1st Edition

Forensic Biomechanics and Human Injury
Criminal and Civil Applications - An Engineering Approach




ISBN 9781482258837
Published December 18, 2015 by CRC Press
278 Pages 108 B/W Illustrations

USD $160.00

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Book Description

Forensic Biomechanics and Human Injury: Criminal and Civil Applications – An Engineering Approach provides a concise, comprehensive overview of human anatomy and the biomechanical factors involved in human injury. It describes the methodologies used to compute the various forces, stresses, and energies required to injure the human body.

The book covers the theoretical mathematics behind understanding how injuries occur, classifying certain types of injuries, age and biomechanical factors, impact loading, injury investigation, and the importance of expert witnesses and testimony in civil and criminal cases. It contains a significant number of sizes of all the pertinent materials in the human body, classified by age, sex, and in some instances by race, as well as stress–strain curves and tables of the strengths of these materials.

Forensic Biomechanics and Human Injury provides a valuable source of information with tools to help the professional determine the nature of injuries, understand the implications of accidents, and the calculations that go into determining such things for both civil and criminal investigations.

Table of Contents

Introduction
Historical Developments

Court System and Testimony
Role of the Expert

How Injuries Occur
Accidents
Self-Inflicted
Inflicted by Others
Unforeseen Events
Faulty Equipment
Faulty Design
Predictable Events

Types of Injuries
The Head
The Neck
The Thorax
The Hip Girdle
Lower Extremities
Upper Extremities

The Need for Analysis
Protect Life and Safety
Protect Equipment
Validate Testing
Determine Human Tolerance Levels
Correlate Computations with Injury Potential
Validate or Dispute Injuries
Design Safer Equipment
Design Safer Machines

Biomechanical Terminology
Introduction
Skeletal Terminology
Joints
Spine
Muscles
Injury Terminology

Basic Elements of Anatomy
Bones
Head Injury Criterion
Spine
Muscles
Torso
Pelvis
Tendons and Ligaments
Skin

Strength of Human Biological Materials
Long Bones
Spongy Bone
Vertebrae
Cartilage
Discs
Ligaments
Tendons
Muscles
Teeth
Skin

Mechanics of Materials
Stress and Strain
Axial Stresses: Compression and Tension
Shear
Oblique Loading
Axial and Shearing Strain
Torsion
Bending

Material Sizes of Humans
Introduction
Weights and Heights
Body Segments
Some Mechanical Predictions
Ligaments, Tendons, and Cartilage
Bones
Summary

Statics and Dynamics
Newton’s Laws
Force Systems and Components
Moments and Couples
Equilibrium
Free-Body Diagrams
Frames and Force Systems
Distributed Forces and Properties of Areas
Particle Kinematics
Conservation of Mass
Conservation of Momentum
Conservation of Energy
Vibration: Whiplash Models

Errors, Sensitivity, Uncertainty, and Probability
Misconceptions
Error
Sensitivity
Probability

Protective Structures and Their Effect
Fascia
Panniculus Adiposus
Man-Made Protective Structures

Examples of Analysis
Anterior Cruciate Ligaments
Minimum Speed Required to Fracture the Tibia and Fibula
Hip Injuries
Meniscus Tear, Medial, and Lateral
Rotator Cuff Injuries
Shoulder Injuries in General
Kidneys, Arteries, and Veins
Teeth
Closed Head Injuries
Tibia Plateau and Eminence Fractures
Cervical Injuries: A Comparison

Federal and Other Standards
Federal Standards
Industry Standards

Appendix A: Values of Fundamental Constants

Appendix B: Conversion Factors

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Author(s)

Biography

Harold Franck founded Advanced Engineering Associates Inc. in 1989 and since then he has been involved in thousands of forensic engineering investigations involving vehicle accident reconstruction, origin and cause fire investigations, and electrical incidents. He received his MSEE from West Virginia University and is a registered professional engineer in West Virginia, Michigan, Ohio, Virginia, Kentucky, and Florida. He has presented and attended various courses and seminars, lists many publications, and has completed two books, Forensic Engineering Fundamentals and Mathematical Methods for Accident Reconstruction.

Darren Franck is president of Advanced Engineering Associates Inc. and is a registered professional engineer in West Virginia. He received his MSME from the Georgia Institute of Technology. His areas of expertise include forensic engineering investigations, structural analysis and design, accident reconstruction, computer-aided design, and 3D animations. He has been involved in various consulting, construction management, and design activities throughout West Virginia and is the coauthor of the two books completed by Harold Franck.