1st Edition

Field Sampling Principles and Practices in Environmental Analysis

By Alfred R. Conklin, Jr. Copyright 2004
    376 Pages
    by CRC Press

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    Written by a renowned professional with more than 30 years of experience in environmental sampling and analysis, this reference describes in unparalleled detail all the essential elements for the development and execution of a successful sampling plan at both contaminated and uncontaminated sites. The book covers presampling planning and decision-making, specific sampling situations, and correct sample labeling, and presents the framework and background for the sampling of any contaminated site. Presenting a wide variety of models, quality control procedures, and valuable troubleshooting methods, Field Sampling contains an abundance of topics never before covered in any other source.

    INTRODUCTION TO FIELD SAMPLING
    Assessing the Sampling Needs
    Soil
    Water and Air
    Presampling
    Safety
    Sampling
    Statistics
    Modeling
    Sample Handling
    What is Present?
    Analytical Methods
    Traps
    Essential Units
    Definitions
    Other Ways of Sampling and Representing the Environment
    Global Positioning System (GPS)
    Geographical Information Systems (GIS)
    Conclusions

    CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENVIRONMENT
    Parts of the Environment
    Soil Formation
    Soil Types
    Soil Texture, Structure, and Bulk Density
    Water Movement Over and Through Soil
    Conclusions
    Questions
    References

    PRESAMPLING
    Field Office
    Field Office Laboratory
    The Project Notebook
    Maps
    Preliminary Field Survey
    Field History
    Sampling Tools
    Other Soil Sampling Considerations
    Safety
    Sample Containers
    Transportation and Storage
    Chain of Custody
    Analytical Laboratory and Procedures
    Statistics
    Other Tools to Consider
    Modeling
    Permitting
    Resources
    Conclusions
    Questions
    References

    SAFETY
    Areas of Safety Concern
    Safety Resources
    Basic Safety
    Signage
    Personnel Exposure
    Personnel Protection
    Monitoring
    Safety at Different Field Types
    Contamination Types and Concentrations
    Off-Field Protection
    MSDS Sheets
    Merck Index
    Conclusions
    Questions
    References

    SAMPLING
    General Sampling Considerations
    Global Positioning System
    Ground-Penetrating Radar
    Remote Sensing
    Geographical Information Systems
    Samplers
    Sample Amount
    Sample Container
    Duplicate, Split, and Composite Samples
    Sampling Strategies
    Topography
    Other Sampling Strategies for Different Field Situations
    Sample Handling
    Sampling Using GPS
    Determining Sample Sites
    Quality Control
    Labeling
    Conclusions
    Questions
    References

    STATISTICS
    Random Numbers
    Variation
    Population
    Hypothesis
    Median and Mean
    Standard Deviation
    Different of Same Population
    Extraneous Values
    How Many Samples?
    Comparing Areas
    Linear Regression
    Geostatistics
    Coregionalization
    Geostatistical Problems
    Conclusions
    Questions
    References

    MODELING
    Physical Models
    Chemical Models
    Simple Mathematical Models
    Landscape Models
    Modeling Movement of Particles through the Environment
    Dynamic Models
    Commercial Computer Modeling
    GIS and Environmental Modeling
    Whole Planet Model
    Conclusions
    Questions
    References

    SAMPLE TREATMENT AND STORAGE
    Security
    Containers
    Controls
    Transport in the Field
    Transport Boxes
    Transport Out of Field
    Storage
    Archival Samples
    Separation of Samples at the Field Office
    Field Laboratory Handling
    Transportation to the Commercial Laboratory
    Storage at the Commercial Analytical Laboratory
    Chain of Custody
    Computer Chain of Custody
    Request for Analysis
    Conclusions
    Questions
    References

    WHAT IS PRESENT?
    In Total
    The Inorganic Components
    The Organic Components
    The Biochemical Component
    The Living Component
    Conclusions
    Questions
    References

    AN OVERVIEW OF BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ANALYTICAL MEHTODS
    Determining the Problem
    What is the Nature of the Sample?
    The Sampling Process
    What Is to Be Sampled and How Is It to Be Sampled
    Documentation
    Sample Preparation for Analysis
    Analytical Testing
    Analytical Methods - Some Specifics
    Data Assessment
    Report Generation and Documentation
    Do the Results Answer the Client's Question?
    Some General Questions and Considerations
    Conclusions
    Questions
    References

    TRAPS, MISTAKES, AND ERRORS
    History of the Area
    Area Geology
    Knowing What Is or Is Likely to Be Present
    Not Accounting for Inputs, Losses, and Movement
    Personnel
    Analyzing of Sampling for the Wrong Component
    Antagomisms and Interferences
    Sample Analysis Mismatch
    Extraction or Method Errors
    Sample/Test Container Errors
    Improper Sampling Techniques
    Variations in Method
    Movement of a Contaminant
    Statistical Errors
    Conclusions
    Questions
    References

    Appendix A: Abbreviations and Acronyms
    Appendix B: Sources
    Index
    "…a comprehensive, extensively referenced and well-written book."
    -Bookshelf

    "The purpose of this book is to 'bring together in one place all the information and tools for successful sampling of the environment.' It succeeds admirably in this and is full of personal anecdotes … [O]ne gets the feeling after reading this book that one has spent time with the author learning from his extensive practical experience sampling field sites. … [T]he book successfully introduces all the areas important to environmental sampling, but also deals with the actual process of environmental sample in great detail. I feel that this book would be an excellent addition to your library if you need to teach an undergraduate course on how to sample field sites for an environmental assessment project."
    - Journal of Environmental Quality, March/April 2005


    "Field Sampling, by Alfred P. Conklin, Jr., is a nice introduction to the practice of environmental sampling and analysis. … [B]asic statistical analyses are clearly explained and depicted by graphs and tables… [T]he author carefully explains how field sampling methods and techniques affect subsequent analyses - for better or worse. … This book is well written, with discussion questions and references listed at the end of each chapter. … This book is recommended for academic libraries that serve undergraduate environmental science programs, as well as practitioners who would like to have a basic field sampling reference book on hand."
    - E-Streams, Vol. 7, No. 11, Nov. 2004

    "This volume is a good introduction to the science of field sampling. …It contains the basic information that an introductory course in the subject would require and is an excellent reference for the neophyte. The questions and references at the end of each chapter enable it to be a very effective teaching tool. …A major strength is the number of photos, charts, and tables that illustrate the authors' words and provide clear and precise information transfers."
    -Environmental Practice, Vol. 7, No. 1, March 2005