

References

Chapter 10: Implications for Research and Policy

Implications for Research

Description and classification

Quantitative explanation

Qualitative explanation

Implications for Policy

Concluding Thoughts

References

Appendices

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Author(s)

Biography

Steven N. Zane, Ph.D., J.D., is an Assistant Professor in the College of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Florida State University. He received his Ph.D. from Northeastern University and his J.D. from Boston College Law School. His research interests focus on juvenile justice and evidence-based social policy. His research has appeared in Criminology & Public Policy, JAMA Network Open, Journal of Criminal Justice, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, Justice Quarterly, and Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice.