Forensic Intelligence: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Forensic Intelligence

1st Edition

By Robert Milne

CRC Press

288 pages | 35 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2012-07-26
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When forensic recoveries are properly processed and recorded, they are a major intelligence source for crime investigators and analysts. The majority of publications about forensic science cover best practices and basic advice about evidence recovery and storage. Forensic Intelligence takes the subject of forensics one step further and describes how to use the evidence recovered at crime scenes for extended analysis and the dissemination of new forensic intelligence.

The book draws on the author’s 40 years of experience as a crime scene examiner, latent print examiner, and the Head of Forensic Intelligence, New Scotland Yard, in the London Metropolitan Police Intelligence Bureau (MIB). It supplies practical advice on how to use all forensic recoveries in a modern, analysis-driven, intelligence-led policing environment. The text covers evidentiary procedures related to each of the main crime types, as well as the production of intelligence products from police data.

Accompanying the book is a supplemental CD-ROM with a plethora of additional resources, including Treadmark Express footwear evidence software; exemplar templates for the input of forensics, behaviours, and method data into intelligence systems; and other material.

This reliable resource is designed for police services of all sizes and capabilities—from the largest organizations with thousands of employees and big budgets down to the smallest department with a few officers. By mastering the basic crime recording and intelligence processes in this volume, investigators can make the best use of all their forensic recoveries.

CD ROM Contents:

Treadmark Express Footwear Evidence Software and User’s Manual

Operation Bigfoot Footwear Pattern Distribution Graphs (London 2005)

Example CSI Forensic Intelligence Template

Shoe and tool Marks Coding Document

Report on the Vision of Forensic Intelligence and Strategic Thinking

A Unified Format Spreadsheet for Merging Drug Legacy Data from Different Forensic Science Laboratories

Forensic Intelligence Report (FIR) Template

Role Description Example–Forensic Intelligence Manager

Footwear Intelligence Process Map

Ballistics Intelligence Process Map–Inputs & Outputs


"This text is a must for professional crime scene investigators who cannot afford not to have access to this publication through their professional and/or personal forensic library."

— John Horswell FSSocDip FFSSoc, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

"This book is very informative and it will serve well as a point of reference for not only the Crime Scene Investigator but for anyone who is involved in Intelligence Led Policing, and it is indeed an asset."

- Thane Pierre

Table of Contents

Introducing Forensic Intelligence

Semantics: ‘Forensics’ and ‘Intelligence’

Forensic Intelligence: Professor Olivier Ribaux’s Definition

Forensic Intelligence: A Working Definition

The Concept of ‘Entities’ in Police Recording Systems

Does Your Forensic Services Staff Have Access or Input to Your Intelligence Systems?

Access to Forensic Support Resources

Forensic Intelligence in Intelligence-Led Policing

The Origins of Forensic Intelligence

Estimating the Number of Current Offenders

Has Modern Forensics Had an Impact on Crime Reduction?

The Beginnings of a Concept of Forensic Intelligence

The Introduction of Information Technology: From the 1980s Onward


Police Intelligence Models and the Language of Intelligence-Led Policing

‘Intelligence Is What It Does’: A Definition

Police Intelligence Models

The Four Levels of Crime Divisions in Crime Intelligence Models

New York Police Department: COMPSTAT

Intelligence Assets

Knowledge Assets

System Assets

Intelligence Assets

The Four Generic Intelligence Products and the Aims of COMPSTAT Intelligence Sources

Intelligence Handling Codes

The 5 × 5 × 5 System as Used in Grading Intelligence

Forensics as Intelligence Sources

The Collection of Forensic Intelligence

Police Forensic Business Models

A Short History of Forensic Intelligence in the Metropolitan Police

An Early Forensic Intelligence Tool Mark Case Example from the Late 1990s

The Metropolitan Police Modernise for the Twenty-First Century

Forensic Intelligence Development in the Metropolitan Police, 2002–2008

Where Forensic Intelligence Should Fit within Police Organisations

The Value of Forensics in Crime Analysis and Intelligence

Intelligence Features of Forensic Evidence Types

Linking Cases and Comparative Case Analysis

The Different Forms of Case Linking in Criminal Analysis

Varieties of Forms of Case Linking

Receiver Operator Characteristics

Truth and Probability

The Crime Detection and Prosecution Rectangle

The Values of Forensics in Case Linking

A Footwear Evidence Persistence Case Example

A Linked Homicide Case Example

Dealing with Forensic Crime Links and Clusters

A Footwear Mark Cluster Example

Footwear Evidence Frequency Evaluation

Forensic Legacy Data

Legacy Data and the FSS Sexual Assault Forensic Intelligence Service

Improving the Potential of Legacy Data Use

The Importance of Regular Meetings

The Different Experiences of CSIs and Analysts

Research and Analytical Processes

The Nine Analytical Techniques

Crime Pattern Analysis

The Radex and Smallest-Space Analysis in Crime Analysis

Descriptions of Terms in Figure 3.1

The Value of Improving Forensic Support in Problem-Oriented Policing and Crime Pattern Analysis

Market Profiles

Demographic and Social Trend Analysis

Criminal Business Profiles

Network Analysis

Profile or Target (Subject) Profile Analysis

Results Analysis

Risk Analysis

Operational Intelligence Assessments

The Daily Work of the Crime Analyst

The Daily Work of an Analyst

The Daily Work of a Forensically Aware Forensic Intelligence Analyst

The Aims and Objectives of Incorporating Forensics into Crime Analysis

A Structure for Dealing with Forensic Intelligence

A Forensic Intelligence Process Route Map

The Input of Forensic Intelligence into Intelligence-Led Policing

Common Policing Problems Inhibiting Forensic Intelligence

The CSI’s Role in Forensic Intelligence

The Forensic Services Team

Intelligence Features of Forensic Evidence Types

Forensic Evidence Recovery, Processing, and Best Practice

Purposes and Objectives of Crime Scene Examinations

Inhibitors to Effective Uses of Crime Scene Examinations, Forensic Recoveries in Linking Crimes, and in Contributing to the Production of Intelligence Products

Rights or Not to Obtain or Seize Forensic Material from Offenders

An Example of Volume Crime Practices Inhibiting a Serious Investigation

The Advantages of Databasing and Managing Collections of Forensic Evidence

A Scenes of Crime Field Force Checklist for Effective Management of Forensics

Using Intervention Rates and Forensic Recovery Frequencies in Crime Analysis

Issues around Positive and Negative Management Techniques of Forensic Support

Questions That Police and Forensic Managers Need to Ask Themselves

The Issue of Areas Disclosed in Forensic Marks as an Enabler of Forensic Intelligence

Best Practice in Using the Main Forensic Evidence Types

Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems and Their Characteristics

The Four Factors at Work in Existing Miss Rates with AFIS

Forensic Strategies to Make the Best Use of AFIS

Fingerprint Laboratory Support

Using DNA Matches and Crime Scene Links Effectively

An Inhibited DNA Casework Example

DNA Databases and eDNA

Significance of DNA Forensic Crime Scene Intervention and Recovery Rates

Forensic Problem Profiles and the Concept of the Forensic Intelligence Report

Best Practice in Recovery of Forensic Evidence from Crime Scenes

Dealing with Crime Scenes

Crime Scene Examinations of Serious and Volume Crimes

Footwear Evidence Best Practice

Dealing with Footwear Marks Found Whilst Powdering for Latent Prints

Using Gelatine Lifters

Scanning Covered Gelatine Lifts

Preservation and Packaging of Gelatine Footwear Mark Lifters

Covering Gelatine Volume Crime Lifts

Re-covering Technique for Gelatine Lifts

Using Transparent Adhesive Lifters

Photographing Footwear Marks

Electrostatic Dust Mark Lifting (ESL)

Dealing with Electrostatic Lifts

Dealing with Dental Stone Casts

Marks in Snow

Dealing with Suspected Offenders’ Footwear

Inkless Printing of Offenders’ Shoes

Packaging Footwear

Footwear Forensic Computer Systems

Submitting Footwear Marks to the Laboratory

Footwear Comparisons

Serious Crime Footwear Cases

Instrument (Tool) Marks

Basic Principles

The Evidential Value of Instrument (Tool) Marks

Identification at Crime Scenes

Types of Instrument Marks Found at Crime Scenes

Retrieval of Instrument Marks

Recording of Information from Instrument Marks

Packaging of Exhibits

Intelligence Value of Instrument Marks

Coding Tool Marks for Input to Police Systems

Casting Instrument Marks

Isomark, Microsil, and Casting Putty Materials

Other Evidence Types


Manufacturing Marks

Evidential Value of Manufacturing Marks

Physical Fits

Contact Trace Evidence


General Comments

Types of Glass

How Glass Breaks

Taking Control of Glass Samples

Multiple Control Samples

From Which Side Was the Window Broken?

Packaging Glass Samples

Dealing with Suspects

Hair Combings

Paint Evidence

Household Paint

Vehicle Paint

Sampling Household and Vehicle Paint

Miscellaneous Traces


Oils and Greases

Plastics, Rubbers, and Adhesives

Soil, Safe Ballast, and Building Materials



Noxious Chemicals

Other Substances

The Implementation of Intelligence-Led Policing

Common Intelligence Standards and Their Introduction: The London Experience

Protocols for the Use of QQCSE CRIMINT Logs

The Practicalities of Introducing Intelligence-Led Policing

Intelligence Unit Structure

Intelligence Unit Roles

Intelligence Unit Manager

The Gatekeeper


Crime Analyst

Intelligence Log Supervisor

Field Officers

Tasking and Briefing Slide Officer

Forensic Intelligence Researcher or Analyst

Must a Police Service Work under an Intelligence-Led Model to Benefit from Forensic Intelligence?

Forensic Intelligence: A US Academic’s View

The Innocence Project

Is Intelligence-Led Policing Difficult to Implement?

More International Perspectives on Forensic Intelligence

The UK NPIA Forensics Programme

The Forensics Custody Suite Process Work Stream toward a Better Forensic Intelligence Model

US National Forensic Science Technology Centre

Introducing Intelligence-Led Policing: A Review

Forensic Intelligence Applied to Different Crime Types

Forensic Intelligence and Volume Crime: A Checklist

The Importance of Service Champions in Delivering Intelligence-Led Procedures including Forensics

The Importance of the Effective Use of Digital Technology

A Case Study: The Barkingside Jewellery Burglar, 2002–2006

Setting Up a Forensic Intelligence Capability

Forensic Intelligence in Arson Investigation

The Arson Crime Partnership Data Structure Outline

Some Arson Casework Examples

Exterior and Vehicle Fire Setting by Youths in North London

The Islington Traveller—‘Fuel Available’—Arsonist

The Broadlove Lane Neighbourhood Arsonist

The Oxford Street Department Store Arsonist

The 10-Point Plan for Arson Investigation

Forensic Intelligence Possibilities in Dealing with Illicit Drug Marketing

The Need for Investment in Information Technology

General Information on Foster & Freeman Shoeprint, Image, Capture, and Retrieval System (SICAR)

SICAR Reference Databases



Operating Outline of System

A SICAR Casework Example: Incident No. 20410—The Coventry Murder

Partial Identification of the Footwear Mark

The Footwear Mark Is Referred to Foster & Freeman

Court Case Results in a Successful Conviction

General Information on Treadmark Footwear Evidence Storage, Screening, and Comparison Software

Treadmark in the Leicestershire Constabulary: An Outline

The Legal Aspects of Using Treadmark in the UK

The Police Officer’s Role

Procedure in Preserving Footwear Evidence

The Internal Processes by Footwear Examiners

A Typical Leicestershire Volume Crime Linked Case Example

Advice from Leicestershire Constabulary Regarding Treadmark

Intelligence Software Solutions

Memex Law Enforcement: Case Software—A Police Casework Solution

Overview: Case Formation

Lifetime Case Information

Case Linking

Protected Records in Memex Case

Forensic Intelligence: A Summary



About the Author

Bob Milne has completed nearly 40 years of service with the Metropolitan Police Forensic Services Directorate, New Scotland Yard, as a forensic practitioner in the roles of ACPO registered fingerprint expert, crime scene examiner, and manager. He has written articles and made presentations on electrostatic mark lifting, the mathematics of scene linking, the crime mapping of forensic evidence, forensic intelligence in arson investigation, the design of self-contained sequential treatment fingerprint laboratories, and on the subject of forensics in intelligence-led policing. Bob is the inventor of the Pathfinder three-electrode wireless electrostatic dust mark lifter system used by CSIs worldwide. Since retiring from the Met Police in 2008, he has worked in the role of technical consultant with Crime Scene Investigation Equipment Ltd, developing and improving crime scene examination equipment and forensics software applications. In 2011, he became an associate fire investigator with Fire Investigations (UK) LLP and Fire Investigations Global LLP, a role that is ongoing.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
LAW / Forensic Science