Forensic Biomechanics and Human Injury: Criminal and Civil Applications - An Engineering Approach, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Forensic Biomechanics and Human Injury

Criminal and Civil Applications - An Engineering Approach, 1st Edition

By Harold Franck, Darren Franck

CRC Press

262 pages | 108 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2015-12-18
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Description

Forensic Biomechanics and Human Injury: Criminal and Civil Applications – An Engineering Approach provides a concise, comprehensive overview of human anatomy and the biomechanical factors involved in human injury. It describes the methodologies used to compute the various forces, stresses, and energies required to injure the human body.

The book covers the theoretical mathematics behind understanding how injuries occur, classifying certain types of injuries, age and biomechanical factors, impact loading, injury investigation, and the importance of expert witnesses and testimony in civil and criminal cases. It contains a significant number of sizes of all the pertinent materials in the human body, classified by age, sex, and in some instances by race, as well as stress–strain curves and tables of the strengths of these materials.

Forensic Biomechanics and Human Injury provides a valuable source of information with tools to help the professional determine the nature of injuries, understand the implications of accidents, and the calculations that go into determining such things for both civil and criminal investigations.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Historical Developments

Court System and Testimony

Role of the Expert

How Injuries Occur

Accidents

Self-Inflicted

Inflicted by Others

Unforeseen Events

Faulty Equipment

Faulty Design

Predictable Events

Types of Injuries

The Head

The Neck

The Thorax

The Hip Girdle

Lower Extremities

Upper Extremities

The Need for Analysis

Protect Life and Safety

Protect Equipment

Validate Testing

Determine Human Tolerance Levels

Correlate Computations with Injury Potential

Validate or Dispute Injuries

Design Safer Equipment

Design Safer Machines

Biomechanical Terminology

Introduction

Skeletal Terminology

Joints

Spine

Muscles

Injury Terminology

Basic Elements of Anatomy

Bones

Head Injury Criterion

Spine

Muscles

Torso

Pelvis

Tendons and Ligaments

Skin

Strength of Human Biological Materials

Long Bones

Spongy Bone

Vertebrae

Cartilage

Discs

Ligaments

Tendons

Muscles

Teeth

Skin

Mechanics of Materials

Stress and Strain

Axial Stresses: Compression and Tension

Shear

Oblique Loading

Axial and Shearing Strain

Torsion

Bending

Material Sizes of Humans

Introduction

Weights and Heights

Body Segments

Some Mechanical Predictions

Ligaments, Tendons, and Cartilage

Bones

Summary

Statics and Dynamics

Newton’s Laws

Force Systems and Components

Moments and Couples

Equilibrium

Free-Body Diagrams

Frames and Force Systems

Distributed Forces and Properties of Areas

Particle Kinematics

Conservation of Mass

Conservation of Momentum

Conservation of Energy

Vibration: Whiplash Models

Errors, Sensitivity, Uncertainty, and Probability

Misconceptions

Error

Sensitivity

Probability

Protective Structures and Their Effect

Fascia

Panniculus Adiposus

Man-Made Protective Structures

Examples of Analysis

Anterior Cruciate Ligaments

Minimum Speed Required to Fracture the Tibia and Fibula

Hip Injuries

Meniscus Tear, Medial, and Lateral

Rotator Cuff Injuries

Shoulder Injuries in General

Kidneys, Arteries, and Veins

Teeth

Closed Head Injuries

Tibia Plateau and Eminence Fractures

Cervical Injuries: A Comparison

Federal and Other Standards

Federal Standards

Industry Standards

Appendix A: Values of Fundamental Constants

Appendix B: Conversion Factors

About the Authors

Harold Franck founded Advanced Engineering Associates Inc. in 1989 and since then he has been involved in thousands of forensic engineering investigations involving vehicle accident reconstruction, origin and cause fire investigations, and electrical incidents. He received his MSEE from West Virginia University and is a registered professional engineer in West Virginia, Michigan, Ohio, Virginia, Kentucky, and Florida. He has presented and attended various courses and seminars, lists many publications, and has completed two books, Forensic Engineering Fundamentals and Mathematical Methods for Accident Reconstruction.

Darren Franck is president of Advanced Engineering Associates Inc. and is a registered professional engineer in West Virginia. He received his MSME from the Georgia Institute of Technology. His areas of expertise include forensic engineering investigations, structural analysis and design, accident reconstruction, computer-aided design, and 3D animations. He has been involved in various consulting, construction management, and design activities throughout West Virginia and is the coauthor of the two books completed by Harold Franck.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
LAW041000
LAW / Forensic Science
MED085000
MEDICAL / Surgery / General
TEC017000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Health & Safety