Field Hydrogeology: A Guide for Site Investigations and Report Preparation, Second Edition, 2nd Edition (Paperback) book cover

Field Hydrogeology

A Guide for Site Investigations and Report Preparation, Second Edition, 2nd Edition

By John E. Moore

CRC Press

206 pages | 38 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2017-03-29
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pub: 2011-08-04
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In recent years, the focus in hydrogeologic investigations has expanded to include aquifer sustainability as part of resource evaluations. While there are other books on the subject, Field Hydrogeology: A Guide for Site Investigations and Report Preparation provides the first integrated presentation of the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) standards, US Geological Survey (USGS), and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) field techniques. It also includes access to a website containing software for designing aquifer tests and aquifer-recharge experiments.

Written by an author with more than 50 years of experience in hydrology and geology, this reference treats the subject from a field standpoint. Useful as a field guide or textbook, it contains standard methods for planning and undertaking hydrogeologic investigations. It incorporates case studies, contains a glossary of field-hydrogeology technical terms, and provides a detailed list of ASTM standards and key hydrologic Web sites.

The guide is based on ASTM standards as well as EPA and US Department of Interior field technical manuals. The text covers hydrogeologic fundamentals, conceptual models, planning an investigation, surface investigations, subsurface investigations, field inventory, stream flow measurements, water quality measurements, and report preparation. This revised and updated Second Edition also includes new material on the history of hydrogeology, field safety, aquifers, groundwater quality, hydrogeologic maps, and federal regulations. It gives students and seasoned professionals a vast array of clearly written descriptive materials and an extensive source of references available at their fingertips.

What’s New in This Second Edition:

  • New chapter on the history of hydrogeology
  • New chapter on groundwater development and management, including US federal regulations and transboundary aquifers
  • New material on field safety, groundwater quality and testing, and construction of hydrogeologic cross section and maps
  • New international case studies
  • New THEIS computer model to design aquifer tests
  • Updated information on latest principles and techniques


Praise for the First Edition

… fills a great need to beginning hydrologists and hydrogeologists as a guide for site investigations and report preparation. It … also contains a very interesting and important section on rules for professional conduct. … It is a particularly good reference as the author, a geologist, identifies the important role that geologists play in the study of the source, occurrence, movement, quality, and quantity of groundwater. There [is] an excellent outline for the preparation of hydrogeologic reports. The last chapter provides four excellent case histories as good examples for a new hydrogeologist on his first assignment.

—P.E. LaMoreaux, Editor-in-Chief, Environmental Geology (2003) 44:876

Table of Contents


Hydrogeologic Concepts


Groundwater Movement

Recharge and Discharge

Source of Water to a Well

Locating Groundwater

Groundwater Facts


History of Hydrogeology in the United States


Milestones in the History of Hydrogeology in the United States (1879–1988)


Planning a Field Investigation

Project Planning

Four Stages of Every Project

Types of Projects

Project Proposal

Summary of Project Planning

Project Management

Summary of Project Management

Types of Investigations

Objectives of Investigations

Sources of Hydrologic Data

Hydrologic Websites

Geographic Information Systems

Responsibility of Hydrogeologists

Rules for Professional Conduct

Field Notebook

Field Safety


Surface Investigations

Conceptual Model

Preliminary Site Reconnaissance

Suggestions for Conducting a Preliminary Site Field Investigation

Site Visit

Spring Investigation

Hazardous Waste Site Investigation

Geophysical Surveys

Surface Geophysics

Geophysical Well Logging

Locating and Testing Water Wells

Well Drilling and Construction

Well Development and Testing

Determining Well Yield

Well Maintenance

Groundwater Quality

Field Measurements of Water Quality

Specific Conductance

Testing the Quality of Groundwater


Subsurface Investigations

Geologic Mapping

Inventory of Wells

Monitor Wells

Test Drilling and Examination of Drill Cuttings

Water-Level Measurements

Wetted Steel Tape

Electrical Tape

Pressure Transducer

Tracing Techniques


Natural Tracers

Artificial Tracers

Field Methods


Aquifer Evaluation

Hydraulic Conductivity

Grain Size

Laboratory Measurements

Design of Aquifer Tests

Types of Tests

Specific-Capacity Test

Step-Drawdown Test

Slug Test

Analysis of Aquifer Test Data

Theis Equation

Cooper–Jacob Straight-Line Method

Computer Programs to Design an Aquifer Test


THEIS Computer Model Program

Construction of Hydrogeologic Maps and Cross Sections

Hydrogeologic Sections


Streamflow Measurements

Basic Equipment

Measurement Procedure

Methods to Determine Stream–Aquifer Relations


Hydrogeologic Reports

Report Planning

Report Writing

Overcoming Writer’s Block


Executive Summary or Abstract


Purpose and Scope

Body of Report

Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations

Report Review

Peer Review

Editorial Review

Technical Review

Review Steps

Additional Resources

Groundwater Development and Management

Federal Laws to Protect Groundwater

Transboundary Aquifers

Effect of Groundwater Withdrawal

Groundwater and Urbanization


Case Studies

Denver, Colorado

Mexico City

Nubian Aquifer, Northern Africa

California’s Central Valley

Chicago, Illinois

Las Vegas, Nevada

Tucson and Phoenix, Arizona

High Plains Aquifer, Southwest United States

Bangkok, Thailand

Tokyo, Japan


Further Reading


Appendix A: The Ideal Project—Its Planning and Supervision; John E. Moore and Hugh Hudson

Appendix B: Aquifer Test—An Alternative Data Interpretation; J. Joel Carrillo-Rivera and A. Cardona


About the Author

John E. Moore, PhD, is an internationally recognized research scientist and hydrogeologist. He is currently an adjunct professor at Metro State College in Denver, Colorado, and presents short courses for the Geological Society of America and the International Association of Hydrogeologists.

He has more than 50 years of experience as scientist, technical advisor, and senior hydrologist with the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Dr. Moore has served as an advisor to the EPA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, U.S. Congress, and the State of Colorado. He is past president of the American Institute of Hydrology (AIH) and the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH), and associate editor of Environmental Geology.

Dr. Moore received the Department of Interior Meritorious Service Award, AIH Founders award, IAH Honorary Members Award, and the National Groundwater Association Life Member Award. He is the author of 7 books and 50 scientific articles. Because of his contributions to hydrology and publications, he was presented an honorary doctor of science on October 5, 2010, at Ohio Wesleyan University.

Dr. J.J. Carrillo-Rivera, PhD, is a researcher at the Institute of Geography of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). He is a Member of the National Academy of Sciences, a researcher and reviewer of CONACyT, a European Community External Advisor, and past President of the Mexican Chapter of the International Association of Hydrogeologists. He has an MSc in Hydrogeology from University College London and a PhD in Geology (Hydrogeology) from London University.

Michael Wireman, MS, is a hydrogeologist with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in Denver, Colorado, where he is Regional Groundwater Expert. He has 21 years of experience in groundwater investigations in the Rocky Mountains. He has been project manager for private consulting firms and provides technical support to several Federal Agency programs. Wireman has a master’s degree in Hydrogeology from Western Michigan University, USA.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
SCIENCE / Earth Sciences / Geology
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply