The proposed book focusses on the theme of failure of polymer composites, focusing on vital aspects of enhancing failure resistance, constituents and repair including associated complexities. It discusses characterization and experimentation of the composites under loading with respect to the specific environment and applications. Further, it includes topics as green composites, advanced materials and composite joint failure, buckling failure, and fiber-metal composite failure. It explains preparation, applications of composites for weight sensitive applications, leading to potential applications and formulations, fabrication of polymer products based on bio-resources.
Provides exhaustive understanding of failure and fatigue of polymer composites
Covers the failure of fiber reinforced polymer composites, composite joint failure, fiber-metal composite, and laminate failure
Discusses how to enhance the resistance against failure of the polymer composites
Provides input to industry related and academic orientated research problems
Represents an organized perspective and analysis of materials processing, material design, and their failure under loading
This book is aimed at researchers, graduate students in composites, fiber reinforcement, failure mechanism, materials science, and mechanical engineering.
Table of Contents
1 Natural Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites - A Newer Materials for Weight-Sensitive Applications 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Natural fibres and their origin 1.3 The Structure of Natural Fibres 1.4 Properties of Natural Fibres 1.5 Use of Natural fibres in Composites 1.6 Natural fibre Composites for packaging Materials 1.7 Short areca and maize fibre reinforced composites Conclusions References 2 Environmental factors affecting the fiber-matrix interface 2.1 Introduction 2.2 A comprehensive chemistry and character of interface 2.3 Behavior of interface 2.4 Interfacial reaction 2.5 Interface character on structural durability 2.6 Characterization of interface 2.7 Interfacial micro-characterization 2.8 Development of residual stresses at interface 2.9 Engineering of interface 2.10 Effects of environmental factors on FRP composites 2.10.1 Moisture uptake kinetics of interface 2.11 Influence of temperature on mechanical behavior 2.12 Variation of crosshead speed and environmental situations of the composites 2.13 Influence of radiations and different exterior environments on FRPs Conclusions and future perspectives Acknowledgement References 3 Ageing and its Influence on Mechanical Properties of Banana/Sisal Hybrid Composites- Experimental and Analytical Approach 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Materials and Methods 3.3 Testing standards 3.4 Water absorption behavior 3.5 Reinforcement Models 3.5.1 Parallel and Series Model 3.5.2 HIRSCH’S MODEL 3.6 Results and Discussions 3.6.1 Fundamental Mechanism of Water absorption 3.6.2 Tensile Properties of composite 3.6.3 Flexural Properties of Composites 3.6.4 Impact Properties of composites Conclusions References 4 Interfacial adhesion improvement of polymer composites using graphene fillers 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Graphene: Applicability spectrum 4.2.1 Graphene: Improved mechanical strength 4.2.2 Graphene: Improved Thermal stability 4.2.3 Graphene: Next-Gen materials 4.2.4 Graphene: Improved Fracture Strength 4.3 Challenges Conclusios References 5 Failure models of composite structure under impact loading 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Damage in material composite 5.3 Classification of impacts 5.3.1 High velocity effect 5.3.2 Low velocity impact 5.4 Solution techniques for impact 5.5 Impact response 5.6 Effect forces on the composite substances 5.7 Modes of failure in metallic structure 5.7.1 Failure of the matrix 5.7.2 Delaminations 5.7.3 The failure fibre 5.7.4 Penetration 5.8 Modes of failure in laminated composite structure Conclusion References 6 Challenges of adhesively bonded joints and their advantages over mechanical fastening 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Significant importance of multi material joint 6.3 Mechanical Joining Methods 6.3.1 Bolts and Nuts 6.3.2 Screws 6.3.3 Rivets 6.3.4 Moulded in threads 6.4 Adhesive bonded joints 6.4.1 Adhesive 6.4.2 Adhesion 6.4.3 Adherend 6.4.4 Adhesive types 6.4.5 Adhesive Advantages 6.4.6 Adhesive Disadvantages 6.5 Adhesive bonded joints and its types 6.5.1 Co-curing 6.5.2 Co-bonding 6.5.3 Secondary bonding 6.6 Bonded joint design and Importance of process parameters 6.6.1 Surface treatment 6.6.2 The factors involved in selection of surface treatment for adherends (LeBacq et al. 2002; Oldewurtel 2019) 6.6.3 Basic surface treatment 6.6.4 Fundamental surface treatment 6.6.5 Special surface treatment 6.6.6 Quality assessment on Surface preparation using Water break test 6.6.7 Adherend geometry 6.6.8 Adhesive thickness 6.6.9 Overlap length 6.6.10 Fabrication of adhesively bonded joints 6.6.11 The steps involved in bonded joint fabrication are as follows (Jensen et al. 2016; Ebnesajjad 2009) 6.7 Mechanical characterizations for bonded joints 6.7.1 Lap shear tests 6.7.2 The essential factors to be considered in lap joint efficiency test: (Budhea et al. 2017; Broughton 2012) 6.7.3Fatigue tests 6.7.4 Creep tests 6.7.5 Post failure analysis 6.7.6 Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) 6.7.7 Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) 6.7.8 Computational Simulation studies related to adhesives 6.7.9 Non-Destructive Test and Evaluation (NDT&E) 6.8 Environmental Durability of Adhesively Bonded Joints 6.8.1 Effect of temperature 6.8.2 Effect of hydrothermal ageing 6.8.3 Effect of hygrothermal ageing 6.9 Novelty and Advancements in Polymeric materials 6.10 Complex geometries where adhesive can be applicable compared to traditional joints 6.11 Advantage of adhesively bonded structural joints over mechanical fastening Conclusion Acknowledgements References 7 Damage Identification of Natural Fiber Composites by Using Modal Parameters 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Materials and Methods 7.2.1 Hemp fiber (Cannabis sativa) 7.2.2 Specimen preparation 7.2.3 Low velocity impact (LVI) 7.2.4 Modal analysis 7.2.5 Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC) 7.3 Results and Discussions 7.3.1 Modal parameter identification 7.3.2 Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC) Conclusion Funding Acknowledgments References 8 An overview of adhesive bonded composite joint failure: critical comparison with cocuring, co-bonding, and secondary bonding 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Adhesive bonded joints in composite materials 8.3 Adhesive bonding of composites 8.4 Variables influencing the reinforced joints 8.4.1 Effect of Surface readiness in reinforced Joints 8.4.2 Effect of potential disappointment inception modes 8.4.3 Impact of Joint Configuration 8.5 Displaying methods of composites failure 8.5.1 Failure Criterion Method 8.5.2 Continuum Damage Mechanics(CDM) Method 8.5.3 Plasticity Method 8.5.4 Delamination Modelling 8.6 Environmental parameters influencing the bonded joints of efficiency 8.6.1 Pre-bond dampness 8.6.2 Post bond dampness 8.6.3 Temperature 8.6.4 Consolidated dampness and temperature impacts Conclusion References 9 Vibro-Acoustic Behavior of a Damaged Honeycomb Core 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Materials and Methods 9.3 Results and Conclusion 9.3.1 Experimental Work 9.3.2 Numerical Simulation Conclusion References
10 Synthesis of green hybrid composite films for packaging applications: comparative study with conventional materials 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Material and methods 10.2.1 Materials 10.2.2 Pretreatment of NBH 10.2.3 Preparation of films 10.3 Measurements 10.3.1 Scanning electron microscopy 10.3.2 Water absorption 10.3.3 Mechanical properties 10.3.4 Light transmittance 10.3.5 Natural soil burial 10.4 Results 10.4.1 Mechanical properties 10.4.2 Water uptake 10.4.3 Optical properties 10.4.4 Soil burial test 10.4.5 SEM 10.4.6 Comparative study of hybrid films 10.6 Conclusion References 11 Damage of the polymer matrix in transport applications 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Use of polymer composite materials in transportation applications 11.3 Damage in Polymer matrix composites 11.4 Mechanisms of damage in PMCs 11.4.1 Interfacial debonding 11.4.2 Matrix micro cracking/intra-laminar cracking 11.4.3 Interfacial sliding 11.4.4 Delamination/interlaminar cracking 11.4.5 Manufacturing defects 11.4.6 Conclusion 11.5 Failure mechanisms of polymer matrix composites in transport applications 11.5.1 Failure mechanisms of polymer matrix composites in aerospace 11.5.2 Failure mechanisms of polymer matrix composites in marine applications 11.5.3 Failure mechanisms of polymer matrix composites in automotive applications 12 Impact Analysis of Bio-composite Laminate for Low and Intermediate Velocity Application 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Finite element modeling 12.2.1 Geometry clean-up 12.3 Methodology 12.3.1 Material property 12.4 Meshing 12.4.1 Mesh method 12.4.2 Sphere of Influence 12.5 Load and boundary conditions 12.5.1 Criteria for selecting the stand-off distance 12.5.2 Impact Energy iterations 12.6 Developed Material Application 12.6.1 Solid Model Generation 12.6.2 Mesh Generation 12.6.3 Stress and Total deformation 12.7 Results and discussion 12.7.1 10% weight of reinforcement 12.7.2 20% weight of reinforcement 12.7.3 30% weight of reinforcement 12.8 Impact energy 12.8.1 Analytical method 12.8.2 Low-velocity impact 12.8.3 Intermediate velocity impact 12.8.4 Simulation method 12.9 Application - Hull structure: 12.9.1 Pressure 12.10 Energy plots 12.11 Validation of Hull Structure and Car body impact analysis Conclusion Acknowledgment References 13 Failure of polymer matrix in space applications 13.1Introduction 13.2 Mechanical failures 13.2.1 Natural fibre-PMC 13.2.2 Glass fibre/Carbon fibre-PMC 13.3 Wear failure Summary References
Mohamed Thariq Bin Haji Hameed Sultan completed his PhD in 2011 from Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom in the Field of Mechanical Engineering. He specializes in the field of Hybrid Composites, Advance Materials, Structural Health Monitoring and Impact Studies. He is also a Professional Engineer (PEng) registered under the Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM) and he is also a Charted Engineer (CEng) registered with the Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE) United Kingdom. Recently, he was also awarded as the Professional Technologist (PTech) from Malaysian Board of Technologist (MBOT). He has published more than 220 journal articles and also published almost 15 books internationally. M Rajesh is currently working as an Assistant Professor (Sr.) in Design and Automation Division, School of Mechanical Engineering at VIT University, Vellore, India. He earned a Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical) degree from Anna University, India in 2010 and a Master of Engineering (Engineering Design) degree from College of Engineering Guindy, Anna University, Chennai, India in 2013, and a Doctorate of Philosophy degree in Engineering, from National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Mangalore in the year of 13th January 2017. A highly accomplished researcher, Professor M Rajesh has published 12 papers in peer reviewed international journals and 12 book chapters in the field of composite material, that are cited more than 250 times by researchers. Professor M Rajesh's research is focused on technological challenges that fall within the materials/mechanics domains. He made major contributions to enhance the understanding of the mechanical, vibration and dynamic behavior of advanced composites. K. Jayakrishna is an Associate professor in the School of Mechanical Engineering at the Vellore Institute of Technology University, India. Dr. Jayakrishna’s research is focused on the design and management of manufacturing systems and supply chains to enhance efficiency, productivity and sustainability performance. More recent research is in the area of developing tools and techniques to enable value creation through sustainable manufacturing, including methods to facilitate more sustainable product design for closed-loop material flow in industrial symbiotic setup, and developing sustainable products using hybrid bio composites. He has mentored undergraduate and graduate students (2 M.Tech Thesis and 24 B.Tech Thesis) which have so far led to 40 journal publications in leading SCI/ SCOPUS Indexed journals, 17 book chapters, and 85 refereed conference proceedings. Dr. Jayakrishna’s team has received numerous awards in recognition for the quality of the work that has been produced. He teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in the manufacturing and industrial systems area and his initiatives to improve teaching effectiveness have been recognized through national awards. He has also been awarded Institution of Engineers (India)-Young Engineer Award in 2019 and Distinguished Researcher Award in the field of Sustainable Systems Engineering in 2019 by International Institute of Organized Research.