Foot and Ankle Motion Analysis: Clinical Treatment and Technology, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Foot and Ankle Motion Analysis

Clinical Treatment and Technology, 1st Edition

By Gerald F. Harris, Peter A. Smith

CRC Press

700 pages | 280 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9780849339714
pub: 2007-08-22
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pub: 2007-08-22
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Human motion analysis or gait analysis is used throughout the country and the world in clinics for pre-surgical planning and postsurgical follow-up. Only recently have technological advances truly begun to meet medical needs by supplying more accurate analytical data from which to make educated assessments of dynamic foot and ankle pathology. A comprehensive overview of current and emerging methods is necessary for practitioners to effectively integrate the new techniques into better pre-treatment planning, surgical and rehabilitative care, and post-treatment follow-up.

Originating as a one-day workshop sponsored by the Shriner’s Hospitals and the National Institutes of Health, Foot and Ankle Motion Analysis: Clinical Treatment and Technology provides a single source reference for the latest technologies and their clinical applications. With contributions from an international panel of experts from orthopaedic, rehabilitation, engineering, academic, medical-industrial, and clinical disciplines, this text focuses on the relevant scientific advances with an emphasis on applications, limitations, and problems to be solved. Divided into two parts, the text begins by presenting basic and advanced clinical applications and opportunities in foot and ankle motion analysis in both pediatric and adult cases. The second part introduces the technological advances themselves from a quantitative perspective. Modeling concepts, seminal developments, and novel approaches are described along with emerging horizons related to mechanical paradigms, imaging, kinetics, robotics and simulation, tri-planar force sensing, and more. The book also includes a chapter of references and sources of support for future research and development prospects.

Clinical and research applications in motion analysis have resulted in better functional assessment, fewer, more effective surgeries, and longer-term follow-up care. Foot and Ankle Motion Analysis: Clinical Treatment and Technology provides a basis for expanding these contributions to the broader community of practitioners caring for both adult and pediatric patients.

Table of Contents

Foot and Ankle Motion Analysis:  Evolutionary Perspectives and Introduction, G.F. Harris and M.D. Jenders

                                Historical Perspective

                                Introduction to the Text


Part 1: Clinical Applications and Opportunities

Section A              Pediatric Foot and Ankle

Clinical Applications of Foot and Ankle Motion Analysis in Children, P.A. Smith, S.Hassani, A.N. Graf, and G.F. Harris

                                Gait Analysis

                                Foot Motion

                                Biomechanical Models

                                Normal Foot and Ankle Motion

                                Clinical Challenges

                                Cerebral Palsy

                                Equinus Foot Deformities

                                Planovalgus Foot Deformities

                                Varus Foot Deformities

                                Congenital Clubfoot

                                Other Neuromuscular Foot Deformities

                                Severe Flatfoot

                                Tarsal Coalition


Functional Gait Analysis in Children Following Clubfoot Releases, M.Khazzam, J.Y. Roh, J.T. Long, P.A. Smith, S.Hassani, G.F. Harris, A.N. Graf, and K.N. Kuo

                                Congenital Clubfoot Pathoanatomy


                                Clinical Assessment

                                Radiographic Examination

                                Treatment Options

                                Gait Analysis for Assessment of Outcome Following Clubfoot Correction

                                Results of Lower Body Gait Analysis


Dynamic Plantar Pressure Characteristics and Clinical Applications in Patients with Residual Clubfoot, X.C. Liu and J.Thometz


Three Dimensional MRI Modeling of Normal and Surgically Treated Clubfeet, V.Talwalkar, C.Tylkowski, C.Roche, B. Mattingly, P.A. Hardy, and D. Pienkowski

Dynamic Foot Pressure in the Early Evolution of Foot Deformities in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy, C. Church, N. Lennon, S. Coleman, J. Henley, M. Nagai, and F. Miller

Plantar Pressure Based Quantitative Assessment of Subtalar Arthrodesis in the Rehabilitation of the Planovalgus Foot Deformity, Z.O. Abu-Faraj, G.F. Harris, and P.A. Seith

Plantar Pressures:  A Clinical Background

Cerebral Palsy and the Planovalgus Foot

Materials and Methods

Chemodenervation and Motion Assessment, S. Sienko Thomas and J.D. Ackman

                                Botulinum Toxin Type A

                                Mouse Models of Spasticity

                                Children with Cerebral Palsy

Assessment of the Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin Type A

                                Musculoskeletal Modeling

                                Case Studies


Equinovarus Foot:  EMG Analysis and Clinical Outcome, M. Aiona, R. Dorociak, M. Nichols, and R. Pierce

                                Normal Anatomy/Kinesiology of Foot and Ankle

                                Equinovarus Foot Pathomechanics

                                Clinical Implications of Equinovarus Foot

                                EMG Assessment of Equinovarus Foot Study

                                Study Population



                                Comparisons with Current Literature and Indications for Surgery



Lower Extremity Characterization of Walker Assisted Gait in Children with Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy, K.M. Baker, L. Lu, S.S. Klos, K. Reiners, J.D. Ackman, J. Klein, J.P. Schwab, and G.F. Harris


Response to Balance Perturbation :  A Strategy for Pediatric Assessment, A. Graf, J. Krzak, and G.F. Harris


Section B              Adult Foot and Ankle

Gait Analysis in Posterior Tendon Dysfunction:  Pre and Postoperative Analysis Compared to a Normal Population, R.M. Marks, J.T. Long, and G.F. Harris

                                Posterior Tibial Tendon Anatomy and Biomechanics

                                Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction Classification

                                Treatment Options for PTTD

                                Current Investigation of PTTD Gait


Hallux Valgus:  A Pre and Postoperative Analysis of Gait, A. Gottstein Frea, J. T. Long, M. Khazzam, R.M. Marks, and G.F. Harris



                                Clinical Presentation


                                Previous Studies





                                Case Examples


Hallux Rigidus:  A Pre and Postoperative Analysis of Gait, J. Schwab, M.Khazzam, J.T. Long, R.M. Marks, and G.F. Harris

                                Anatomy and Pathology


                                Clinical Presentation and Evaluation


                                Previous Motion Analysis Studies

                                Case Examples


Pre-Operative and Post-Operative Gait Analysis of the Rheumatoid Forefoot, K. Maskala, J.T. Long, R.M. Marks, and G.F. Harras

                                Background and Significance


                                Critical Studies

                                Test Methods




Foot and Ankle Motion Analysis of Patients with Ankle Arthritis, M. Khazzam, J.T. Long, R.M. Marks, and G.F. Harris

                                Ankle Anatomy and Biomechanics

                                Ankle Arthritis

                                Clinical Assessment




Gait Analysis After Total Ankle Arthroplasty, J.W. Brodsky, F.E. Pollo, and B.S. Baum

                                Materials and Methods

                                Surgical Procedure

                                Gait Analysis

                                Gait Analysis Results


Dynamic Poly-EMG in Gait Analysis for the Assessment of Equinovarus Foot, A. Esquenazi


The Challenge of the Diabetic Foot, M.S. Pinzur

                                The Problem and the Challenge

                                The Normal Adult Foot

                                Pathophysiology of Diabetic Foot Ulcers

                                Prevention of Diabetic Foot Ulcers

                                The Challenge of the Diabetic Foot 

The Biomechanics of the Diabetic Foot, W. Ledoux

                                Etiology of Diabetic Neuropathic Ulceration

The Effect of Diabetes on Soft Tissue Characteristics

The Effect of Diabetes on the Kinematics and Kinetics of Gait

                                The Effect of Diabetes on Foot Deformities

The Relationship between Foot Structure and Plantar Pressure

The Relationship between Foot Structure and Ulceration

The Relationship between Plantar Pressure and Ulceration

The Relationship between Shear Stress and Ulceration


Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of the Fifth Metatarsal Jones Fracture, E.S. Rohr, J.E.  Johnson, L. Zhao, and G. F. Harris

Part 2: Technical Developments and Emerging Opportunities

Section C              Foot and Ankle Modeling

A System for the Analysis of Foot and Ankle Kinematics During Gait, S.M. Kidder, F.S. Abuzzahab, G.F. Harris, and J.E. Johnson

Validation of a Multi-Segment Foot and Ankle Kinematic Model for Pediatric Gait, K.A. Myers, M. Wang, R.M. Marks, and G.F. Harris


Measurement of Foot Kinematics and Plantar Pressure in Children Using the Oxford Foot Model, J. Stebbins, M. Harrington, T. Theologis, N.Thompson, C. Giacomozzi, and V. Macellari                        

The Design, Development, and Initial Evaluation of a Multi-Segment Foot Model for Routine Clinical Gait Analysis, R.B. Davis, E.G. Jameson, J.R. Davids, L.M. Christopher, B.M. Rogozinski, and J.P. Anderson

Foot Model / Analysis – Clinical Requirements

                                Currently Available Multi-Segment Foot Models

                                Shriners Hospitals for Children Greenville Foot Model


Reliability of a Clinically Practical Multi-Segment Foot Marker Set / Model, J. Henley, J. Richards, D. Hudson, C. Church, S. Coleman, L . Kersetter, and F. Miller


A Multi-Segment, 3D Kinematic Model of the Foot and Ankle, K.R. Kaufman, H.P. Kitaoka, D.K. Hansen, D.A. Morrow, and B.R. Kotajarvi

A Spatial Linkage Model of the Ankle Complex, D. Marinkovich


Multi-Segment Foot Biomechanics in Dynamic Hindfoot Varus, M.R. Walker, F.L. Buczek, K.M. Cooney, N.A. Sharkey, and J.O. Sanders

                                Future Directions


Section D              Technical Advances in Foot and Ankle Motion Analysis

The Accuracy and Utility of Virtual Markers, M.H. Schwartz and A. Rozumalski


                                Virtual Shapes



Determination of Subject-Specific Ankle Joint Axes from Measured Foot Motion, S.J. Piazza and G.S. Lewis

                                Optimization-Based Location of Two Axes

                                 “Subtalar Isolation” Method for Subtalar Joint Location



Dynamic Radiographic Measurement of 3D Skeletal Motion, J.D. Yamokoski and S.A. Banks

                                State of the Art

                                Application to the Ankle Joint System

The Future of Dynamic Radiographic Measurements

Exploring the Frontiers of in vivo Multi-Body Ankle Dynamics Using Fast-PC MRI, F.T. Sheehan, A.R. Seisler, and K.L. Siegel


Kinetic Measures of the Foot:  Overcoming Current Obstacles, B. MacWilliams


Tri-Axial Plantar Force Sensor:  Design, Calibration, Characterization, and Subject Testing, E.J. Miller, D.C. Jeutter, R.J. Stango, and G.F. Harris


Quasi-Stiffness of the Ankle During Able-Bodied Walking at Different Speeds:  Implications for Design of Prostheses, A.H. Hansen, S.A. Gard, and D.S. Childress

Development of an Advanced Biofidelic Lower Extremity Prosthesis, M. White, B.J. Hafner, and W.J. Whatley

                                Establishing Design Parameters

                                Tension Band Design


Robotic Technology in Gait Simulation and Foot Mechanics, J.C. Otis


                                Dynamic Cadaver Modeling

                                Robotic Technology


Section E              Research Support

Support for Rehabilitation Research on Foot and Ankle Motion Analysis, L.A. Quatrano and H. Khan

The National Institutes of Health (NIH)




About the Series

Biomedical Engineering

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MEDICAL / Biotechnology
MEDICAL / Sports Medicine
MEDICAL / Surgery / General