Fractured rocks extend over much of the world, cropping out in shields, massifs, and the cores of major mountain ranges. They also form the basement below younger sedimentary rocks; at depth; they represent a continuous environment of extended and deep regional groundwater flow. Understanding of groundwater flow and solute transport in fractured rocks is vital for analysis of water resources, water quality and environmental protection, geotechnical and engineering projects, and geothermal energy production. Book chapters include theoretical and practical analyses using numerical modelling, geochemistry, isotopes, aquifer tests, laboratory tests, field mapping, geophysics, geological analyses, and some unique combinations of these types of investigation. Current water resource and geotechnical problems in many countries—and the techniques now used to address them—are also discussed. The importance of geological interpretation is re-emphasised in analysing the hydrogeology of fractured, mostly crystalline rocks and in how critical this is for understanding their hydrology and the wise utilisation of resources. This is indeed hydrogeology in its broadest sense. The importance of, but great difficulty in, extending or upscaling fractured rock hydraulic properties is also made clear.
This book is aimed at practicing hydrogeologists, engineers, ecologists, resource managers, and perhaps most importantly, students and earth scientists not yet familiar with the ubiquity and importance of fractured rock systems.
1 IAH Commission on Hardrock Hydrogeology (HyRoC): Past and present activities, future possibilities
J. Krásný, J.M. Sharp, Jr. & U. Troeger
2 The conceptual model of weathered hard rock aquifers and its practical applications
P. Lachassagne, B. Dewandel & R. Wyns
3 Similarities in groundwater occurrence in weathered and fractured crystalline basement aquifers in the Channel Islands and in Zimbabwe
J. Davies, N. Robins & C. Cheney
4 Outcrop groundwater prospecting, drilling and well construction in hard rocks in semi-arid regions
5 Sustainable yield of fractured rock aquifers: The case of crystalline rocks of Serre Massif (Calabria, southern Italy)
A. Baiocchi, W. Dragoni, F. Lotti & V. Piscopo
6 From geological complexity to hydrogeological understanding using an integrated 3D conceptual modelling approach – insights from the Cotswolds, UK
S.H. Bricker, A.J.M. Barron, A.G. Hughes, C. Jackson & D. Peach
7 Characterising the spatial distribution of transmissivity in the mountainous region: Results from watersheds in central Taiwan
P.-Y. Chou, J.-J. Lin, S.-M. Hsu, H.-C. Lo, P.-J. Chen, C.-C. Ke, W.-R. Lee, C.-C. Huang, N.-C. Chen, H.-Y. Wen & F.-M. Lee
8 Spring discharge and groundwater flow systems in sedimentary and ophiolitic hard rock aquifers: Experiences from Northern Apennines (Italy)
A. Gargini, M.T. De Nardo, L. Piccinini, S. Segadelli & V. Vincenzi
9 Fracture transmissivity estimation using natural gradient flow measurements in sparsely fractured rock
10 Prediction of fracture roughness and other hydraulic properties: Is upscaling possible?
J.M. Sharp, Jr., M.M. Al-Johar, D.T. Slottke & R.A. Ketcham
11 Scale dependent hydraulic investigations of faulted crystalline rocks – examples from the Eastern Alps, Austria
G. Winkler & P. Reichl
12 Methodology to generate orthogonal fractures from a discrete, complex, and irregular fracture zone network
S.D. Normani, J.F. Sykes & Y. Yin
13 Remote sensing, geophysical methods and field measurements to characterise faults, fractures and other discontinuities, Barada Spring catchment, Syria
F. Bauer & J.H. Draser
14 Using heat flow and radiocarbon ages to estimate the extent of recharge area of thermal springs in granitoid rock: Example from Southern Idaho Batholith, USA
A.L. Mayo & J. Bruthans
15 Tunnel inflow in granite – fitting the field observations with hybrid model of discrete fractures and continuum
M. Hokr, A. Balvín, I. Škarydová & P. Rálek
16 Uranium distribution in groundwater from fractured crystalline aquifers in Norway
B.S. Frengstad & D. Banks
17 Technical quality of Norwegian wells in crystalline bedrock related to groundwater vulnerability
S. Gaut & G. Storrø
18 Exploration and characterisation of deep fractured rock aquifers for new groundwater development, an example from New Mexico, USA
T.N. Blandford, T. Umstot, C. Wolf, R. Marley & G.L. Bushner
19 Use of several different methods for characterising a fractured rock aquifer, case study Kempfield, New South Wales, Australia
K. David, T. Liu & V. David
20 Main features governing groundwater flow in a fractured Basalt Aquifer System of South-Eastern Australia
I. Krusic-Hrustanpasic & F. Cosme
Series IAH-selected papers
The International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) serves scientists, engineers and other professionals working in the field of groundwater resource planning, management and protection. IAH has two book series which are produced under the imprint of CRC Press in the Netherlands, part of the Taylor and Francis Group. IAH books have the common purpose of spreading the science and knowledge of hydrogeology and are products arising from IAH’s congresses and meetings, its commissions and networks, as well as a variety of other sources. Information is gathered from highly respected sources and include case studies, regional descriptions, analyses of sub-disciplines and outputs from major international programmes.
The first series is the Selected Papers, often referred to as the ‘green books’. These are collections of papers derived from Congress and other meetings which normally, but not always, were sponsored by IAH. They may also be a collection of papers derived from a programme of investigation that again need not necessarily have enjoyed direct IAH involvement.
International Contributions to Hydrogeology
The second series, International Contributions to Hydrogeology, the ‘blue books’, includes monographs on sub-disciplines of hydrogeology as well as outlets for major international investigatory programmes and collections of papers within a broad theme of international interest.