2nd Edition

Forensic Recovery of Human Remains
Archaeological Approaches, Second Edition

ISBN 9781439850305
Published October 27, 2011 by CRC Press
398 Pages 198 B/W Illustrations

USD $145.00

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Book Description

This reference, now in its second edition, is a comprehensive guide that focuses on the practical aspects of excavating and recovering human remains, as well as any associated evidence, from crime scenes. It highlights the protocols and techniques that are used to successfully survey, map, recover, document, collect, and transport evidence. New additions to the reference include discussion questions and suggested readings, updated mapping and measuring techniques, including a section on GIS and backpack differential GPS systems, expanded information on botany, DNA, and soil, and non-forensic burial contexts. Almost 200 illustrations are included to help clarify concepts.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Forensic Archaeology
Anthropology in the Medicolegal Process
What Do Forensic Anthropologists Do?
What Do Forensic Archaeologists Do?
Locating and Eliminating Areas of Interest
Interpreting Scene Context
Mapping the Scene
Excavation of Remains
Collecting Remains and Evidence
Education and Training
Employment in Academic and Nonacademic Settings
Locating a Forensic Anthropologist or Forensic Archaeologist
Tools and Equipment
Search and Site Preparation Equipment
Field Excavation Equipment
Mapping and Measuring Equipment
Drawing and Recording Equipment
Optional Equipment
Caring for Your Equipment
Basic Field Equipment Checklist
Human Skeletal Terminology
Terms Associated with Bone Morphology
Terms Associated with Bone Features
Anatomical or Relative Position
Basic Adult Human Skeleton
Basic Juvenile Human Skeleton
Basic Human Dentition
Terms Associated with Dental Morphology and Position
Dental Numbering Systems
Understanding the Forensic Context
Defining a Forensic Context
Indications of a Forensic Context
Location of Remains
Position and Orientation of the Body
Preservation of the Remains
Associated Artifacts and Evidence
Common Non-Forensic Contexts
Prehistoric Finds
Historic and Modern Cemetery Settings
Ritualistic or Anatomical Use of Remains
Search Techniques for Locating Human Remains
Types of Search Areas
Planning the Search
Visual Foot Searches
Strip or Line Pattern
Grid Pattern
Spiral Pattern
Other Recommendations for Visual Searches
Briefing Team Members Prior to Search
Indications of Surface Deposit of Remains
Common Taphonomic Processes of Dispersal
Dispersed Remains
Indications of Burial of Remains
Cadaver Dogs
What Is a Cadaver Dog?
Limitation of Cadaver Dogs
Locating a Cadaver Dog
Intrusive Search Methods
Probe Searches
Shovel Testing and Shovel Shining
Heavy Equipment Searches
Methods of Geophysical Survey
Ground-Penetrating Radar
Electromagnetic Induction Meters
Electrical Resistivity Meters
Magnetic Locators
Metal Detectors
Side-Scan Sonar
Locating a Geophysical Survey Consultant
Surveying and Mapping Methods
Units of Measure
Using Maps
Using the Global Positioning System
Using Aerial Imagery
Creating Sketch Maps
Creating a Site Plan
Datums, Baselines, and Offsets
Transit Survey Systems
Compass Survey Maps
Creating Scaled Drawings
Establishing Limits and Using the Datum
Frameworks for Drawing to Scale
Section Drawings from Mapped Data
Mapping on a Slope
Applying Archaeological Methods in a Forensic Context
General Principles of Archaeology
Provenience and Context
Stratigraphy and Soils
Principles of Deposition
Archaeological Approaches to Recovering Human Remains
Recovering Surface Remains and Associated Evidence
Removing Buried Remains and Associated Evidence
How to Use an Archaeological Trowel
Collecting Botanical and Entomological Evidence
Forensic Botany
Sources of Botanical Evidence
Collecting and Preserving Botanical Evidence
Locating a Forensic Botanist
Forensic Entomology
Insect Life Cycle
Insects Significant to the Recovery of Human Remains
Collecting and Preserving Entomological Evidence
Locating a Forensic Entomologist
Basic Entomology Collection Kit Checklist
Collecting Skeletal Remains
Human Skeletal Remains
Collecting Human Skeletal Remains
Collecting Juvenile Skeletal Remains
Collecting Fleshed Remains
Collecting Burnt Remains
Collecting Evidence of Surgical or Dental Modifications
Nonhuman Skeletal Remains
The Nonhuman Mammal Skeleton
The Avian Skeleton
The Reptilian Skeleton
The Amphibian Skeleton
The Fish Skeleton
Common Misidentifications of Human and Nonhuman Bone
Writing the Final Report
Report Contents
Beginning Information
Case Summary
Scene Information
Search Summary
Surface Deposit
Excavation Summary
Remains Recovered
Associated Evidence
Collected Samples
Field Drawings/Maps
Signatures and Dates
Example of a Case Report
Appendix A: Adult Skeletal Inventory Form (Field Collection)
Appendix B: Infant Skeletal Inventory Form (Field Collection)
Appendix C: Child Skeletal Inventory Form (Field Collection)
Appendix D: Personnel and Scene Summary Form
Appendix E: Recovery Scene Context Form
Appendix F: Surface Deposit Recovery Form
Appendix G: Feature Excavation Form
Appendix H: Remains Summary Form
Appendix I: Forensic Entomology Data Collection Form
Appendix J: Photography/Video Record Form
Appendix K: Evidentiary Inventory Form
Appendix L: Evidentiary Chain of Custody Form

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Tosha L. Dupras, Ph.D. specializes in bioarchaeology, particularly diet reconstruction through chemical analysis, and has been associated with the Dakhleh Oasis and Dayr al Barsha projects in Egypt where she has excavated in several cemeteries and analyzed many skeletal remains. Dupras also assists local law enforcement agencies with the search for and excavation of human remains.

John J. Schultz, Ph.D.’s primary research focuses on forensic and archaeological applications of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) for grave detection, and detection of buried metallic weapons using various geophysical technologies. Schultz is also a consulting forensic anthropologist in the central Florida area for various law enforcement agencies and the local Medical Examiner’s Office.

Sandra M. Wheeler, Ph.D. specializes in bioarchaeology, paleopathology, juvenile osteology, and mortuary archaeology. Wheeler has conducted fieldwork in Belize and Mexico and continues to actively work with the Dakhleh Oasis Project, Egypt. She has assisted law enforcement in Florida and Canada with the search for and recovery of human remains.

Lana J. Williams, Ph.D. specializes in biochemical analysis of human remains, mortuary archaeology, and human osteology. Williams has conducted fieldwork in Greece and Belize and is currently working with the Dakhleh Oasis and Dayr al Barsha projects in Egypt. In addition, she has assisted law enforcement in Florida and Canada in the search, recovery, and analysis of human remains.