Forensic Intelligence  book cover
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1st Edition

Forensic Intelligence




ISBN 9781439860380
Published July 26, 2012 by CRC Press
288 Pages 35 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

When forensic recoveries are properly processed and recorded, they are a major intelligence source for crime investigators and analysts. The majority of publications about forensic science cover best practices and basic advice about evidence recovery and storage. Forensic Intelligence takes the subject of forensics one step further and describes how to use the evidence recovered at crime scenes for extended analysis and the dissemination of new forensic intelligence.

The book draws on the author’s 40 years of experience as a crime scene examiner, latent print examiner, and the Head of Forensic Intelligence, New Scotland Yard, in the London Metropolitan Police Intelligence Bureau (MIB). It supplies practical advice on how to use all forensic recoveries in a modern, analysis-driven, intelligence-led policing environment. The text covers evidentiary procedures related to each of the main crime types, as well as the production of intelligence products from police data.

Accompanying the book is a supplemental CD-ROM with a plethora of additional resources, including Treadmark Express footwear evidence software; exemplar templates for the input of forensics, behaviours, and method data into intelligence systems; and other material.

This reliable resource is designed for police services of all sizes and capabilities—from the largest organizations with thousands of employees and big budgets down to the smallest department with a few officers. By mastering the basic crime recording and intelligence processes in this volume, investigators can make the best use of all their forensic recoveries.

CD ROM Contents:

Treadmark Express Footwear Evidence Software and User’s Manual
Operation Bigfoot Footwear Pattern Distribution Graphs (London 2005)
Example CSI Forensic Intelligence Template
Shoe and tool Marks Coding Document
Report on the Vision of Forensic Intelligence and Strategic Thinking
A Unified Format Spreadsheet for Merging Drug Legacy Data from Different Forensic Science Laboratories
Forensic Intelligence Report (FIR) Template
Role Description Example–Forensic Intelligence Manager
Footwear Intelligence Process Map
Ballistics Intelligence Process Map–Inputs & Outputs

Table of Contents

Introducing Forensic Intelligence
Semantics: ‘Forensics’ and ‘Intelligence’
Forensic Intelligence: Professor Olivier Ribaux’s Definition
Forensic Intelligence: A Working Definition
The Concept of ‘Entities’ in Police Recording Systems
Does Your Forensic Services Staff Have Access or Input to Your Intelligence Systems?
Access to Forensic Support Resources
Forensic Intelligence in Intelligence-Led Policing
The Origins of Forensic Intelligence
Estimating the Number of Current Offenders
Has Modern Forensics Had an Impact on Crime Reduction?
The Beginnings of a Concept of Forensic Intelligence
The Introduction of Information Technology: From the 1980s Onward
COMPSTAT
Police Intelligence Models and the Language of Intelligence-Led Policing
‘Intelligence Is What It Does’: A Definition
Police Intelligence Models
The Four Levels of Crime Divisions in Crime Intelligence Models
New York Police Department: COMPSTAT
Intelligence Assets
Knowledge Assets
System Assets
Intelligence Assets
The Four Generic Intelligence Products and the Aims of COMPSTAT Intelligence Sources
Intelligence Handling Codes
The 5 × 5 × 5 System as Used in Grading Intelligence
Forensics as Intelligence Sources
The Collection of Forensic Intelligence
Police Forensic Business Models
A Short History of Forensic Intelligence in the Metropolitan Police
An Early Forensic Intelligence Tool Mark Case Example from the Late 1990s
The Metropolitan Police Modernise for the Twenty-First Century
Forensic Intelligence Development in the Metropolitan Police, 2002–2008
Where Forensic Intelligence Should Fit within Police Organisations

The Value of Forensics in Crime Analysis and Intelligence
Intelligence Features of Forensic Evidence Types
Linking Cases and Comparative Case Analysis
The Different Forms of Case Linking in Criminal Analysis
Varieties of Forms of Case Linking
Receiver Operator Characteristics
Truth and Probability
The Crime Detection and Prosecution Rectangle
The Values of Forensics in Case Linking
A Footwear Evidence Persistence Case Example
A Linked Homicide Case Example
Dealing with Forensic Crime Links and Clusters
A Footwear Mark Cluster Example
Footwear Evidence Frequency Evaluation
Forensic Legacy Data
Legacy Data and the FSS Sexual Assault Forensic Intelligence Service
Improving the Potential of Legacy Data Use
The Importance of Regular Meetings
The Different Experiences of CSIs and Analysts

Research and Analytical Processes
The Nine Analytical Techniques
Crime Pattern Analysis
The Radex and Smallest-Space Analysis in Crime Analysis
Descriptions of Terms in Figure 3.1
The Value of Improving Forensic Support in Problem-Oriented Policing and Crime Pattern Analysis
Market Profiles
Demographic and Social Trend Analysis
Criminal Business Profiles
Network Analysis
Profile or Target (Subject) Profile Analysis
Results Analysis
Risk Analysis
Operational Intelligence Assessments
The Daily Work of the Crime Analyst
The Daily Work of an Analyst
The Daily Work of a Forensically Aware Forensic Intelligence Analyst
The Aims and Objectives of Incorporating Forensics into Crime Analysis
A Structure for Dealing with Forensic Intelligence
A Forensic Intelligence Process Route Map
The Input of Forensic Intelligence into Intelligence-Led Policing
Common Policing Problems Inhibiting Forensic Intelligence
The CSI’s Role in Forensic Intelligence
The Forensic Services Team
Intelligence Features of Forensic Evidence Types

Forensic Evidence Recovery, Processing, and Best Practice
Purposes and Objectives of Crime Scene Examinations
Inhibitors to Effective Uses of Crime Scene Examinations, Forensic Recoveries in Linking Crimes, and in Contributing to the Production of Intelligence Products
Rights or Not to Obtain or Seize Forensic Material from Offenders
An Example of Volume Crime Practices Inhibiting a Serious Investigation
The Advantages of Databasing and Managing Collections of Forensic Evidence
A Scenes of Crime Field Force Checklist for Effective Management of Forensics
Using Intervention Rates and Forensic Recovery Frequencies in Crime Analysis
Issues around Positive and Negative Management Techniques of Forensic Support
Questions That Police and Forensic Managers Need to Ask Themselves
The Issue of Areas Disclosed in Forensic Marks as an Enabler of Forensic Intelligence
Best Practice in Using the Main Forensic Evidence Types
Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems and Their Characteristics
The Four Factors at Work in Existing Miss Rates with AFIS
Forensic Strategies to Make the Best Use of AFIS
Fingerprint Laboratory Support
Using DNA Matches and Crime Scene Links Effectively
An Inhibited DNA Casework Example
DNA Databases and eDNA
Significance of DNA Forensic Crime Scene Intervention and Recovery Rates
Forensic Problem Profiles and the Concept of the Forensic Intelligence Report

Best Practice in Recovery of Forensic Evidence from Crime Scenes
Dealing with Crime Scenes
Crime Scene Examinations of Serious and Volume Crimes
Footwear Evidence Best Practice
Dealing with Footwear Marks Found Whilst Powdering for Latent Prints
Using Gelatine Lifters
Scanning Covered Gelatine Lifts
Preservation and Packaging of Gelatine Footwear Mark Lifters
Covering Gelatine Volume Crime Lifts
Re-covering Technique for Gelatine Lifts
Using Transparent Adhesive Lifters
Photographing Footwear Marks
Electrostatic Dust Mark Lifting (ESL)
Dealing with Electrostatic Lifts
Dealing with Dental Stone Casts
Marks in Snow
Dealing with Suspected Offenders’ Footwear
Inkless Printing of Offenders’ Shoes
Packaging Footwear
Footwear Forensic Computer Systems
Submitting Footwear Marks to the Laboratory
Footwear Comparisons
Serious Crime Footwear Cases
Instrument (Tool) Marks
Basic Principles
The Evidential Value of Instrument (Tool) Marks
Identification at Crime Scenes
Types of Instrument Marks Found at Crime Scenes
Retrieval of Instrument Marks
Recording of Information from Instrument Marks
Packaging of Exhibits
Intelligence Value of Instrument Marks
Coding Tool Marks for Input to Police Systems
Casting Instrument Marks
Isomark, Microsil, and Casting Putty Materials
Other Evidence Types
Ballistics
Manufacturing Marks
Evidential Value of Manufacturing Marks
Physical Fits
Contact Trace Evidence
Glass
General Comments
Types of Glass
How Glass Breaks
Taking Control of Glass Samples
Multiple Control Samples
From Which Side Was the Window Broken?
Packaging Glass Samples
Dealing with Suspects
Hair Combings
Paint Evidence
Household Paint
Vehicle Paint
Sampling Household and Vehicle Paint
Miscellaneous Traces
Cosmetics
Oils and Greases
Plastics, Rubbers, and Adhesives
Soil, Safe Ballast, and Building Materials
Metals
Other
Noxious Chemicals
Other Substances

The Implementation of Intelligence-Led Policing
Common Intelligence Standards and Their Introduction: The London Experience
Protocols for the Use of QQCSE CRIMINT Logs
The Practicalities of Introducing Intelligence-Led Policing
Intelligence Unit Structure
Intelligence Unit Roles
Intelligence Unit Manager
The Gatekeeper
Researcher
Crime Analyst
Intelligence Log Supervisor
Field Officers
Tasking and Briefing Slide Officer
Forensic Intelligence Researcher or Analyst
Must a Police Service Work under an Intelligence-Led Model to Benefit from Forensic Intelligence?
Forensic Intelligence: A US Academic’s View
The Innocence Project
Is Intelligence-Led Policing Difficult to Implement?
More International Perspectives on Forensic Intelligence
The UK NPIA Forensics Programme
The Forensics Custody Suite Process Work Stream toward a Better Forensic Intelligence Model
US National Forensic Science Technology Centre
Introducing Intelligence-Led Policing: A Review

Forensic Intelligence Applied to Different Crime Types
Forensic Intelligence and Volume Crime: A Checklist
The Importance of Service Champions in Delivering Intelligence-Led Procedures including Forensics
The Importance of the Effective Use of Digital Technology
A Case Study: The Barkingside Jewellery Burglar, 2002–2006
Setting Up a Forensic Intelligence Capability
Forensic Intelligence in Arson Investigation
The Arson Crime Partnership Data Structure Outline
Some Arson Casework Examples
Exterior and Vehicle Fire Setting by Youths in North London
The Islington Traveller—‘Fuel Available’—Arsonist
The Broadlove Lane Neighbourhood Arsonist
The Oxford Street Department Store Arsonist
The 10-Point Plan for Arson Investigation
Forensic Intelligence Possibilities in Dealing with Illicit Drug Marketing

The Need for Investment in Information Technology
General Information on Foster & Freeman Shoeprint, Image, Capture, and Retrieval System (SICAR)
SICAR Reference Databases
SoleMate
TreadMate
Operating Outline of System
A SICAR Casework Example: Incident No. 20410—The Coventry Murder
Partial Identification of the Footwear Mark
The Footwear Mark Is Referred to Foster & Freeman
Court Case Results in a Successful Conviction
General Information on Treadmark Footwear Evidence Storage, Screening, and Comparison Software
Treadmark in the Leicestershire Constabulary: An Outline
The Legal Aspects of Using Treadmark in the UK
The Police Officer’s Role
Procedure in Preserving Footwear Evidence
The Internal Processes by Footwear Examiners
A Typical Leicestershire Volume Crime Linked Case Example
Advice from Leicestershire Constabulary Regarding Treadmark
Intelligence Software Solutions
Memex Law Enforcement: Case Software—A Police Casework Solution
Overview: Case Formation
Lifetime Case Information
Case Linking
Protected Records in Memex Case
Forensic Intelligence: A Summary

References
Index

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Author(s)

Biography

Bob Milne has completed nearly 40 years of service with the Metropolitan Police Forensic Services Directorate, New Scotland Yard, as a forensic practitioner in the roles of ACPO registered fingerprint expert, crime scene examiner, and manager. He has written articles and made presentations on electrostatic mark lifting, the mathematics of scene linking, the crime mapping of forensic evidence, forensic intelligence in arson investigation, the design of self-contained sequential treatment fingerprint laboratories, and on the subject of forensics in intelligence-led policing. Bob is the inventor of the Pathfinder three-electrode wireless electrostatic dust mark lifter system used by CSIs worldwide. Since retiring from the Met Police in 2008, he has worked in the role of technical consultant with Crime Scene Investigation Equipment Ltd, developing and improving crime scene examination equipment and forensics software applications. In 2011, he became an associate fire investigator with Fire Investigations (UK) LLP and Fire Investigations Global LLP, a role that is ongoing.

Reviews

"This text is a must for professional crime scene investigators who cannot afford not to have access to this publication through their professional and/or personal forensic library."
— John Horswell FSSocDip FFSSoc, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

 

"This book is very informative and it will serve well as a point of reference for not only the Crime Scene Investigator but for anyone who is involved in Intelligence Led Policing, and it is indeed an asset."

- Thane Pierre

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