Food Forensics : Stable Isotopes as a Guide to Authenticity and Origin book cover
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Food Forensics
Stable Isotopes as a Guide to Authenticity and Origin




ISBN 9781498741729
Published July 13, 2017 by CRC Press
336 Pages - 16 Color & 30 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Food forensics is a multi-disciplinary science involving advanced analytical techniques, plant and animal metabolism, and sophisticated data interpretation tools. This book explains how plants, and in turn animals eating those plants, assimilate stable isotopes and trace elements from their environments. It provides extensive reviews of the use of stable isotope and trace element measurements for the authentication of major food groups and how these can be used to detect fraudsters. The book emphasises the use of correct methods for sample preparation and measurement so that data can be compared to existing datasets, with a dedicated chapter discussing interpretations.

Table of Contents

Isotope ratio measurements for food forensics
Introduction
Reporting and reference materials
Measurements
Good practice

Sampling, sample preparation and analysis
Introduction
Sampling
Practical sampling and sample preparation
Isotope ratio analysis - bio-elements (H, C, N, O, and S)
Isotope ratio analysis – radiogenic isotopes (Sr and Pb)

Interpreting stable isotope ratios in plants and plant-based foods
Our foods come from plants with different photosynthetic pathways
Photosynthetic pathway differences result in difference s in plant carbon isotope ratios
Genetic variations can lead to differences in carbon isotope ratios
Drought histories are recorded by enrichment of carbon isotopes of C3 plants
Shade and indoor growth are recorded depletions in carbon isotopes of plants
Different tissues can exhibit different 13C contents
The soil and atmospheric water environment is recorded as variations in hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in plants
Soil nitrogen sources are recorded in plant nitrogen isotopes
Fertilizer nitrogen isotope ratios
Sulfur isotopes in plants
Strontium isotopes in plants
Conclusions

Introduction to stable isotopes in food webs
A brief history of isotopes in foodweb ecology
Key considerations in studying food webs with isotopes
The spatial template: Isoscapes
Isotopic discrimination and physiological considerations
Hypothetical case studies
Combining tools

Data analysis interpretation: Forensic applications and examples
Introduction
Reporting of isotopic evidence in forensic casework
Common approaches for food isotope data analysis and interpretation
Likelihood-based data analysis approaches in food forensics
Conclusion

Flesh Foods, or What can stable isotope analysis reveal about the meat you eat?
Introduction
Review of isotopic variation in flesh foods
Conclusion

Fruits and vegetables
Introduction
Fruits, vegetables, and isotopes
Fruit juices
Determining countries or regions of origin
Tea
Coffee

Alcoholic Beverages I – Wine
Introduction
Sample preparation and analysis
Wine

Alcoholic Beverages II – Spirits, Beer, Sake and Cider
Spirit drinks
Beer
Sake or Saké
Cider, Cyder or Cidre

Stable isotope measurements and modeling to verify the authenticity of dairy products
Introduction
Current trends in food fraud and milk adulteration
Milk composition
Production and processing of milk
Milk isotopic fingerprint, a result of biogeochemical influence
Preparation of milk components for isotopic analysis
Application of stable isotope analysis to dairy products
An isoscape approach
Deliberate contamination – a case study

Edible vegetal oils
Introduction
Methods
Application of IRMS for detecting the authenticity of edible oils
Conclusions

Organic food authenticity
Introduction
Regulations
Discrimination between organic and conventional crops
Discrimination between organic and conventional products
Conclusion

Odds and ends, or, All that’s left to print
Introduction
Bottled water
Carbonated soft drinks
Caffeine
Vanilla/vanillin
Essential oils
Sweeteners
Eggs
Vinegar
Other food products
Isotope effects during food preparation
Conclusion

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